Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Hot Wheels 1 18 Scale - N2071 Ferrari F40 Competizione Le Mans 1995,.MINIROUTE 1 43 SCALE RESIN MODEL - 46 - PEUGEOT 402 ANDREAU,.BMW M1 Turbo Concept Studie X1 E25 orange 1972 Resin RAR Schuco 1 18,.Dinky Toys 925 Leyland Tipper in near mint all original condition,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM27X - 1937 Jensen Dual Cowl Phaeton - LCC Special,.70273 AUTOart 1 18 Aston Martin Vanquiche S 2017 Bronze,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Hot Wheels Elite 1 18 Scale Diecast - P9902 Ferrari 360 Spider Red,.IMC 33-0003 Scania R Topline 8x4 goldhofer Tieflader 3 achs Karner 1 50 NEU OVP,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Alfa Romeo 6C 2300 Spider Brianza 1937 Red Alfamodel-43 1 43 AM43-361 Model,.DINKY 176 AUSTIN A105 SALOON - NR MINT in original BOX,.GT SPIRIT 1 18 Mercedes CLS63 AMG Shooting Brake 2014 White Art.B66965703, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
Vintage Redline Hot Wheels & Matchbox Superfast Collection With Super Rally Case,.DINKY TOYS 358 U.S.S ENTERPRISE STAR TREK ORIGINAL OVP 1977 (2),.ACME – 1 18 Scale – 1965 Shelby G.T. 350 Red with White Stripes Diecast Replica,.Tarmac 1 18 Scale Resin - T11-MG Nissan GT-R R35 2017 Dark Metal Grey,.
CMCM131 by CMC MOTEUR ALFA ROMEO 8C 2900B 1 18,.Aoshima Bunka Kyozai 1 32 bus No.22 Airport Limousine bus Mitsubishi Fuso Aero,.Somerville Models 1 43 Scale 148 - 1937 P-2 Rover (6 Light) - bluee Cream,.Western Models 1 43 Scale WMS41X - 1949 Jaguar Mk.V - Bronze,.Märklin metall 1947 Mercedes Benz Bayerischer Rundfunk mit Zertifikat NOS NEW,.
2016 Hot Wheels Target Snowflake Cars Complete Set Of 78 w TESLA ROADSTER,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Autoworld 1 18 Scale Diecast - AMM1060 1967 Shelby GT-350 Grey,.NOREV 2015 MERCEDES AMG GT S C190 Red Metallic 1 18 New ,.GT Spirit 1 18 Audi RS5 GT062 DIE CAST MODEL,2006 Corvette Indy Pace Car Diecast Model,.1967 Ford Taunus 17M (P7a) White by BoS Models LE of 1000 1 18 Rare ,.
Danbury Mint 1 24 Scale - Aston Martin DB5 Metallic red,.Schuco 1 43 MAN 10.210 Hamburger Spedition Heavy Duty Transporter SHU03372,.SMALL CAR CMR ROLLS ROYCE 101EX neuf en boite 1 43 MIB RARE 299 pieces,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
1 64 Hot Wheels RLC 2017 Car Culture Premium Box Set BRE Datsun Moon Eyes vw,.
Otto 1 18 Scale Resin - OT676 Porsche 911 SC RS Ypres Rally 1985,. We agree in part.
1929 Cadillac 341 B Congreenible Coupe by BoS Models LE of 504 1 18 Scale New,.Volkswagen Kafer 'Jolly' - 1 18 - Schuco,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.1989 Hot Wheels Park 'N Plates POLICE Sheriff Patrol,.Siku Super 3116 Mercedes-Benz 2232 Sattelzug mit Plane elring Sondermodell,.CARRERA MERCEDES BENZ SL-CLASS PRESS DRIVING PRESENTATION MALLORCA 2006 - PROMO,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; 1 12 KK-Scale Ferrari 246 GT Dino 1973 red,.GT Spirit 2004 Porsche 911 996 Carrera 4S Facelift Grey metallic 1 18 New LE999,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Matchbox Lot of 8 1968 Toyota Land Cruiser FJ40 Variation '68 Yellow orange Bear,; VW Volkswagen Bus T3 a Westfalia Camper Camping Flachdach Joker Premium Cl 1 18,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
PORSCHE 718 RSK 24h Le Mans 1958 Hans Hermann Behra Resin Tecnomodel 1 18,.Tarmac 1 18 Scale Resin - T11-BW Nissan GT-R R35 2017 Brilliant White,Ferrari J50 Spider 2016 Bianco Liana White Met LOOKSMART 1 43 LS485B Model,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Tron Model 1 43 1982 Ferrari 126C2 Didier Pironi Dutch Grand Prix,.
1958 Alfa Romeo 2000 Saloon Creme by BoS Models LE of 1000 1 18 Scale. New ,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.PORSCHE 911 RSR N ° 88 - Dempsey Predon Racing - Le Mans 2017 - Spark 1 43 S5840,.Hot Wheels Redline Olds 442 Police car White enamel nice condition,.Ferrari Dino 246 GTS 1972 yellow Modena 1 43 lim.ed.20pcs BBRC54BPRE BBR,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, 1 18 Scale Nissan R35 GT-R LB Performance GT Spirit Model GT125 Liberty Walk New,; OTTO 1 18 Scale Resin - OT261 Renault Le Car 5 Turbo IMSA 1981 Yellow,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, SPA18S129 by SPARKMODEL alfa romeo 33 2 TH LE MANS 1968 1 18,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
VW Beetle 1200 (Beetle) Cabriolet Hebmüller (Red Cream) 1949,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Ferrari J50 Spider 50Th Anniversary Ferrari Japan 2016 BBR 1 43 BBRC208F Model,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
Look Smart Models 1 43 2011 Ferrari FF,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
Racing 43 1 43 2004 Ferrari 575 GTC Babini Morbidelli Dubai,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.YONEZAWA DIAPET FUSO T29 SEMI REMORQUE D&P 1 35 PROCHE DU NEUF MADE IN JAPAN,.BBR Models Concept 43 Ferrari Dino 246 GTS grey metallizzato Modellino,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Eligor LBS 1 43 - Mercedes 1911 EPS Motorhome Peugeot Talbot Sport 905 Le Mans,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.JADA HIGH PROFILE EXCURSION BLANK BASE PredOTYPE FROM ROY NAKAMURA COLLECTION,.
Mercedes Maybach 6 Vision Concept Coupe red Modellauto 1 18 Schuco,.1 18 AUTOWORLD ERTL Authentics 1971 Dodge Charger Super Bee Bronze,.CORGI TOYS GIFT SET 20 GS20 GIFTSET 20 EMERGENCY SET POLICE AMBULANCE MINT BOXED,.AUTOart - 1 18 - CHEVROLET CORVETTE C7 GRAND SPORT - 2017 - 71272,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Franklin Mint 1 24 Scale diecast - B11RB69 1930 Bugatti Royale Coupe Napoleon,.
1950 Ferrari 195 Inter Ghia red 1 18 BoS-Models 354,.MILESTONE MINIATURES 1 43 GC12 - RILEY PATHFINDER 1954 - POLICE CAR,.MATCHBOX MBX ROAD TRIP TREASURE HUNT (1) NEW FOR 2018 - '16 BMW i8 (MOMC),.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Rare Make Up Eidolon 1 43 Lamborghini Countach LP400s 1978 white pearl,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.\ CORGI TOYS GIFTSET GIFT SET 24 COMMER CHASSIS CONSTRUCTOR NMIB RARE,.MASERATI TROFEO PRESS VERSION 2005 BBR AUDEMARS PIGUET GASOLINE GAS10005 1 43,.Bentley Gt3-R White ALMOST REAL 1 18 ALM830401,.LAND ROVER Defender 109 Lara Croft Movie Filmauto KYO8902TR KSR08902 Kyosho 1 18,.Lion Car 33-35 Daf Articulated lorry 99.9% mint in box a real fresh beauty,.
DBS. BARON 540. ( tôle ), the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.AUTOart 1 18 Chevrolet Corvette '54 (Red) 71082,.AUTOART 74554 LAMBORGHINI AVENTADOR LP750-4 SV (grey TITANS MATT GREY) 1 18TH,. The PartridgeNew FUJI Speedway 50th Anniversary Eblo 1 43 Scale 1989 Gratian Final Set Japan,.Triple 9 1 18 Scale Diecast T9-1800192 - Honda S800 - White,.Autoart Lamborghini Murcielago Concept Car,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Minichamps 1 18 Scale 155 822901 - BMW M1 Kurt Konig DRT Wunstorf 1982, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Märklin 1101 LKW Geldtransporter Bayerischer Rundfunkt Metall- Tin Plate in OVP,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.F1 WILLIAMS Mercedes FW37 GP Abu Dhabi 2015 Bottas Rexona NEW Minichamps 1 18,.Kaiser Henry J Gasser (orange) Missing Link (1951),PartridgeMinichamps 430 058001 Vw Beetle Red,.DV8235 ELIGOR 1 43 MERCEDES ACTROS MP4 SEMI TAUTLINER TPS LHERITIER 115263,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, BBR Autobarn ABB15 1 43 2004 Maserati MC12 Spyder Handmade Resin Model Car, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Minichamps SAUBER BMW C24B HEIDFELD F1 TEST VALENCIA FEBRUARY 2006 1 18 New,; Marsh Models V01. 1974 Greenwood brown 'Old bluee' Corvette. New, M Boxed,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, (S) TEKNO DENMARK MG - 804, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, AUTOart NISSAN GT-R NISMO GT3 (aurora flare blue pearl) 1 18 - 81584, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeAUTOART 81341 1 18 MCLAREN 12C GT3 WHITE SUPERCAR,.
1 18 Spark Porsche 956 1985 LeMans Winner Ludwig Winter Barilla 18LM85,.Schuco Micro Racer 1047 Porsche 356 B red Vintage 60er Jahre, Clarke's negligent act.Acura NSX 2017 (LHD) - nouvelle bluee pearl - TSM-Model - 1 43 - TSM164387,.Kings Models 1 43 1951 Ferrari 375 French GP Test Luigi Villoresi,.SQUIRE 1 1 2 LITRE 1934 AUTO TORQUE ATC 1 43,.
Hi Story 1 24 Mazda Roadster RF 2016 Snowflake White Pearl Mica Completed,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Schuco Pic. POP ART Das Spiel - 450513600,1981 BMW M1 France Zol`Auto 24H Le Mans Rousselot Servanin 1 18 Minichamps,. In Noska,1 18 Ertl Mopar Champions Series Roy Hill Plymouth Duster Rare Nip,.LAST RARE NEW - WESTERN Distributing Transportation - Lonestar 32626 - 1 64 DCP,.Four Wheel Models 1 43 Scale FWAM9 -1957 Aston Martin DB Mk3 D Head Open - Red,.1 18 Ford Escort Mk1 Avo Rally Milk Minichamps model car, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Kyosho Original 1 18 Lamborghini Diablo GT orange Pearl KSR18507OR W T japan,.1968 Mustang Hot Wheels Toy Car White and bluee,.Nissan Juke R 2.0 2016 Red AUTOART 1 18 AA77457,.Cardboard model redhmans Williams Renault FW19 1997 Villeneuve (235 cm ),. Id., p 923.
2013 Aston Martin Vantage V12 GT3 Plain Body White White 1 18 Autoart,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, UNIVERSAL HOBBIES 1 18 - UH3881 LAND ROVER DEFENDER 110 STATION WAGON LIGHT GREE,Alfa Romeo 6C 2500S Berlinetta Touring maroon 1939 1 18 Cult Scale Models,.Hot Wheels Elite 1 18 Scale Diecast - N2051 Ferrari 360 Modena red Red,.Magirus Deutz O6500 Autobus 1954 Green Ivory Red Schuco 1 43 SH8937 Model,.Brand Porsche 962C 9 Ignition Model,.Scarce Dinky toys 211 Triumph TR7 Sports Car in Turquoise Mint & Original,.1 12 CMR Porsche 911 (964) Turbo S Lightweight 1993 yellow,.Volkswagen K70 1970 BoS Models 1 18 BOS148,. The parties Schuco SH0068 BMW 850i CABRIO RED 1 18 Modellino,.
NOREV 2013 MERCEDES BENZ CLA (C117) Red (DEALER) 1 18 RARE ,.MINIMARQUE 1 43 GRB96B - 1970 MG MIDGET - ROOF UP - orange - 1 OF 50 ONLY,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, 1963 Ferrari 250 GT Drogo h LeMans Test in 1 18 scale by CMR,; ABC BRIANZA FERRARI 375MM BERLINETTA COMPETIZIONE - 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 27 45, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
TEKNO 63442 MAN TGX 33.480 TRACTX4 + SEMI PLATEAU 3 AXES H.N KRANE ,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Auto art Autoart 53602 Jaguar XJR White perfect mint in box 1 43 OVP Scarce,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Minichamps DP 1 12 Scale Kawasaki 900 Z1 Super 4 1973 Yellow Figure,.BBR Models Ferrari Dino 246 GTS Nera Modellino,.FYP 1 43 1985 Ferrari Mondial Cabriolet Resin Handmade Model Car,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Maserati A6 Gcs Street Version 1953 Red Tecnomodel 1 18 TM18-44B Model,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Lamborghini Hurcan Gt3 (Bianco Isis White) 2015 AUTOART 1 18 AA81527 Model,.Corgi Toys 342 Ford Capri CI5 The Professionals in O-Box,.Kings Models 1 43 1954 Ferrari 375 TWS WECC Trophy Snetterton Peter Collins,.AUTOART 74673 1 18 LAMBORGHINI AVENTADOR J RED SUPERCAR DIECAST,.Subaru BRZ GT 1 18 Kyosho KSR18027BL,. The ScottsdaleKings Models 1 43 1951 Ferrari 375 San Remo GP Luigi Villoresi,Corgi Toys 302 M.G.A. Sports Car red Spun hubs near mint in box what a beauty,.Triple9 1 18 Scale Diecast - T9-1800162 MG A ex182 Roadster Le Mans,. Id.,LANSDOWNE LDM.40 1960 AUSTIN GIPSY LONG WHELL BASE HARD TOP 1 43 WHITE METAL,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Otto 1 18 Scale resin - OT651 Opel Calibra Turbo 4x4 Metallic green (Vauxhall),; AUTOart Bac Mono 2011 Green 1 18 18114,Vintage Burago 1 14 Diecast F1 Model - 2101 - Ferrari 312 T2,.1932 Ford Five Ventana Liberación N° 1 lemon cosmic Hot Rod ACME,. The ScottsdaleMINICHAMPS - 1 18 - DELAHAYE TYPE 145 V12 COUPé - 1937 - 107116120,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Matchbox Popeye‘s Olive Oil blueto Die-Cast Metal Car 1980 King 2 Cars,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Schuco Unimog U401 with boar Green 1 18 450014700,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Rialto Models 1 43 Scale Resin RL7219 - 1952 MGTD Bertone - Green,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, VAN X VW Volkswagen T6 Premium 2 x Side Window, 1 x Barndoor Curtain Van-X VAN-X,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Matchbox 2001 Series 1 - 75 Full Set of Cars in the Box,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, CB MODELLI ALFA ROMEO ROMEO 2 AMBULANZA V.V.F.F. VIGILI DEL FUOCO 1 43, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, PORSCHE 919 Hybrid HY Le Mans 2017 Lotterer Jani Tandy DMG Mori Spark 1 18, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 110 037212 Mercedes Benz 300 SL 1955 Cream,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeLimited To 1000 1 43 Look Smart Ferrari 412T2 Es Special Order,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, ZIL 164, olive, 1 43, Start Scale Models,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheSchuco 3015 MERCEDES-BENZ L6600+ TRAILER 1 43 Modellino,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 530 971890 McLaren MP4 12 Testcar D. Coulthard,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,Ignition model 1 43 Porsche 962C OMURON JSPC 1989 V. Schppan IG0512 NEW,Revell 08432 NSU 1000 Prinz TT Cup R. Podak mit Zertifikat, 1 18, OVP, K011,.Matchbox RW 55B Fairlane Police Car rare grobe blacke Räder 20 Profil mit Box,.Vintage Schuco 1079 Dynamo-Lotus Remote Controlled NM O B Working,. The HuygheWOW EXTREMELY RARE Man F8 Pritschenwagen 1953 Grreen Munchen 1 43 Minichamps-860,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheALERTE 1 43 MERCEDES UNIMOG U20 CCF GIMAEX MARSEILLE limitée 100 pieces 0044,.
BBR BBRC1826C Ferrari 250 P Le Mans 1963 car limited 99 pcs 1 18,.Chevrolet Corvette Z06 BBR 1 18 BBRP1893S Model,.
JAPAN Renaut F1 Teh Digtal Systemxsx,.REI SCHUCO BRAZIL OPEL MANTA GTE B927,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Buses France - MAP 43 - 1955 FLOIRAT Y 55,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeCMR 1 18 Ferrari 275 GTB Le Mans 1966 - Noblet Dubois,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale - 155 808608 Ford Capri 3.0S Bastos SPA 1979,.
For example, in Partridge,Model Road Replicas 1 43 Scale - Vauxhall Victor F Type - Met Lt Green,. In Jorgensen, supra,Kyosho original 1 64 Nissan Fairlady Z White,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.MINIMARQUE 1 43 GRB101B - 1967 AUSTIN HEALEY SPRITE - BR GREEN - ROOF OPEN,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,ERTL INTERNATIONAL PAY HAULER, STUNNING EXAMPLE, APPEARS UNOPENED FROM NEW MODEL,. That is the same situation in this case.Minimarque 43 1 43 Scale Model Car 7918 - Rover 14 - bluee,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale BRK4 - 1937 Chevrolet Coupe - Green,. Detroit Edison, supra.
BMW e82 1er M-Coupe 2011 white modelcar 110020022 Minichamps 1 18,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 110 067022 Porsche 911 GT3 2017 orange,.Franklin Mint B11SD67 1992 Rolls-Royce Corniche IV,.
NZG MODELLE 440 O&K L651 DRAG-LINE - RED 1 50 - VERY GOOD CONDITION,.