Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Norev Renault Alpine A110 1600S 1 18 Model Car 185300 Metallic bluee,. Matchbox Lesney 1969 Yellow Lamborghini Miura ,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Range Rover 4.6 HSE RHD 1999 Reg Red 1 43 Auto Art-Discovery,.GREENLIGHT ASPEN SKI LODGE MUSTANG F-100 2017 POLICE INTERCEPTOR JEEP RAW CHASE,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.Kit Lancia Stratos 1,6 predotipo 1971 - Tron Model kit 1 43,.POLITOYS 71 ALFA ROMEO GIULIA TI - LIGHT blueE 1 41 RARE - PLASTIC - GOOD COND,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.UH Universal Hobbies 1 50 Komatsu HB215LC-2 Excavator DieCast Model UH8095,.Spark Model SA129 HONDA CIVIC EF9 N.9 2nd GR.3 MACAU GUIA RACE 1990 KOJI SATO 1 ,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.1957 Chevrolet Belair Turquoise 1 18 Ertl American Muscle 7026,.Herpa 310215 H0 Set m. 2 Modellen, 80J. Wandt 1 87,.Modell 1 18 Volkswagen VW T3 Bus bluee Star 1990 blue metallic Norev 188540, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
Dinky Toys 771 International Road Signs made in England EX-NMIB,.Jada Road Rats 1953 Cadillac 1 24 Scale Diecast bluee,.Minichamps 402052090 VW Touareg 2002 w horse trailer Polizei Dresden 1 43 MIB,.Danbury Mint Pewter - approx 1 43 scale - 1935 Jaguar SS1 Saloon,.
Ebbro 44675 ISUZU VehiCROSS 1997 RED 1 43 scale,.MoYShop Matchbox 2015 Ford Bronco Albuquerque 13th Gathering purple OVP USA RAR ,.SAUBER MERCEDES C9 WINNER SUZUKA 1989 1 18 DIECAST MODEL BY NOREV 183441,.Norev 1 18 Mercedes Benz E 500 Coupe Diecast Model Car bluee 183542,.Corgi US50808 Seagrave K Pumper - Washington Fire Co. No.1 - Delanco, NJ NIB ,.
MAISTO 1 18 - 36637 MORGAN AERO 8 - DARK GREEN,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.BX404-0,5x Wiking 1 87 H0 LKW 527 Peterbilt + Scania ASG etc sehr gut+1x OVP,.BIANTE 1.18 FORD FALCON DAVID BESNARD WPS RACING 2004 V8 SUPERCARS B180702N,.X-63048 Norev 1 43 Ford Taunus Essen 2007 limitiert 400 St. sehr guter Zustand,,Mclaren F1 1 43 Michelin,.█► BMW 328 transparent Wiking Vorserie 1 87,.
Mitsubishi L200 dark grey 1 43 Vitesse,.1 18 NOREV 1969 Mercedes-Benz 280 SE Cabriolet,.MINICHAMPS Red Bull Racing Renault RB6 S. Vettel Brazilian GP 2010 1 18 NEUOVP,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
Ertl 1 18 scale Diecast 7489 1967 Chevrolet Corvette L-71 red,.
Spark 1 43 Porsche 996 GT3 R n.79 Le Mans 2000 S4759,. We agree in part.
CIJ CAMION RENAULT FAINEANT FARDIER,.MOM123 - Voiture de compétition tour de France 1972 RENAULT ALPINE A110 série éd,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Lamborghini Miura P400S Bertone 50Th Anniversary 1968 Green RIO 1 43 RIO4584 Min,.POLITOYS 530 ALFA ROMEO 2600 SZ - METALLIC RED 1 43 - GOODCONDITION,.Spark Model S5073 CHEVROLET CORVETTE C3 N.1 ACCIDENT LM 1970 J.BOURDON-J.C.AUBRI,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Dinky Rover 75 maroon in excellent condition unboxed original,.1 18 Norev 2016 BMW X6 M White Dealer Edition,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, EAGLE RACE 1 18 3815 1940 FORD COUPE HIGHWAY PATROL CAR GREY,; 1 18 AUTOart Lamborghini Gallardo Superleggera white NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
Corgi 222 Renault Floride Car Boxed original,.1 18 Minichamps Mercedes SLS AMG GT3 ADAC GT Masters NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,Carrello Porta Auto Ellebi BBR 1 43 BBROG1,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Ford Mustang 2 Cobra II The Mustang Garage Baujahr 1976 white blue 1 18 Greenl,.
Road Signature Mercury Turnpike Cruiser 1957 (yellow) 1 18 OVP ,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Ebbro 1 43 Kraft Project U Espelir Supra JGTC 2003 from Japan,.UCC SAISOKU NO TUBASA Collection Complete Set 8pieces Japan Free Shipping ,.Permot Espewe, DDR Modell,Skoda Pritschen -LKW m. Aufbau, alte Version(Schub48),. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Hot Wheels HWX5527 FERRARI 458 ITALIA SPIDER 2009 RED FOUNDATION 1 18 Modellino,; Ferrari fxx k red maßstab 1 18 von Bburago,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, London Scene Vintage 1978 Dinky Diecast Toys No. 300 Souvenir Set Die-Cast,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
NEO 1 43 Scale Resin Model NEO44750 - Dodge Charger - Brown,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Matchbox Regular Wheels Nr. 32 B Jaguar XKE met. red BPT w. Spoke Lesney 1,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
Revell Renault R202 2002 1 18 Jenson Button (GBR) (F1NB),
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
Alpine A110 Premiere Edition 2017 White Met NOREV 1 18 NV185144 Model,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Maserati Quattroporte 4.9 1983 bluee Sera Met Kess Model 1 43 KS43014013 Miniatur,.EBBRO 1 20 KIT IN PLASTICA MCLAREN HONDA MP4-31 2016 LATE SEASON ART 020 4800,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Mercedes-Benz Unimog 404 S FW Mainz 03391 Schuco 1 43 New ,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Norev Citroën 2CV AZL Malle Bombée 1957 1 18 grey,.
Matchbox SF 66C Ford Transit hellorange blacke Bodenpl. top in K Box,.IST 057 IXO 1 43 IFA F9 Limousine 1952 bluee,.Renault R5 Supercinque Gt Turbo 1986 Light bluee Met NOREV 1 18 NV185207 Model,.1967 MATCHBOX K-9 CLAAS COMBINE HARVESTER MINT W EXC BOX,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.1 43 Minicar Mclaren Mercedes,.
Sun Star 1 18 Ford Classic Collectibles 1931 Ford Model A Roadster Green SS6123,.FDS 1 43 scale White Metal - 23may2018D Ensign N177 -1977 Racing car,.VINTAGE 1969 HOT WHEELS REDLINE HAIRY HAULER GREEN,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, ERTL 1 64 SCALE JOHN DEERE AIR SEEDER PLAYSET BN 45555,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.QUIRALU-MEREDES 300 SL, EN CAJA ORIGINAL, AÑOS 50.,.Pontiac Gto 1964 1 18 Sun Star SUNSTAR 1825 General Motors,.Corgi 1 50 Scale CC13602 - DAF CF General Purpose Tanker - Suttons,.Art Model AM0008-2 FERRARI 166 MM N.624 WINNER MM 1949 C.BIONDETTI-E.SALANI 1 43,.NZG Modelle 1 50 Scale WHEEL-TYPE EXCAVATOR CAT 224 (Art Nr. 259),.
CORGI - C89 60 YEARS OF TRANSPORT BUS SET, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Spark Model 1 43 Porsche 911 Targa 4S 2011 bluee Met. Art.S4977,.Artitec 387.260 Bucyrus Rb-17 Excavator Finshed Model Ho 1 87 New,. The PartridgeRio RI4536 ALFA ROMEO GIULIETTA N.249 36th M.CARLO 1963 J.NIELSEN-H.HENRIKSEN 1 ,.Diecast Car HUMMER H2 SUV 1 18 Scale Maisto MINT Beautiful,.Spark Model S5509 PORSCHE 962 C N.2 ACCIDENT LM 1987 O.LARRAURI-U.SCHAFER-J.PARE,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Siku 3815 Mercedes Sattelzug mit Plane (Werbemodell - Weyland) OVP - 1503-163, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.1 24 HYUNDAI SOLATI H350 BUSINESS CAR DIE CAST MODEL,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Danbury Mint Ford 1940 Deluxe Coupe 1 24 Scale A1,.1986 Wartburg 353S yellow 1 18 MC Group 18077,PartridgeFINEWORK Chgold Q size Baja BUG HG Resin Kit,.1 43 Scale Trax Top Gear Holden HQ SS Sedan Lettuce Alone TR17F,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Best Model 9438 FERRARI 312P LE MANS 1970 1 43 Modellino, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Vintage Hot Wheels Super Charger Sprint Set 1968,; UT models 1 18 BMW Z3 roadster rossa red boxed,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Volkswagen Zoo Di Arnhem 1965 + Lion Rio 1 43 RIO4412P, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Porsche 911 Turbo 3,3l 1977 oliv green 1 18 Norev 187575 neu & OVP, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying Partridge1 43 Copy models Ford escort,.
Porsche 904 GTS, Winner Rally des Routes du Nord 1967 , Sparkmodels,.RIO RI4258 BUGATTI T 50 1933 blue black 1 43, Clarke's negligent act.Minichamps 431028030 BMW E46 2000 323i Cabriolet Siena Red Metallic 1 43,.POLISTIL S212 MERCEDES BENZ 450 SPYDER - blueE METALLIC 1 25 - EXCELLENT IN BOX,.WEISE-TOYS 1034 SAME Fortis 190 (2013 - ) 1 32,.
CITROEN 2CV WORLDCHAMPIONSHIP FOOTBALL 1974 VITESSE 1 43,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Porsche 911 (993) Turbo S - white - 1 of 300 - Minichamps - car.tima EXCLUSIVE -,ROMMEL'S MAMMOTH DAK AEC ARMORED COMMAND CAR AFV.CLUB 1 35 PLASTIC KIT,. In Noska,Solido 1 19 VW Bus T1 yellow Weiss mit OVP (OR15,.Caterpillar CAT 1 50 Scale 85228 Wheel Loader 938K Vehicles Collection Gift,.Porsche 911 RS 1973 white-green 1 18 Norev 187636 neu & OVP,.Johnny Lightning Super Magmas 1 24 Die-Cast Hemi Express Wheel Stander, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Minichamps 50 Viperngreen 1 43 OVP,.RARITÄT UT Models Merdes-Benz C-Class D2 Privat , silver, 1 18, TOP ,.Novoexport GAZ 3102 Volga USSR, 1 43 OVP,.Seat Arona SUV Desire red Ab 2017 1 43 Seat Modell Auto mit oder ohne individi..,. Id., p 923.
STELCO Mini Cooper Rally orange Modellauto Kunstoff ca.17cm (K42) B,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, 1 50 71011 International HX620 Tridem Tractor Diecast Masters Trailer Head,Honda NSX (1990) 1 24 Die-cast Scale Model Hachette Japanese Cars Vol.16 ACURA,.CORGI - 51655 JAMES BOND 007 FOR YOUR EYES ONLY - CITROEN 2CV,.Herpa 310062 - 1 87 - Man Tgx Xlx Teletrailer Semitrailer M.Windmill Wings New,.SSM LKW 1 43 KAMAZ 53501 Militärfahrzeug (camouflage) 83SSM1303,.UT Models New York City Chevy Caprice Taxi Cab 1 18 Rare Pre Owned Free Shipping,.Shelby GT-350 cabrio 1965 red (Kyosho) 1 43 RARE ,.Dodge Charger 1968 CHRISTINE Filmauto Auto World 1 18 OVP NEU,. The parties Hot Wheels Batman Elite Batmobile,.
Hot Wheels 19th Nationals 2019 Convention Union 76 VW Volkswagen Drag Bus 5000,.Citroën Méhari, Norev, 1 18 in OVP,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, DINKY SPAIN 1450 SIMCA 1100 POLICE CAR - EXCELLENT in original BOX,; HOT WHEELS hotwheels Trail Busters 5 car Gift Pak 1987 Near mint, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
Transitional Matchbox Superfast No 33 Lamborghini Miura Med gold Ivory Interior,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 1 18 Norev Peugeot 404 Cabriolet white - RARITÄT §,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)CITROEN CX 2400 SUPER BREAK 1976 LIGHT GREEN PHASE I MODELCAR 1 18 NEUVE BOITE,.Ferrari 250 Gtl Coupe 1964 Personal Car Jamiroquai bluee BEST-MODEL 1 43 BE9725,.Mercedes AMG S 65 2016 Spark S4916 1 43,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Fiat 600 Viotti Coupe 1959 Grey Red Ed.Lim.Pcs 299 1 43 Matrix MX30602-081,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.SUNSTAR SS1987 CHEVROLET MONTE CARLO SS 2000 RED 1 18,.1 43 MINICHAMPS 403 120433 Alfa Romeo 6C 1750 G.S. 1930 Red Spark BBR,.Auto World American Muscle 1971 Plymouth GTX 1 18,.Spark Model SJ042 DAIHATSU MIRA WALK THROUGH VAN 1990 1 43 Modellino,.Ferrari 340 Mexico 1952 Red 1 43 Art Model ART037 Model,. The ScottsdaleDinky Bundesmarine Sea King Helicopter, Mint in Original Bubble box,True Scale 1 43 Alfa Brabham BT46 S. Africa GP Niki Lauda 144301,.Somerville Models 1 43 Scale 106 - Standard Flying 12 - Brown,. Id.,ONYX 1 43 - 172 s WILLIAMS RENAULT AU REVOIR ALAIN PROST,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Jada 1 24 Scale 99572 - Fast & Furious Brian's Ford Escort - bluee,; Spark - 1 43 - Porsche 997 GT3 cup Team Starchase,CORGI Classics - MODERN - ERF EC Petrol Tanker - ESSO - MB,.HOT WHEELS SUPER TREASURE HUNT TREASURE HUNT BONE SHAKER SHORT CARD,. The ScottsdaleHartoy PEM Ronnie Dowdy Tractor Trailer 1 64 Die-cast M74510 NOS,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, 1 18 Ford Sierra RS Cosworth,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; SIMCA 1000 Rallye 2 1976 Maya yellow 1 18 Norev 185708 1294 2 DC,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 43 Spark Williams FW36 Jerez Test Car 2014 - Valtteri S3091 Damage Showcase,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 18 Bburago Signature Series Ferrari California T Hardtop closed,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, 1957 Chevy Bel Air Diecast Model 1 24 50th Anniversary Enterprise Rent A Car NEW,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, RARE Mitsubishi Lancer Ukraine Police Vitesse 1 43, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, WOW EXTREMELY RARE Ford Galaxy 2.3 16V 2000 Green met 1 43 Minichamps-GT RS VR6, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, 1970 Chevelle Cragar 1 18 Scale Die Cast Metal American Muscle,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the Partridge72 VINTAGE 1957 CHEVY CHEVROLET BEL AIR DIE CAST 1 46 CAR COLLECTION LOT NEW,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Bmw Z4 M Coupé (E86) red 2009 Neoscale 1 43 Neo44466 Miniature,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheOriginal sealed 1 24 Plastic Esci Kit Made in Renault 5 Alpine Calberson,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Schuco Modellauto Set OVP Porsche 365 Coupe,VW Bully Samba,300 SL,MGB Cabrio,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,THE goldVARG COLLECTION - HENRY J KAISER 1951 - 1 43 - EXCELLENT CONDITION 7,Onyx 1 24 Scale Model Car 5010 - F1 K-Mart Havoline Lola - Nigel Mansell,.Ferrari 250 California Stradale Usa 1959 W Capote White Red Met.1 43 Art ART245,.FERRARI SF70H S.VETTEL RAIKKONEN 2017 KIT MOUNTING 1 20 (20068) TAMIYA,. The HuygheSUBARU IMPREZA WRC SAFARI 98 97 1 24 TAMIYA w Decals ST27 & PE Scale Motorsport,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheHot Wheels 1 18 Ferrari 250 TESTAROSSA No. 22 White Brand New,.
Triumph Herald 1200 Estate 1964 red (1 43, Silas Models),.McLaren F1 Road Car black met. 1993 1 18 Minichamps neu & OVP 530133420,.
Chgold Q SUBARU IMPREZA WRCar 2004 Set Start & Finish TAKARA NEW Rare F S,.Graphyland Kit Assembled 1 43 - VW Iltis Paris Dakar 1980,. Nonetheless, on the facts of MINICHAMPS PORSCHE 911 ( 964 ) TARGA 1990 OVP 1 43 LIMITIERT & RAR,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeAcura NSX Concept 2013 True Scale Miniature 1 43 Modellauto,.MINICHAMPS - PORSCHE 962 WINNERS 12H SEBRING 1985 FOYT WOLLEK 1 43,.
For example, in Partridge,Spark Model Ligier JS27 Phillipe Alliot 1 43 S4268,. In Jorgensen, supra,Porsche 997 GT3 R ,24H Nurburgring 2015 , Sparkmodels,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Mercedes F100 1991 - Spark 1 43 in Box 34906,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,FERRARI 250 CALIFORNIA NASSAU - 1959 W. BURNETT 1 43 ART.328 art model,. That is the same situation in this case.Porsche 911 (964) Speedster - arktissilver - 1 of 400 - Spark - 1 43,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Best Model BT9522 ABARTH OT 1300 N.121 RETIRED TOUR DE CORSE 1965 SCHELESSER-B.L,. Detroit Edison, supra.
Corgi Toys 1 43 JAGUAR AUSTIN HEALEY MGA FORD CORTINA ALPINE RALLY 4-Car Set MIB,.Autocult Commer Dormobile Coaster 1972 Light bluee White 1 43 ATC09002,.RIO 4160 ALFA ROMEO Giulietta Polizia,.
LOTUS ELAN S3 FHC coupé blue 1 43,.