Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
1932 Ford AA Open Cab Fire Engine—YFE09,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals KK-Scale Ferrari 275 GTS Pininfarina Spyder - silver - 1 18,. Matchbox Lesney 1969 Yellow Lamborghini Miura ,.JOHNNY LIGHTNING TOY FAIR 2000 CAMARO SET,.Porsche 911 (993) Carrera Cabriolet, silver, 1 18, Norev,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.PORSCHE 917 Spyder AAW Olden Kott Interserie Norisring 1971 Kinnunen Spark 1 43,.Ossamu Tezuka Princess Sapphire Figure RARE,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Spark 1 43 Porsche 911 RSR(991) Predon Competition - Le Mans 2017 S5840,.Ford Focus Winner Monza Rally 2007 Valentino Rossi C. Cassina 1 43 Model,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Fire Brigade models 1 72 Scale - FBM7 Road traffic collision set moden B Figures,.Pites Trofeu 1 43 Subaru Impreza 555 T.Ponce S.García R. El Corte Inglés 1997.,.Best Model BT9672 FERRARI 312 P SPYDER N.7 DNF 1000 KM NURBURGRING 1969 C.AMON-P, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Citroen Survolt Le Mans Classic 2010 modelcar Provence Moulage 1 43,.Ktm X-Bow Gt 2016 bluee SPARK 1 43 S5663 Miniature,.CAT CATERPILLAR AP600F WHEELED ASPHALT PAVER 1 50 MODEL BY DIECAST MASTERS 85591,.BMW 635 CSI ,2e Macau Guia Race 1983, Sparkmodels,.

Burago 1999 Porsche Turbo Yellow Diecast Rare Collectible Model Car Toys Replica,.LESNEY MATCHBOX 24 WEATHERILL HYDRAULIC EXCAVATOR MINT BOX MIB UK CONSTRUCTION,.1 18 SIGNATURE MODELS 1934 ASTON MARTIN GREEN gd,.Lot Of 40 Misc. Toy Cars - Hot Wheels Matchbox & More 1970s - 2000s,.NOREV NV185271 RENAULT 30 TX 1981 BRONZE 1 18,.

2018 Hot Wheels RLC Red Line Club Datsun blueebird 510 Green 17500,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Autocult Commer Dormobile Coaster 1972 Light bluee White 1 43 ATC09002,.NOREV187592 - Voiture cabriolet PORSCHE 911 Carrera 1994 color silver métal -,.NEW 1961 Chevy Corvette Congreenible 1 18 Scale Die Cast Car - Collectible,1 9 Predar Ducati 748 S.P. Motorcycle Bike In Yellow MIB,.Limited Edition M Tech 1 43 Skyline Gt- R R34,.

1 43 Hi Story Model NISSAN Prince Skyline Deluxe Brown 1957,.CORGI TOYS LOTUS ELAN HARDTOP 1 43,.CITROEN DS 1 43 PredOTYPE D'ESSAIS 1952 AUTO JOURNAL VROOM A MONTER,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Neo Audi 200 quattro 20V - metallic-dunkelred - 1990 - 1 43,.

Porsche 911 (991II) Gt3 Rs Año Fabricación 2018 black con Dorados,. We agree in part.

1 43 Mercedes W06 Hybrid , Winner GP Japan 2015 , Spark models,.1 18 Ertl Auto World Dodge Monaco Ilinois State Police 1974,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Joy Toy No 161 Bedford Car Transporter + 4 cars (Made in Greece) NEW ,.Lot de 10 personnages quiralu,dinky toys,CIJ jouets anciens voiture,moto side,.OR Heco Miniatures 1 plaque métal gravé numéredé Bugatti 57 Cabriolet Van Vooren,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; NOREV NV188523 VW 1303 1972 GREEN METALLIC 1 18,.Diecast Masters Int'l HX520 Day Cab Tandem Tractor bluee 1 50 Trailer Head 71004,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, HPI Racing 1 43 Scale Model Car 8080 - Alfa Romeo 155V6 TI - Red,; Venucia Donfeng Nissan D50 1 18 exotic unique ultra rare Factory gift Mint box,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Nissan Skyline GT-R R34 Falken Tires 1999 türkis blue Modellauto 1 18 Greenlight,.Johnny Lightning - Volkswagon Set of 6,Spark Model S5411 MATRA MS5 G.HILL 1966 N.28 GRAND PRIX DE REIMS F2 1 43 Modelli,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Jouet ancien voiture de course Grand Prix,.

1967 Praga V3S − Fire department − ABREX 1 43 - FREE SHIPPING,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.MERCURY MARAUDER cabriolet fermé 1964 yellow 1 18,.MAISTO 1 18 31836 JAGUAR XK8 GREEN,.Maserati 3500 Gt Sebring Ii Series Coupe 1963 Green Met NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO45644,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Jada 1968 Chevrolet Camaro w flames 1 18 scale NIB 2011 production CC edition,; TATRA 613 VB POLICIE CSSR - Polizei - Volkspolizei - ATLAS 1 43 Police Car Serie,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, SCHUCO PORSCHE 911 CARRERA 4S - 1 43 - MINT IN BOX LIMITED EDITION,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).


SSM LKW 1 43 Löschfahrzeug PSA-2 (URAL-43206) Wgoldnesch,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Minichamps 1 43 BMW 7-Series 733i - 1977 gold Metallic Art. 431023100,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

IScale 1 18 Mercedes-Benz GLC Coupe (C253) 2016 bluew nieuw in Mercedes-Benz dea,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Quartzo 1 18 Scale 18291 Team Lotus Type 72E E. Fittipaldi 1972 Austrian GP,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Simca Vedette Chambord (1960) 1 18 Norev 185727,.Puma GTV 033.S Alfa Romeo engine 1985 Whte 1 43 KESS KE43016001,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Franklin Mint 1 24 Chevrolet Corvette C4 Bj. 1986 yellow OVP,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Corgi 230 Mercedes Benz 220SE coupe 1 43 Oldtimer old Box,.

GAMA SUPER Mercedes Benz Combi 300 TD 110 1 24 Very Near Mint Unplayed in Box,.AUDI Quattro Sport Rallye DRM Metz 1984 Röhrl Geistdörfer NEU Trofeu 1 43,.KYOSHO MERCEDES BENZ DEALER VERSION SEALED CLK DTM AMG CABRIO NEW 1 18,.Norev Renault 12 Gordini 1971 blue de France 1 18 185210 9,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Porsche 904 no. 1 Winner Japan GP 1964,.

Playwell (Hong Kong) Red Porsche 917K Martini Racing Team Plastic Electric 1 16,.BORGWARD P100 white 1960, model cars 1 43,.DINKY SUPERTOYS DARK blueE O GAUGE GOODS YARD CRANE ORIGINAL CLEAN VINTAGE RETRO,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Record Models 1 43 Scale Resin Model - Porsche 904 GTS Le Mans 1964,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Audi S4 Avant Model Car 1 43 Navarrablue bluee Limited Edition - 5011614213,.SUN STAR 1 18 SCALE. 1951 KAISER HENRY J. in GREEN . (stunning looking),.Ferrari 208 Gtb Turbo 1982 Red 1 43 Model BEST MODELS,.Premium X 1 43 Scale Model Car PRD306 - Morgan 4 4 1974 - Cream,.HOT WHEELS 1 18 AUTO DIE CAST FERRARI 250 TESTA ROSSA FUORI PRODUZIONE 23913,.

Mattel Hot Wheels Rebound Raceway Car Play Set Toys from 4 Years, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Opel Commodore C 4 Türig grey metallic 1978, model cars 1 43,.1 18 Norev Mercedes-Benz 300 SL Cabrio 1986 dunkel blue Softtop1 18 Norev 183466,. The PartridgeMinichamps Yamaha YZR 500 2001 1 12 Shiya Nakano (JAP) MotoGP,.Hot Wheels Redlines Evil Weevil,.Lloyd Alexander Combi green 1958 NEO43971 1 43,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, DAN TOYS 217 Citroen DS Presidentielle - Chauffeur & Working Lights, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.CLAAS Direct Disc 520 with Cutting Unit Trolley,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Corgi Toys 1 43 THE MONKEES MONKEEMOBILE Pontiac GTO TV Movie Car 07104 MIB`01 ,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 430 820027 - F1 Ferrari 126 C2 1982,PartridgeBatman Aquaman Entertainment Set 6 Modelle Batmobile 1 64 Hot Wheels DMC55,.PORSCHE 911 Carrera RSR 2.8 Daytona 1973 Donohue Follm Sunoco Minichamps 1 43,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Dinky Toys Airplane Lot 735 734, 736, 733, Gloster Javelin Shooting Star, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 1 18 Hot Wheels Elite Ferrari 575 GTZ Zagato grey grey in OVP,; NZG 1 50 Scale Diecast JL950 - Mercedes Benz Trailer - Rama,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Corgi Toys 235 Oldsmobile Super 88 in light bluee, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 1 18 Hot Wheels Ferrari F1 PREMIERE 2003 M.Schumacher NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeErtl 'International Cab Over Tractor & Plantation Thgoldughbreds Horse Trailer',.

2 new Maisto 1 18 Scale 2010 Chevy Camaro SS Police,2015 Ford Mustang GT Police,.Lesney Matchbox ANCIEN king size N°2 Muir Hill Dumper SUPERBE + BOITE, Clarke's negligent act.Porsche 962 IMSA no. 8 Winner 12H Sebring 1985 ( FOYT - Wollek),.Spark 1 43 scale 2008 BMW Alpina B6s cabriolet dark green,.Classic Metal Works 1 24 DADE CITY FLORIDA Ford Police Interceptor,.

Honda N360 1967 1 24 Big Scale Box Mini Car Display Diecast 3CA54,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1 43 Mini Champs Mercedes Clk Dtm,Dinky Toys by Meccano Ltd HEALEY SPORTS BOAT. Excellent, Original ,. In Noska,Schuco Piccolo 3er-set 2000 Jaguar Mkii MB 300D Citroen DS19 all Red (64997),.Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor Weiss - mit Licht und Sound - 1 18 Gree..,.NZG 1 43 Mercedes-Benz Actros 3235 4-Achs Beton mixer,.Takuma Sato Indy 500 Winner Greenlight 1 18 2017 Indianapolis, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.DINKY TOYS FRANCE RENAULT 4L SÉRIE JUNIOR REF 100 1961 BON ÉTAT,.Neo Ford Fiesta 1600 Gr.2 - RHD Rally Monte Carlo 1979 - 1 43,.Citroen AMI 6 yellow, 1 18, NOREV,.1 18 Hot Wheels Ferrari 250 GTO in Yellow. New in tubular presentation case,. Id., p 923.

TROF 43 Scale Diecast Model - 507 FORD ESCORT MEXICO 1971 WHITE,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Models of Yesteryear Y-10 Mercedes 36-220 Cabriolet 1928, in Originalbox Typ D1,Auto Art Gateway 60673 PORSCHE 911 997 GT3 CUP orange 1 43,.Citroen DS21 Break 21 1970 Kombi Weiss 1 18 Norev Modell Auto mit oder ohne in..,.1961 CITROEN DS 19 CABRIOLET PEARL GREY 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY NOREV 181598,.(S) corgi ASTON MARTIN DB5 JAMES BOND 007 goldFINGER - 261,.Bentley Continental R 1996 Red metallic 436139920 1 43 Minichamps,.1 18 Norev Citroen GS Club 1972 blue 181625,.Citroen 2CV 6 AZL Malle Bombée 1957 Grey 1 18 Norev,. The parties 1960s.Matchbox.Lesney.38 Honda Motorcycle And Trailer.MINT IN BOX.original,.


Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, 1 18 Norev Mercedes L319 Porsche Renndienst 1955 red,; Road Signature Modellauto 1 18 Ford Fairlane 55, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

TSM Model 1 43 Scale TSM144345 - 2013 Mini Countryman All4 Racing,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Minichamps 1 43 439380021 Mercedes Benz Atego Stibel Eltron OVP (JS3682),; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)1 50 DM Caterpillar Cat 335F L Hydraulic Excavator Diecast Model,.MODELLINO JAGUAR XKR ZAO JAMES BOND 2002 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.MATCHBOX 15 SUPERFAST VW VOLKSWAGEN BEETLE - RALLY MONTE CARLO No 137 - NMIB,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,1 50 THAMES TRADER BOX VAN (LUCOZADE) Corgi 30306,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Triumph Vitesse Mk2 1969 Red NEO45688 1 43,.Lancia Kappa 2.0 Turbo 1994 Met.Dark Red 1 43 Neoscale NEO44965 Model,.Hot Wheel Red Line Club Passion Limited To 8500,.Johnny Lightning Cooter's Chevrolet Camaro 1 18 green (The Dukes of Hazzard),.Hikosebun Rais 1 43 Nissan Teana L33 2016 Ibaraki Prefectural Police Regional,. The ScottsdaleCode 3 corgi tekno stobart rail hook loader drawbar combo (l@@k),MINICHAMPS Red Bull Racing Renault RB8 MC-110120101,.MODELLINO PORSCHE 911 GT3 CUP TEAM SNOW RACING IMSA GT3 CHALLENGE SEBRING 2008 I,. Id.,FERRARI FXX-K RED SIGNATURE SERIES 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY BBURAGO 16907,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Nissan Deltawing Petit LeMans 2012, spark models,; Ford 999 72Hp World Speed Record 147Km H Henry Ford RIO 1 43 RIO4589 Model,VW Karmann Ghia Siku V248 fast mint,.1979 Vintage Hot Wheels 40's Woodie HiRakers Die-Cast Car A,. The ScottsdaleDinky toys 571 Coles Mobile Crane Boxed - Original Condition,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, DINKY TOYS 250 STREAM LINED FIRE ENGINE - RED 1 43 - RARE SELTEN - VERY GOOD,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; NOREV 184707 1955 PEUGEOT D4A with LADDERS POMPIERS 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR RED,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Aoshima Bunka Kyozai 1 24 Prepaint Model Series No.37 Subaru BRZ 201,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 43 Truescale TSM Model Mclaren 650S GT3 H Spa 2017 TSM430344,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Renault 5 Turbo 1 1981 bluee 1 18 Model IXO MODEL,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Ford P2 Combi - tuqoise 1957 1 43 NEO 44550, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model MIN 052003 - VW Der Millionste Beetle - gold, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Kess KES43014070. 1 43. Maserati 5000 GT Bertone. 1961. bluee.,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeMODELLINO VOLKSWAGEN RACE TOUAREG SABY WINNERS RALLY POR LAS PAMPAS 2005 IN META,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Spark Model S4410 MERCEDES 300SL N.7 DNF LM 1956 PRINCE P. METTERNICH-W.VON EINS,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheFerrari California T Sunoco blue 1 18,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Nissan Dong Feng Sylphy blueebird Sentra Pulsar bluee 1 18 model car,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Tobar 1 18 Scale Mercedes-Benz Amg Gt Vehicle,BMW Z4 GT3 24h Nürburgring 2014 Schubert Werner Müller Luhr Minichamps 1 43,.1 18 Hot Wheels Ferrari F04 SAKHIR BAHRAIN After Race bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.1 18 BMW M Roadster (Red) Burago 18-12028,. The HuygheDanbury Mint 1966 Ford Mustang Congreenible 1 24 OHNE OVP,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuyghePorsche 911 991 II Carrera S Coupe Weiss Endurance Racing Edition Ab 2012 limi..,.

Norev 188335 AUDI A4 DTM '10 AUDI SPORT TEAM 1 18 Modellino,.1 43 Ixo Ferrari F 355 Berlinetta,.

SIMM Spielwaren Darda 50106 Racing Formula Red With Red Racing Cars 375 cm lo...,.Collectible Hot Wheels 2005 Ford Mustang 2005 1 18,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Road Champs Toy Car - Police Collection Cruiser Series Die Cast 1969 Mustang New,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeGAZ 66 sand SSM 1186 1 43,.1968 Ford Mustang GT Red 1 18 Ertl American Muscle 33210,.

For example, in Partridge,CORGI 241 GHIA L.6.4 - VERY GOOD in original BOX,. In Jorgensen, supra,Lola Mk1 1980 Dark Red 1 43 Spark S1128 Modellino,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.RARE, DY-28 Triumph Motorshow 1992 - creme, Dinky, Code 2, w.Box,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,1 43 NEO BMW E21 323 i GR2 Rally Moutarderie Y.Muntowen,. That is the same situation in this case.Franklin mint scale model car of a 1903 Ford model A, Tonneau.,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Mercedes Benz Offener Tourwagen Cabriolet 1938 Grey GLM Models 1 43 GLM205901 Mo,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Bentley SIII Continental Mulliner Park Ward DHC (dark green),.Mercedes C-Klasse T-Modell Kombi (S204) 2014 grey, Modellauto 1 18 Norev,.1978 Matchbox SuperFast 900 Freeway Gas Tanker Trailer Chevron TP-17 Die-Cast,.

Mebetoys A-12 Porsche 912 metallic green made in 1 43 scale VGC rare,.