Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals BMC Mini Cooper S - Corgi Toys 334 England 30497,.Minichamps Ferrari 312T 1975 Lauda World Champion 1 43,.Rio RI4097-1 CITROEN DS 19 LIMOUSINE 1963 blueE CREAM 1 43 Modellino,.Chevrolet Corvette 427 196 - 1 18 - Auto World,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.1 18 Ford Shelby Mustang GT500 1969 black Ertl NEU in OVP Limited,.PORSCHE 966 IMSA Daytona 24h 1991 Truescale Resin Highend 1 43,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Pontiac GTO, metallic-hellgreen, 1 18, Sun Star,.Welly 1 18 Scale Diecast 18052W - Audi R8 V10 - Red,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Jada 1961 Chevrolet Impala w flames Road Rats 1 24 scale 2003 release HTF,.Porsche 356a 1500 Gs Carrera Gt 1957 Metallic Green 1 18 Model 1343 SUN STAR,.1 18 Solido Citroen 2CV Ente - in edler Blechbox, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
Jaguar D n.4 6th Le Mans 1957 D. Hamilton - M. Gregory by Spark S4389,.Morgan Le Mans 2014 J.Schell, Leutwiler, L.Roussel Spark S4213 1 43,.NEO SCALE MODELS NEO46575 MERCEDES SEC BB MAGIC TOP OPEN 1979 METALLIC WHITE 1 4,.Dinky Toys, Ford Sedan 170 red Original from the 1950ties,.
CITROEN 2CV 6 1976 Tènèrè orange 1 18 181514 Norev,.Norev 1 43 - Berliet GAK Benne,.Dinky Saab 96 - Red - A NB,.VW T3 Multivan Bus bluee Red White Star 1993 - blue red white -1 18-KK Scale,.UKBUS 0004 BUS EIREANN ENVIRO 200 1 76 SCALE MODEL BUS,.
Ferrari 275 Gtb 4 Nart Spider 1967 Alloy Rims KK-SCALE 1 18 KKDC180233 Model,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Mebetoys 1 43 - Ferrari P4 A27,.National Mint an even 1 half 1 2 dozen, great deal.,.Kyosho KS03675NY Mini Car Original 1 43 Lexus LC500h Yellow Finished product NEW,1973 Porsche 911 Carrera RS Model Car 1 43 Scale by Spark,.CITROEN GT Concept Car 1 18,.
Spark Model SA121 DALLARA MERCEDES F3 P.PIQUET 2016 N.22 MACAU GP 1 43 Modellino,.Model Van Scooby Doo. Includes characters. Kit mounting. Scale 1 25,.NEO NEO46095 1 43 MERCURY PARKLANE CONgreenIBLE 1959 RED WHITE,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
Britains Collectibles LAND ROVER SERIES I año 1948 Ref. 08735 50th Aniv. 1 32,.
FORD 750 Front End Loader,. We agree in part.
Spark 1 43 Scale S3309 - Citroen DS3 WRC Winner Jordan Rally 2011,.CHEVROLET IMPALA COUPE 1959 bluee White 1 43 Spark,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Winross 1-64 diecast tanker reitz oil 20 years NIB,.Deagostini Le Grandi Ferrari Collection No.19 1 24 360 Modena 1999,.Politoys APS 74 Fiat Ferrari 250 GT 1 41 made in ,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; 650H Vintage Norev Peugeot 203 Grey 1 43,.Display Case 1 18 Hand Made Mahogany Wood Colour Base Scratch Resistant Lid,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Vintage polistil 1 24 scale Toyota Land Cruiser restored excellent rare,; MASERATI 150GT SPIDER FANTUZZI 1957 WHITE MX41311-021 Matrix 1 43 New ,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 30718A - BMW M3 Sport Evolution,.VOLKSWAGEN VW DRAG BUS LIBERTY PROMOTIONS 2005 Happy Halloween w Case 1 of 1300,Corgi 1 64 Scale James Bond 007 Cars Collection x8 Lotus DB5 Mustang Honda etc,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.1937 Tatra 87 black 1 18 MC Group 18069,.
Spark Porsche 968 Turbo RS in Red 1993 S3457 1 43 NEW,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Western Models 1 43 Scale WP107X - Ferrari 246 GT Dino Open - Yellow Damaged,.Peugeot 504 Cabriolet 1970 Capucine Yellow NOREV 1 18 NV184826,.Mercedes Sprinter Corriere GLS 1 43 Model UNIVERSAL HOBBIES,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, UH Renault 5 Turbo blue 1 18 limitiertes Modell 1 1000,; Maxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940 033101 - 1955 Mercedes Benz 180 - Red,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, 1964 1 2 FORD MUSTANG MIT LED-BELEUCHTUNG(XENON) IN 1 18 VON WELLY black,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
Corgi CC13817, Mercedes Benz Actros Curtainside - N Irving Transport.,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
NOREV 1 18 1972 RENAULT ESTAFETTE ASSISTANCE RENAULT YELLOW WHITE DIECAST 185168,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
Schuco Piccolo Set 90 Jahre Schuco 2002,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
DANBURY MINT 1933 BUDWEISER DELIVERY MINT IN STYRO POD, ORIGINAL LOAD, STAKES,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.AT088 MW Conquest 1 43 - 57' Chevrolet Belair,.Rio 4294 ALFA ROMEO P3 AUSTRALIA 1954 n.2 1 43 Modellino,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Peugeot 908 HDI no. 2 Winner zhubai ILMC 2010,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.FORD GT 2017 blue 1 18 GT40,.
Triumph TR3 S , 24H LeMans 1959 , Spark models,.Diapet 1 40 NISSAN SKYLINE GTS 2-Door Sports Sedan Model Car G-51 MIB`85 RARE,.DeAgostini F430 2004 1 24 Model Le Grandi Ferrari Collection No.7 Japan F S,.A Danbury mint scale model of a 1969 Pontiac GTO Judge,,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Matchbox Superkings K-89 Forestry Set Complete & Very Close To Mint,.
Western 1 43 Scale White metal M43001023 Mercedes 300S Cabrio dark red,.PORSCHE 935 Turbo Experimental Test Testcar RAR Spark 1 43,.Vintage Jo-Han 1 25 1959 Plymouth Fury Dealer Promo Model Car,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Porsche 911 (997 II) GT3 RS 2010 - white black - Norev - 1 18 - 187561,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.TROF 43 Scale Diecast Model - 1101B SUBARU IMPREZA WRC ROADCAR MET blueE,.DTE LESNEY MATCHBOX SUPERFAST 34 VANTASTIC & 35 FANDANGO W SUNBURST HOOD LABELS,.Maserati Quattroporte 4.9 1983 Presidente Pertini blue Sera 1 43 Model KESS MODEL,.Hape E0381 Hap-E0381 bluee Camper Van Walker,.1 43 PREMIUM X 1964 Ford Country Squire Cream,.
WINROSS 1 64 REESES NUTRAGEOUS TRACTOR AND TRAILER , the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Ferrari 166 Spider E. Peron 1949 1 43 Model 0224 ART-MODEL,.2018 Hot Wheels 50th Anniversary Redline Set All 5 Diecast 1 64,. The PartridgeGama Mini - Modellauto Metallmodell, VW Bulli, VW Bus, 1 43 GOOD CONDITION,.Corgi Vanguards PD1002 Rover 2000 Jaguar XK120 Diorama Ltd Edition 0002 of 4000,.SPARK McLaren F1 GTR J.D. Deletraz M.S. Sala F. Giroix Le Mans 1996 S4732,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, NOREV 1990 RENAULT 5 GT TURBO RALLEY MONTE CARLO blueE 1 18 DIECAST CAR, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Camion eligor lbs Renault premium Dci transport Mory Group semi fourgon,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.RARE VINTAGE 2002 CORGI THE BEATLES YELLOW SUBMARINE IN ORIGINAL BOX CC05801,.MATCHBOX TP-108 TRACTOR FORD & TRAILER W gold WHEELS ROUE OR MIB NEUF BOITE,PartridgeGama Trix 70007 Leiterwagen mit Laterne Stadtwerke Uhrwerk Blechauto Metall,.Brand Niki Lauda Hachette Ferrari Collection,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, FORD SIERRA COSWORTH TEXACO VATANEN 1000 LAKES 1987 NIGHT TROF 43, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Ford Escort Rs 2000 Mki Año Fabricación 1973 red whiteo 1 18 Triple9,; Peugeot D4B Ambulance 1963 White NOREV 1 18 NV184699 Miniature,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, BMW 3er E30 M3 Coupe Sport Evolution red 1982-1994 1 18 Solido Modell Auto mit.., (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 1 18 Triple 9 MUGEN HONDA CIVIC EF-9 PIAA 1991 JTC RACING SATO VTi Si SiR, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgePorsche 911 991 Carrera Coupe - Spark Porsche Museum 1 43 in Box 30304,.
Minichamps 1 43 2014 Sauber F1 Team Ferrari C33, Adrian Sutil,.1 18 Action Performance - Ford Ranger blueemet, Clarke's negligent act.TW Collection 1 43 Scale White Metal Kit 32 - Delage 1.5 Litre 1951 - bluee,.SUN STAR Mercedes Benz 350 SL R107 Softtop Yellow 1 18 4568,.PAGANI HUAYRA bronze 1 43,.
Schuco Piccolo 740 Mercedes. 7,5 cm lang.,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Modellino FIAT UNO quattroruote collection 1 24 car toys,Peugeot 504 Cabrio 1970 orange, Modellauto 1 18 Norev,. In Noska,MATCHBOX LESNEY NO.10 'TATE & LYLE' SUGAR CONTAINER LORRY ORIGINAL & BOXED,.1 18 Renault 5 GT turbo,.AUTOart 1 43 Lamborghini Gallardo LP570-4 Superleggera White AA54643,.Saab 99 1971 black, Modellauto 1 43 Neo Scale Models, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.SSM LKW 1 43 ZIL-4333 Pritschen-LKW,.Bugatti 41 Royale Weymann 1929 Rio 1 43 Rio4227 Model Diecast,.Hot Wheels Lot Of 30 Cars And 2 Haulers Greddy Nissan fairlady Z 180sx Type X,.Spark 1 43 Porsche 962 C 89 Le Mans (KBS 025) Finished Goods Japan F S,. Id., p 923.
McLaren MP4-12C, 24H Spa 2013, Sparkmodels,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Lot Of 65 + Hot Wheels lot A,Ghia 450 SS Congreenible 1966 MATRIX MX10701-031 1 43,.Dinky Toys 571 Saviem T chevaux original renes with bag & instuctions PAS ATLAS,.Corgi 336 James Bond Toyota 2000 GT w figs & Missiles original ,.Morgan Aero 8 GT3 (2007) Resin Model Car S0373,.Schuco 09868 - 3er Set Schuco Espresso Tassen Nr.1 - Neu,.Minichamps PM437081307 ASTON MARTIN N.7 H N RING 2008 1 43,.Audi 200 Quattro №18 Jagermeister Rally Baden-Wurttemberg 1987 1 43 NEO 45251,. The parties 1 43 Premium Classixxs MB LP 608 Aral Pritsche mit Aufsetztank 12509,.
Porsche 956 B Long Tail N7 Winner 24 H LM 1984 S0998 Spark 1 43 new in a box ,.BEST MODEL BT9526 FERRARI 308 GTS 1978 WHITE 1 43,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Corgi Toys 492 Volkswagen 1200 Kafer Police Car. 'POLIZEI' very near mint,; 1 24 Special Scale Japanese Cars Collection Vol.56 Mazda RX-8 2003, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
1948 CHRYSLER TOWN AND COUNTRY CREAM 1 18 DIECAST CAR MODEL BY SUNSTAR 6140,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Peterbilt 350 Preston People 1952 IXO 1 43 TTR003 Model,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)NEW HOT WHEELS ULTIMATE GATOR CAR WASH PLAY SET COLOR SHIFTERS CAR,.Ford Shelby Mustang 2012 GT350 Super Snake Weiss gold 1 18 Shelby Collectibles..,.NEW GRIP TECHNICA LOTUS EUROPE DIECAST 1 28 SCALE DIECAST CAR,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,CONRAD - METALLMODELL - MAN STETTER - TRANSPORTBETONMISCHER - 1 50 -(7.BM-162),
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.RACING CHAMPIONS TEXACO HOT ROD SERIES CAR SET NEW IN BOX WITH BONUS gold CAR,.SunStar SS4472 CITROEN XSARA N.8 M.SHOW 2006 1 18 Modellino,.Hot Wheels Honda Lot Of 18 Cars. All Short Cards Type R, Civic EF, & CR-X.,.Mikansue 1 43 Scale Built Model Car Kit 22 - Adler Racing Car White Unboxed,.1 43 1938 Jaguar SS 100 WMS Western Models handmade,. The Scottsdale1 18 Motor City Classics Studebaker golden Hawk project NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCAR,Vintage Danbury Mint 1 24 1931 Ford Model A Deluxe Roadster, 1 24 scale,.LUMYNO 1 43 Nissan Rasheen Type I From japan,. Id.,Kyosho original 1 43 Nissan concept 2020 Vision GT bluee F S,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Porsche 997 GT3 R , 24H Spa 2013 , Sparkmodels,; Opel Rekord P1 Caravan 1958 Coca Cola 1 43 Model MINICHAMPS,Solido 8136 Chevrolet Corvette Coupe Racing 1 18 Diecast Neu,.Spark Triumph TR2 E. Wadswoth 1 43 S4453,. The ScottsdaleVintage - CITROEN SM - 1 43 Auto-Pilen M-339,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Ebro 1 43 TOYOTA 86 RC WHITE finished product,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; PORSCHE 911 TARGA 1957 green MINICHAMPS 1 43,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Tosa Toyota Aristo S300 Minicar 1 64,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, PORSCHE RS 1960 LM 1960 JOLLY MODEL JL756,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Citroen GS X3 (1979) scala 1 18 Norev,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Porsche 991.2 Carrera S (2016) 1 43 Scale Model Car Spark S4936, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, 1969 BALDWIN MOTION CAMARO 454 YELLOW 1 18 ERTL ONLY 2500 HOBBY EDITION SERIES., (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Corgi No 1354 Lotus JPS + Junior Lotus JPS (Little & Large Set Original 1981),; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeNOREV 1 43 VW SCIROCCO R BRAND NEW IN A BOX,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Citroen Ds E-Tense Salon De Geneve 2016 Metallic Dark Green 1 18 Model 181700,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheBest 1 43 1964 Ferrari 250 GTL- Steve McQueen's Personal Car,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Auto World 1 18 1967 Chevrolet Camaro SS Hot Rod Test Car Red AMM1163 Muscle New,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,Humber Super Snipe Estate 1963 Grey Met NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO46330 Model,Citroen C-Elysee N.37 Winner R1 Race Of silverina 2015 Lopez 1 43 Spark S4524 Mo,.DINKY SUPERTOYS 977 SERVICING PLATFORM,.Best Model 9467 PORSCHE 908 4 NURBURGRING 1979 1 43 Modellino,. The HuygheMercedes-Benz 500 SEC Koenig Specials Coupe 1985 1 43 NEO Scale Models 46600,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheAudi 80 GTE 1972 - green black - 1 18 KK-Scale NEW,.
PORSCHE 911 997 Gemballa Avalanche GTR 600 EVO red red 1 500 lim Spark RAR 1 43,.Simba Toys 9251661 Fireman Sam Wallaby Helicopter Playset,.
Porsche 911 RSR 2.8 , 24H Daytona 1973 , Minichamps,.Schuco 450894500 VW Käfer Jolly,. Nonetheless, on the facts of NEW RAI'S 1 43 TOYOTA ALLION A20 ZRT260 2008 IGH Kyoto Police Car H7430813,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeAudi 100 Coupe S 1969-75 - Minichamps 1 43 in Box 34330,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 430 820027 - F1 Ferrari 126 C2 1982,.
For example, in Partridge,EBBRO 44322 1 43 Honda CR-Z Gangure From japan,. In Jorgensen, supra,Antiguo 1 43 Pilen M-276 AMC Javelin 390 SST de Starsky & Hutch. Made in Spain.,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Lesney Matchbox Honda Motorcycle Racing with Red Fairing RARE UB 60mm Toy,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Spark 1 43 Tyrrell 021 Yamaha GP 1993 Miyazawa Japan new.,. That is the same situation in this case.Ferrari 375 MM H Pescara 1953 Villoresi Marzotto 1 43 Model 0081,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Ferrari 340 Mexico 1952 Red 1 43 Art Model ART037,. Detroit Edison, supra.
GMC Vandura Van A-Team Bj.1983 - Oldtimer Scheunenfund Diorama im Maßstab 1 43,.Minichamps 1 43 scale diecast - 430 131044 MGB 1968 Basilica bluee,.Fiat 519 Ambulanza Croce Rossa Italiana 1932 1 43 RIO 4563,.
Bentley Continental GT (2011) Diecast Model Car 436139981,.