Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals WOW EXTREMELY RARE Audi 100 C1 1.9L I4 Saloon 1969 Polizei Ingol 1 43 Minichamps,.Solido 169 Chaparral 2F cream with made in France 1 43 scale NM-Mint,.MODELLINO ASTON MARTIN DBRS9 TEAM BMS SCUDERIA ITALIA FIA GT3 RACE SPA 2006 IN M,.Herpa 006790 Ensemble Série Spéciale 3 X Véhicules Allemand Post 2002,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.RENAULT 12 GORDINI 1971 blue DE FRANCE NOREV 1 18 NEUVE EN BOITE,.Starter Kit Assembled 1 43 - Porsche 959 redhmans Rally Paris Dakar 1988 No.186,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Minichamps 1 43 Scale 410 130078 - Lotus F1 Team R.Grosjean Showcar 2013,.Model Resin Kit Mini Racing Renault 4 GTL Monte Carlo '91 on 1 43 in Box,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.True Scale 1 43 Alfa Brabham BT46 Monaco GP John Watson 144303,.Spark Models 1 43 Scale S1329 - 1968 Abarth 2000 Sport Spider - Red,.Diecast Car Model Citroen C3-XR 1 18 (White) + GIFT , Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
MINICHAMPS MASERATI MISTRAL 1963 NEU OVP 1 43,.Gama Lotus-Ford Filoguidée 1 18,.UNKNOW MANUFACTURER (BARINI) 1 43 SCALE RESIN MODEL FIAT 500 ABARTH PININFARINA,.Mattel 1 43 1961 Ferrari 156 F1 Hill Italian GP,.
Brooklyn Models Vintage 1 43 Scale -1957 Mercury Turnpike Cruiser BRK,.TSM 1 43 Scale TSM134331 - 2012 McLaren MP4-12C GT3 Total 24hrs Of Spa,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 437 019130 - 1935 Audi Front 225 Roadster - bluee,.Hot Wheels 14 Copo Camaro ZAMAC Raw 15 Car Lot Walmart Exclusive HTF,.Porsche 356A 1500 GS Carrera GT Baujahr 1957 hellblue 1 18 SunStar,.
SPARK MODEL S5663 KTM X-BOW GT 2016 PURPLE 1 43,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.MOTEUR V8 CHEVROLET BLOWN HOT ROD 1 6,.Maserati Quattroporte IV Neo Scale Models 45171 Neu in OVP 1 43,.Sw1501, Wiking Demag Mobilkran 1 87 Spur H0 680-5 60er Jahre,Spark Toyota TS030 Hybrid 2012 1 43 Lapierre Nakajima Wurz 24h Le Mans,.Noddy In Toyland Corgi Die Cast Models Bundle Joblot collectibles,.
Kyosho Mini-Z 1 27 Ferrari 360GTC Body Only Auto Scale Coll Yellow Unused,.Ford Falcon XB GS V8 Ute 1 32 Scale Aussie Classic Diecast Model Hobby Gift Car,.Ferrari 330 Gts 1967 Brown Met BEST 1 43 BE9733 Model,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
Mercedes-Benz 300 SL 1986 red Inca red 1 18 Norev 183467 NEU,.
RENAULT CLIO 16V 16S 1 18 NOREV (TUNGSTENE GREY),. We agree in part.
Ferrari 400 Superamerica 1962 Red 1 18 Model KK SCALE,.Morgan Plus 4 Coupe 1965 Red NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO46131,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.EFE 1 76 - 'A' 5X SET OF RT RTL BUSES LONDON TRANSPORT ETC,.Matchbox a - Ford Thames Estate Car - No Windows GPW - A A,.1 43 F1 FERRARI WITH DRIVER SF-71H SEBASTIAN VETTEL SF71-H 2018 ,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; PEUGEOT 504 CABRIOLET 1970 1 18 NOREV (orange),.1 18 Mercedes M 2005 1 18 • Minichamps 150034501,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Wonderful modelcar LAND ROVER LIGHTWEIGHT RHD 1982 - darkgreen white - ltd.ed.,; Corgi CC13225 DAF XF Super Space Cab Curtainside Chamberlain Transport Ltd,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
1976 Chevrolet Monza No.14 Champion Imsa Al Holbertr in 1 43 von Spark,.Rio 4305 ITALA 1907 RED 1 43,LLEDO DAVO AUTO (VAN No.3) with CERTIFICATE - Livery Chevrolet Box Van.,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.CORGI TOYS AUSTIN MINI VAN PATROL SERVICE 1 43,.
Lancia Stratos Predotype HF Torino Motor Show - White (Premium X 1 43 PR0181),.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.AUTO WORLD 1 18 1974 DODGE MONACO MASSACHUSETTS STATE POLICE DIECAST CAR AMM1023,.Daihatsu Mira Walk Through Van 1990 White SPARK 1 43 SJ042 Model,.Norev Volkswagen Polo R WRC 2013 1 18 Ogier Ingrassia 1st Rallye d'Alsace,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Best Model BT9001 FERRARI 275 GTB 4 COUPE' 1966 RED 1 43 Modellino,; Triumph Vitesse Mk2 1969 Red NEO45688 1 43,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, 1 43 Scale 1999 BMW V12 LMR Minichamps - Dealer,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
CC 1 43 DINKY TOYS 545 DESOTO DE SOTO 59 DIPLOMAT SALMON VN MINT CONDITION,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
BURAGO 1 18 3026 JAGUAR E CABRIOLET 1961 YELLOW,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
Maisto 1 18 Scale - 1969 Dodge Charger R T Lime Green Diecast Model Car,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
LANCIA DELTA SAN REMO 1991 auriol vitesse 1 43,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.1 43 Spark - S5951 Ford Fiesta WRC Monte Carlo 2018 S. Ogier,.Danbury Mint 1 24 scale 1966 Ford Mustang Congreenible Car w box,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Rio 4341 MERCEDES BENZ 300 D CABRIO 1958 1 43 Modellino,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Schuco Piccolo Circus Krone Set of 2 Mercedes 0-3500 Buses 2002,.
1 43 ELIGOR FORD 1932 LION black MIROR,.RENAULT F1 RS18 version de lancement 1 18,.CORGI TOYS AUSTIN MINI VAN PATROL SERVICE 1 43,.SMALL DAMAGE Model DieCast 1 18 DODGE CHARGER bluee CHRISTINE King AUTOWORLD,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Renault 12 TS 1973 orange 1 18 - 185211 NOREV,.
NOREV - 1 18 - MERCEDES-BENZ 280 CE C123 - 1977 - 183586,.1 18 Otto Renault Super 5 Bacara brownmetallic,.AD467 NOREV 1 43 RENAULT FUEGO TURBO DES AUTOS A COLLECTIONNER MINIATURES,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, SPARK MATRA MS10 nd GP Italia 1968 Johnny Servoz-Gavin S5381 1 43,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Subaru Official Collection 1 43 Impreza Wrc2002,.Dinky 1 43 Scale DY028 B - 1969 Triumph Stag Green,.Deagostini Le Grandi Ferrari Collection No.46 With 1 24 488 SPIDER F S,.Matchbox Series 73b Ferrari F1 by Lesney with original box 1963 rare,.Lexus RC F - lava orange crystal shine 1 43 Kyosho 03653P,.
EAGLE RACE 1 18 3815 1940 FORD COUPE HIGHWAY PATROL CAR GREY, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Venturi 400 GT (1994) Resin Model Car S2246,.Best Model BT9246 FERRARI 250 LM N.7 DNS 9 H KIALAMI 1966 HAILWOOD-ANDERSON 1 43,. The PartridgeEBBRO 1 20 KIT IN PLASTICA AUTO TEAM LOTUS TYPE 91 1982 BRITISH GP ART 012 5800,.Verem 1 43 Scale Model Car 6303 - 1958 Aston Martin DB4 James Bond gold,.DINKY TOYS TRIUMPH HERALD N° 189,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Mercedes C-Klasse DTM 2011 G. Paffet 1 18 Norev neu & OVP 183584, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Spark Team Lotus 24 Trevor Taylor 1 43 S4272,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Norev 187570 1 18 PORSCHE 911 (997 II) GT3 RS SPORTS CUP 2011 RING POLICE J,.Bugatti 41 Royale Weymann 1929 Rio 1 43 Rio4227 Model Diecast,Partridge1 43 Mercedes-Benz E-320 Elegance HERPA USED see photos,.Audi TT 8J Cabrio black 2. Generation 2006-2014 1 18 Minichamps Modell Auto ..,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Corgi Toys 271 James Bond Aston Martin 007 made in Great Britain 1 36 scale NMIB, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Atlas Editore 1 43 Traccia 0 Mercedes Benz Trasportatore L 319 D Pschorr-Bräu Di,; Lexus IS XE3 350 F-Sport Limousine Starlight black 3. Generation Ab 2013 1 4..,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Western Models 1 43 Scale - 1938 Mercedes Benz Type 540K Special Roadster - Red, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Dinky Toys 30b Rolls Royce, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeGAZ 47 GT-S All-terrain khaki 1954 SSM 3003 1 43,.
Minichamps 1 43 Lincoln Continental Hardtop Coupe 1956 L.bluee 400082304,.NOREV - 1 18 - CITROEN DS 21 BREAK - 1970 - 181592, Clarke's negligent act.Nex 1 18 Scale 19869W 1955 Oldsmobile Super 88 Cabrio Two Tone Diecast model car,.2x Chevrolet Chevy Camaro, 1969 und 2006, Jada Big Time Nexgen Muscle, OVP, 1 24,.Lot 5300 Wiking MAN 415 Kühlsattelzug, greyblue abasaltgrey, 1967-1969,.
1963 Studebaker Avanti black 1 18 Signature Models 18101,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, F1 LOTUS Ford Cosworth 72 C 72C 1970 gold Leaf Rindt Deutschlan Quartzo 1 18,Citroen 2Cv Dolly 1985 White Grey NOREV 1 18 NV181494,. In Noska,OLD CARS Corriera Autobus IVECO 1 43 MIB Fiat,.BMW M4 F82-BMW TEAM MTEK BRUNO SPENGLER DTM 2016 410162407 Minichamps 1 43 New,.Mercedes Benz S-Class Amg S65 (V222) 2016 Grey Met SPARK 1 43 S4916 Miniature,.Krone Big X580 Forage Harvester - Die-Cast Vehicle - Siku 4066, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Spark 1 43 Scale Resin S0685 - Audi R10 TDI Audi Sport Team Joest th LM 2008,.Dacia Duster Pompier SDIS 28 Eure & Loire ALARME - ALA 0007 - Echelle 1 43,.1 18 Ford Shelby Mustang GT500 1969 black Ertl NEU in OVP Limited,.Ferrari FXX-K F140 V12 yellow 1 18 Bburago 1601,. Id., p 923.
Rio 4304 THOMAS FLYER 1908 1 43 RALLY NEWYORK Modellino,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Spanish No 1 Yamaha Team Yamaha YZR-M1 2006 1 12 Toni Elias,SUN STAR 1 18 MERCEDES BENZ 220 SE - 1958 - RARE SELTEN - GOOD COND IN BOX 3563,.NOREV NV184825 PEUGEOT 504 COUPE' 1969 Apink WHITE 1 18,.Mercedes Benz 500 SL Modellauto Norev VfB Edition red in OVP 1 of 500,.Toy Old 1 43 Chrysler New Yorker No. 47 + Trailer Boat Engine Years 60,.Renault R5 Maxi Turbo Schuco Scale 1 43 white limited edition 500 pcs,.Citroen DS19 1956 1956 Champagne&Aubergine 1 18 181565 Norev,.DUCATI DESMODICI World cycle series 1 6 Germany,. The parties S5157 SPARK 1 43 Ford Fiesta WRC test car for 2017 model cars,.
MODELLINO BENTLEY CONTINENTAL GT WORLD RECORD CAR ON ICE 2007 321 KM H IN METALL,.Mercury italie art 410 Fiat Campagnola Scorta Salmerie jamais joué en boîte 1 43,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Vintage Lego Volkswagen VW Van 1 87 HO scale rare,; 1 18 Model Car Group Lada Niva 1976 green, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
1 18 Autoart Contemporary Saturn SUV Rust,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, AUTOWORLD AW1167 1973 FORD MUSTANG BRAND X HOTROD COVER NHRA FUNNY CA 1 18 RED,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Neo Porsche 911 (930) Turbo USA - metallic-blue - 1979 - 1 43,.Kraz 255V NVA 1 43 Premium ClassiXXs 47039,.7836 John Deere 6250R 1 32 Wiking,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Buddy L JEEP pressed steel Japan bluee white stars and stripes vintage 6 metal,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.1 43 Marklin (Germany) Chaparral 2F,.DINKY TOY BY MECCANO LTD H VOLKSWAGON 1300 DELUXE SEDAN, XLNT TO NEAR MINT,.Reve 1 43 SUZUKI Sport XL7 Hill Climb Special 2007 Pikes Peak JAPAN F S J4206,.CADILLAC ELDORADO IN METAL. TOYS DINKI. 1 43. 131. MADE IN ENGLAND. CIRCA 1950.,.White Metal Brooklin Models, BRK 26 1955 Chevrolet Nomad in 1 43 Scale.,. The ScottsdaleLOT OF 30 SEALED NOS JOHNNY LIGHTNING 1 64 DIECAST MOC VARIOUS SERIES,Hot Wheels Elite Star Wars First Order Tie Fighter Force Awakens Diecast DMT90,.HOT WHEELS 2019 CAR CULTURE TEAM TRANSPORT C CASE SET OF 3 DATSUN NISSAN 1 64,. Id.,Ferrari LAFERRARI 1 24 RED KIT DI MONTAGGIO 24333 Tamiya,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 64 Scale Hot Wheels Car Culture 2018 Team Transport Assortment A (Set of 3),; WOW EXTREMELY RARE Alfa Romeo 147 1.6 TS 2001 Azzurro Nuvola 1 43 Minichamps-164,1963 Lotus Elan 26R Shapecraft Lightwork Racing 1 43 by Spark S0268,.Toyota 2000 GT Coupe red 1967-1970 Triple 9 1 18 PremiumX Modell Auto mit oder..,. The ScottsdaleScale model 1 43 Bugatti Veyron EDITION CENTENAIRE - CHROME blueE 2009,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Lamborghini Aventador J black Autoart 1 43 AA54653,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; NOREV - 1 18 - PORSCHE 911 2,7 RS - 1973 - 187638,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 43 NEO MITSUBISHI Sappgold MkI, 1982,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, CITROEN DS3 DS 3 Rallye WRC Neuville France WM Red Bull Tota 2012 Norev 1 18,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Spark Model S5904 VENTURI S.SARRAZIN 2016 N.4 Rd1 HONG KONG FORMULA E 1 43 Model,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Stahlberg Mercedes-Benz W123 T-Modell 1 20 Brown metallic (JS), (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, FERRARI FXX K yellow Scala 1 18 von BBURAGO, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Porsche Hybrid 919 LMP Team Le Mans 2017 Leon Lotterer Tandy - Spark 1 43,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeMercedes GLK-Klasse , weiss, GTA Edition, 2013 1 18 Welly NEW,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, NOREV - 1 18 - BMW M535I (E28) - 1986 - 183260,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheNorev Norev Renault 5 Supercinq GT Turbo - Alain Oreille 1 18 - 185805 -,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Spark Models 1 43 Scale S2376 - Toyota TS030 Hybrid Toyota Racing LM 2012,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,Nostalgic Car Of Showa 1 43 Toyota Crown 1962 Toyopet,Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale Model Car BRK35A - 1957 Ford Skyliner Conv - Unboxed,.Mazda RX-8  1 24 Die-cast Model Hachette Japanese Cars Collection Vol.56,.Ford FK1000 FK 1000 + NSU MAX 1 43 Schuco 450328700 NEW,. The HuygheBentley Mark Vi Standard Steel Sports Saloon 1952 1 43 Spark S3802 Miniature,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheRENAULT Alpine A110 Rallye Portugal TAP 1973 Darniche ef Scala43 Trofeu 1 43,.
Trofeu TFRRAL65 FORD ESCORT RS2000 N.65 DNF RALLY PORTUGAL 1978 J.M.CUNHA-J.M.DI,.AUTOart 1 43 Lamborghini Gallardo LP570-4 Superleggera White AA54643,.
Hamann Guardian (Yellow Carbon),.BBURAGO 18002 MV RENAULT RED BULL RACING TAG HEUER RB13 1 18 MAX VERSTAPPEN,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Rio 4272 ALFA ROMEO P3 TARGA FLORIO '35 n.22 Modellino,.
Next, it is important to clarify that Partridge MINICHAMPS FORD CAPRI RS 2600 RS2600 1972-73 WHITE MINT BOXED,.Porsche 911 991 Targa 4S 2017 bluee SPARK 1 43 S4977 Model,.
For example, in Partridge,SPARK - 1 43 - PORSCHE 916 - S7615,. In Jorgensen, supra,Minichamps Pauls Modell Art 439350028 MB L3500 Pritschenwagen Schenker OVP,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Auto Replicas kit Renault Record 1 43 (JO),. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,CSM Collector's Model 1 76 Scale V103A - Leyland Victory II Bus - Hong Kong R38,. That is the same situation in this case.1 18 Norev Renault Clio Williams Ph I bluee blue Nr. 185230 in OVP,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Q CORGI TOYS 335 JAGUAR E-TYPE E TYPE 2+2 METALLIC blueE NEAR MINT CONDITION,. Detroit Edison, supra.
Minichamps BMW M1 Procar Limited 1 43 80420309422,.1961 CITROEN DS 19 CABRIOLET PEARL GREY 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY NOREV 181598,.Ixo model SF02 FERRARI M.SCHUMACHER N.3 2000 1 43,.
Mercedes Sl Class 2008 Yellow Minichamps 1 43 436037530 Model,.