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Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Mini Gt Gt Gt Nissan Gtr R35 Lb Works Zero Fighter Hong Kong Limited 0e3f79
Rare Brooklin BRK 88 1931 Studebaker President Congreenible Roadster 1 43 Scale.,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Hot Wheels Ice T Collectors Quality condition,.Renault SuperCinq GT Turbo PH II Alain Oreille 1 18 Norev,.Cadillac Series 62 Berline 1950 bluee Spark S2923 resin 1 43,.New 1 43 Racing43 Car Model Ferrari F430 Challenge N14 EL059,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.MINICHAMPS 1 43 DELAGE-ERA 1927,.Tonka Army Jeep GR2-2431 1964 Mound Minn Jeep Press Steel 9 3 4 Long,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Premium Classixx PREM13353 VW LT28 BRANDWEER 1 43 Modellino,.Bitesu Vitesse 1 43 Fiat 124 Abarth Monte Carlo 1973 New F S,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Bburago BU76103 FERRARI CALIFORNIA T N.14 THE HOT ROD 70th ANNIVERSARY 1 18 Mode,.TOLEMAN HART 1984 SCALE RACING CAR KIT 1 43,.CORGI gold James Bond Aston Martin DB5 goldfinger 50th Anniversary 04204, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

RIO 4160 ALFA ROMEO Giulietta Polizia,.Peugeot 403 Cabriolet, red, 1 18 - WELLY,.1997 Porsche 911 (993) Coupe Mint Green 27801 Ut Models 1 18,.SCALEX FERRARI 4.5 RACING CAR,.

Norev 1 18 BMW M 535i Metallic bluee Diecast Model Car bluee 183267,.Lot of 11 Vintage Lesney & Lesney Matchbox Series Cars,.Minichamps VW T1 Tuborg 1 43 OVP,.Spark 1 43 Scale Resin SG252 - SCG 003c - H Nurburgring 2016,. Siku Farmer Gift Set Deutz Fahr Agrostar 6.61 3751 Ovp 1 3 2 (8.si-2),.

Ligier JS P2 Nissan OAK Racing , 24H LeMans 2015 , Spark models,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Corgi 1 50 Scale CC20305 - Garrett 4CD Showmans Tractor - Katrina,.1 43 Minichamps F1 Formula 1 Red Bull Racing TAG Heuer RB12 D.Ricciardo 2016,.Greenlight Ford Mustang II Stallion1976 Yellow bla 1 18 12889,1965 Pontiac GTO Capri gold 1 18 Sun Star 1809,.Lancia Beta Berline 1600 2S 1978 bluee Lancia 1 43 Kess Model Ks43019001,.

Rare Gem Magazine 1928 sir Malcolm Campbell blueebird tin toy record car model,.Vintage Lesney Matchbox Lot of 20 Played With Regular Wheels 1960s DieCast,.Norev NV185261 RENAULT 300 kg 1953 PARFUMS REVILLON 1 18 Modellino,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Kess Alfa Romeo 2600 Osi De Luxe in White 1965 KE43000250 Ltd Ed 250 1 43,.

Corgi US51011 M4 A3 Amphibious Sherman Tank US Army, 741st Tank Batt. in 1 50.,. We agree in part.

Neo 1 43 Fiat Abarth 1000 GT Monomille red,.1 43 Ferrari F1 Collection F1-90 Prost,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Revell 1969 Corvette Congreenible 1 18,.Maxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940 081001 - 1974 Ford Escort - Red,.KYOSHO original 1 43 Lexus CT200h F Sport White Nova glass flakes,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Ses Modelltec Robur Ld 3000 Fortschritt Cosechadora Service Medio Bus 1 87 , Rda,.Ferrari 250 Monza Spider Pininfarina Street Version 1954 JOLLY MODEL 1 43 JL6076,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, EMEK 89722 MAN TGS LX Kofferhaengerzug 1 25,; Ferrari 166 MM Barchetta Avvocato Giovanni Agnelli Personal Car 1 43 Model,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Kode 7 Clubman Spider Tokyo Motor Show 2015 White Spark 1 43 SJ039 Model,.1 43 Tartu TA 6 Bus AVD Models 4018AVD Russische Soviet Bausatz Kit Russian OVP,Corgi Horse Transporter . (1976),. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Spark S2541 1 43 Resin Corvette C6 ZR1, 1st LMGTE Pro '11 LeMans, SiriusXM,,.

Dinky Toys 531 Leyland Comet Lorry excellent original complete box,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.1970 Citroen Ds 19 Break Estate Bordeaux 1 18 Norev 181592,.Trofeu 2311 FORD CAPRI 2600RS 7'TOUR AUTO 1971 Modellino,.Austin Healey Sprite 1958 Light bluee 1 43 Spark S0815 Model,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, New Mercedes AMG GT Metallic bluee Exclusive Edition 1 18 Diecast Model Car by M,; Bburago Ferrari 250 LM 1 18 groen (B) (lim edition 1000 pcs),. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Schuco 1 43 BMW M8 Coupe red 450902600,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

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1 76 Hong Kong Model bus 3M Scotch ADL Enviro500MMC - Trasnparent Tape (Red),. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Audi 100 Coupe 1969 Dark Emerald Green 1 43 Minichamps 430019129 NEW,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

DIECAST CAR & DISPLAY CASE 2011 FORD SHELBY GT350 RED W WHITE SHELBY SC352 1 18,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

CMR 1 43 Scale SBC013 - Porsche 956B 200 Meilen Norisring 1984,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Renault Clio Williams 1993 1 18 Norev neu & OVP 185230,.Spark 1 43 Scale S3086 - F1 Infiniti Red Bull Racing RB10 Australian GP 2014,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Dinky toys no. 536 Peugot 404,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Cadillac Fleetwood Series 60 Sedan 1941 bluee Met MCG 1 18 MCG18072 Model,.

Modelcar Group MCG18078, Wartburg 353, hellbrown, 1 18, NEU&OVP,.Mercedes 20-35 Ps 1909 Rio 1 43 RIO4453,.Minichamps Honda NSR 500 2000 1 12 Valentino Rossi (ITA) Test Bike,.Hot Wheels Jaguar Racing R1 2000 1 18 Johnny Herbert (GBR),.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Lot of Altaya IXO 1 43 Fiat Fiorino Correios SEDEX Diecast Models Car Toys 5 pcs,.

Redline Hotwheels Red 1973 Strip Teaser oc9915,.Sun Star 1958 Mercedes Benz 220SE Coupe Metal Red Sun Star Die-Cast 1 18 Scale,.KK-Scale 1 18 Porsche B32 gebaseerd op Volkswagen T3 bus 1984 grijs metallic nie,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Weise Toys MB-trac 1000 'Family' (W441) (1987 - 1991) Tractor,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Dinky 162 Ford Zephyr Saloon In Its Original Box - Vintage Diecast 1950s Model,.Burago 1 24 Scale Diecast Model Car 1518E - Fiat Uno Racing Car - White,.Volkswagen Beetle 1303 1972 Green Metallic 1 18 -188523 NOREV,.REVELL 1 18th SCALE DIE CAST BMW 530 I 4 DR SEDAN CAR RE 8841 BOX SCUFFED,.UT 1 18 BMW Z3 blue metallic RARITÄT,.

Norev 1 18 - Peugeot 404 Cirque Pinder, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.UNIVERSAL-HOBBIES 4852 Fendt 313 Vario 1 32,.SPARK - 1 43 - PORSCHE 911 TARGA 4S - 2017 - S4977,. The PartridgeAction 1 24 NASCAR Dale Earnhardt Jr. D.M.P. 2003,.[FFSMC Productions] Decals 1 8 Alpine A110 1600SC Michèle Mouton, MC '76,.1 18 Minichamps Porsche 959 Coupe white NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, HOT WHEELS PATCH CARD NEET STREETER Free shipping, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.SPARK Dauer 962 Winner Le Mans 1994 Baldi -Dalmas - Haywood 43LM94 1 43,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Danbury Mint - 195 Ford Fairlane Crown Victoria - Never on Display - Box, Papers,.MARK 43 1 43 Mazda Roadster (NB 8 C) RS II (2000) Stripe Decal Classic Red,Partridge1 18 SOLIDO FERRARI 365 GTS,.Burrell scenic Steam engine  - LORD LASCELLES - Limited edition  collectors item,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Spark Models 1 43 Scale Resin S0745 - 2009 Porsche RUF Roadster - Green, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Spark S2184 1 43 LOTUS XI LE MANS 1956 C. ALLISON K. HALL,; 1 18 scale model cars,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, PORSCHE 935 Turbo Experimental Test Testcar RAR Spark 1 43, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Suzuki Sx4 Winner Pikes Peak 2010 Nobubiro Tajima 1 43 Spark S43PP10, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeAlfa Romeo 1750 Torpedo 1930 bluee 1 43 Model RIO,.

PORSCHE 911 993 Carrera RS Clubsport red red CS S4474 spark Resin 1 43,.DINKY TOYS 1 43 AUSTIN HEALEY SPRITE NO= 112 - IN GOOD CONDITION, Clarke's negligent act.Fiat Ritmo Bertone 100S Supercabrio Closed 1985 Red Kess Model 1 43 KS43010041 M,.Schuco 450883100 Ford Mustang 302,.Spark Model SG318 MERCEDES GT3 N.3 23th NURBURGR.2017 MULLER-JAGER-ENGEL-SEYFFH,.

CORGI 1 50 CC12926 SCANIA TOPLINE CURTAINSIDE - MULGREW HAULAGE LTD,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Ferrari FXX-K F140 V12 yellow 1 18 Bburago 1601,Danbury Mint Pewter - approx 1 43 scale - 1935 Jaguar SS1 Saloon,. In Noska,Dodge Cgoldnet Super Bee Wally Both Auto World 1 18 OVP NEU,.What 4 Original Hot Wheels Redline Premium Restoration Red,.IXO - MERCEDES-BENZ L1519 GERMAN FIRE BRIGADE 1 43 SCALE,.RUF CTR 2 SPORT Spark 1 43 S0724, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Batman Motorized Batmobile Vintage 1989 Aoshima 1 43 Japanese Model Kit,.Ixo 1 43 Subaru Vivio Rx-R Monte Carlo 1999 New F S,.International Harvester Fleestar F2000-D Tractor 1963 Neoscale 1 64 NEO64005,.Herpa Mercedes-Benz Actros `08 Bau-Hängerzug - TU3 mit Container - 1 87,. Id., p 923.

Matchbox Lesney Red No. 67 Volkswagen 1600 TL oc16189,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Spark 1 43 Scale S0827 - Volkswagen Touareg Race 2 - nd Dakar 2010,Spark 1 43 - Porsche 911 991 GT3 Cup deep bluee Porsche Design 2012 WAP0201540H,.DINKY TOYS N°25a Vintage (Post War) WAGON (type 2) - VERY GOOD CONDITION,.Ferrari 208 Gtb Turbo 1982 White 1 43 Model BEST MODELS,.SIKU 3736 Articulated Bus 1 50 Diecast Model Toy,.Spark 1 43 Scale Resin Model Car S0031 - Lola B2K 10B-Caterpillar Le Mans 2004,.ALFA ROMEO 1500 TARGA FLORIO 1960 FIORDELISI JOLLY MODEL JL6015,.MODEL CAR GROUP, MCG 18045, ROVER 3500 V8 1974, POLICE CAR 1 18 SCALE,. The parties Renault Sport Set Clio R.S.16 + Megane R.S 2017 1 43 Norev 517598,.

AGV HELMET V.ROSSI MOTOGP MUGELLO 2015 1 8 398150086 MINICHAMPS,.NEW IN BOX Holden Monaro HK GTS 1 32 Diecast Model McPhee Racing Series,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Volkswagen T3 Multivan 1992 bluee Met KK SCALE 1 18 KKDC180141,; Reve 1 43 Lotus 99T 1987 Japanese Gp 6Th No11 S.Nakajima New F S, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Italeri IT3898 IVECO STRALIS YELLOW DEVIL KIT 1 24 Modellino,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, FINEWORK Chgold Q size MAZDA RX-7 FC3S Resin Kit,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Honda Civic Ef3 Si 1987 SPARK 1 43 S5450 Model,.1 18 American Muscle Dodge SuperBee 1969 - OVP (K71),.Ebbro 1 43 Scale Diecast Model Car 134 - Honda Insight - Yellow,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Rio 4192 ALFA ROMEO P3 TIPO B MONTE CARLO 34,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Corgi 1.50 Scania T cab Topline S.C.Transport Winston Darlington Ltd Edition,.Car Model Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution X EVO X RHD BBS Wheels 1 18 (bluee) + GIFT,.Herpa 926621 MAN Hängerzug 500 J. Reinheitsgebot Bayern Edition 2016 1 87,.Topper Johnny Lightning Baja, Purple, Vintage,.Porsche 911 (991) Carrera S Red 1 18 Model 18047R WELLY,. The ScottsdaleNEO NEO45112 1 43 FIAT 1900 B GRAN LUCE COUPE 1957 BEIGE GREEN,EUROBRUN JUDD EG189 OSCAR LARRAURI F1 1989 JAGERMEISTER 1 43 RESIN,.Spark Model Sunbeam Alpine I. Lewis 1 43 S4764,. Id.,Mercedes C Class Dtm 2005 1 43 Model 400053504 MINICHAMPS,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, NOREVTRU015 - UNIC AUTEUIL 1963 Ech 1 43 - 1 43,; Danbury Mint 1931 Ford Model A Deluxe Roadster Congreenible 1 24 Die-Cast Car,Saurer D 330 Swiss Army green Tek Hoby 1 87,.Bedford Van Kodak - Dinky Toys Code 2 John Gay in Box 34434,. The ScottsdaleMaisto 1 18 - Citroen 2CV 1952 Open,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, BMW M3 COUPE 2000 DAKARyellow 1 43 MINICHAMPS 431020021 NEU,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Honda Civic Ef3 Si 1987 SPARK 1 43 S5450 Model,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, HANOMAG KURIER GRUNDING SCHUCO 03252 1 43,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Mebetoys No A27 Ferrari P4 Racing Car - Red (Original 1960's Boxed),; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Minichamps Mercedes-Benz E-Klasse 320 CDI 2006 1 43 Paris-Beijing (JS),; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, 1 43 Bus Setra S14 Beige red 1960's Ixo Models Bus 009, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Ford Country Squire 1960 Red Wood Look, Model Car 1 18 Mcg, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Jada Toys Import Racer Option D Mazda RX-7 FC3S Yellow Drift Diecast 1 64 Scale,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeKTB-4 trolleybus white ,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Spark Model Volkswagen Polo R WRC 1 43 VW712396 1 43 1 43,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheAUDI R8 V10 PLUS 2016 série 2 cpé 1 18 MAISTO 36213 voiture miniature collection,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.1999 BMW Z8 Dealer Special 43 Topaz bluee Red Interior Minichamps,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Nostalgic Car Of Showa 1 43 Toyota Crown 1962 Toyopet,Hot Wheels, CHEVY MONZA 2+2 , France, 1983, vintage, vhtf, RARE,.1999 NISSAN SKYLINE GT-R (R34) FALKEN TIRES 1 18 DIECAST CAR GREENLIGHT 19050,.Mercedes-Benz Geber 004 542 54 17 Made in Germany,. The HuygheFIAT 131 Abarth Rallye San Martino Castrozza 1977 EM Röhrl Olio Trofeu 1 43,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheGreenlight 1 43 Scale 86434 - Steve McQueen 1957 Jaguar XKSS - Green,.

Redline Hotwheels Magenta 1969 Turbofire oc17775,.RIO 4114 CITROEN DS 19 (General De Gaulle 1960) SCALA 1 43 ORIGINAL BOX,.

Mercedes-Benz amg gla 45 (White) 2016,.1 18 AUDI A4 Avant 2007 MINICHAMPS,. Nonetheless, on the facts of VW POLO R WRC 6R 6C GTI OGIER - INGRASSIA RACE CAR 1 43 SPARK (DEALER MODEL),.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgePorsche 911 2.7 Carrera RS Touring 1973 yellow blacke Schrift 1 18 Norev 187638,.DINKY TOYS ASTON MARTIN VOITURE DE COURSE N° 22   SIÈGE ET ROUES redS BEL ÉTAT,.

For example, in Partridge,Volkswagen VW Beetle 1967 Right Hand Drive Lotus White 1 18 Model 13510,. In Jorgensen, supra,ISUZU VehiCROSS 1997 4x4 bluee Hi Story 1 43 HS059BL,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Aoshima Bunka Kyozai 1 24 Super Car Series No.22 Pagar two Uaira Plastic,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Johnny Lightning Commemorative bluee Chrome 8 Car Set 2 Rare(BH011),. That is the same situation in this case.DINKY Meccano England 1954 BEDFORD CA VAN 'OVALTINE & Ovaltine Biscuits',. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Renault Dauphine 1958 NOREV 1 18 NV185169 Miniature,. Detroit Edison, supra.

AVONCAST 1 43 SCALE WHITE METAL AC19 GILBERT & BARKER NATIONAL BENZOLE PUMP,.SHELBY COLLECTIBLES - 1 18 - FORD MUSTANG SHELBY GT 350 HERTZ - SHELBY360,.Vintage - ALFA ROMEO GIULIA Super 1300 - 1 43 Mebetoys A-3,.

1 18 Norev Porsche 911 Turbo 3.3 Coupe green 1977 NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.