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Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
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NEO BMW M535i (E12) metallic 1 43 49540,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Coffret Renault F1 Team Megane rs Norev 1 43,.Spark 1 43 Scale Resin S2565 - Audi R10 TDI Kolies LM 2010,.Honda Civic Si 1987 SPARK 1 43 S5451,.Die Cast Model 1 24 F60 AMERICA 2014 Ferrari Collection No.42 New from JP,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.AutoCult 07006 1951 NSU Kompressor Weltrekordwagen 1 43 Resine günstig,.Tekno 70722 Scania R-Series next Generation 6x2 1 50 New Boxed,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Hot Wheels REDLINE 1969 Shelby Turbine 1 64 Diecast w Button Rare WOW,.NEO NEO46385 1 43 BMW 502 CONgreenIBLE AUTENRIETH 1956 BROWN,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Brumm Mercedes-Benz W196 1954 1 43 Juan Manuel Fangio 2.000 (JS),.Renault Alpine A110-50 blue 1 18 Norev neu + OVP 185147,.ERTL 1 64 SCALE JOHN DEERE AIR SEEDER PLAYSET BN 45555, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Bburago B18-16901r 1 18 Scale the Laferrari From Bburago Die-cast Model - Car,.1 50 Corgi General Motors 4502 Pacific Electric Bus USA 98601,.Ertl MB2 Motorsports Pontiac Nascar 1998 1 18 Ernie Irvan (MCC),.Art Model AM0258 FERRARI TRC 500 N.50 WINNER S.BARBARA 1962 K.MILES 1 43 Modelli,.

Motormax 1 48 Scale Diecast Aeroplane 76336 - P-51 Mustang,.SPARK 1 43 S3420 PORSCHE 997 GT3 RSR TEAM FELBERMAYR PredON LM 2011,.Revell Volkswagen T1 Samba Bus Model Kit, 1 16 Scale 27.2 cm,.Citroen Ds 19 Cabriolet 1961 (Chapron) Pearl Grey 1 18 Model NOREV,.CATERHAM SEVEN 275R green 1 18 Design 1,.

1963 FORD GALAXIE 500 XL (GREDER FOULGOC) 1963 TOUR FRANCE SUNSTAR 1473 1 18,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Alfa Romeo 115 Giulia Nuova 1600S Ochre 1970 1 43 Minichamps,.Trofeu TF0718 TOYOTA CELICA ST205 3rd BOUCLES DE SPA 1996 VERREYDT-JAMAR NO LIGH,.Porsche Macan 2013 red metallic 1 of 504 1 43 Minichamps neu & OVP 410062600,CITROEN GT Concept Car 1 18,.1 43 Ixo Jaguar Xkr-S,.

1 18 Road Signature - 1958 Pontiac Bonneville Red White - Rarity ,.CORGI TOYS 236 Austin A.60 Motor School Car. Right hand drive version near mint,.1 43 Minichamps Porsche 997 Alzen Turbo H&R 24h 2008 NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Maisto,Dub City,Jada,Benz S55,Impala,Police,Tow,,TX,Chevy,1 24 Diecast Lot of 8,.

1 18 Sealed WELLY PREMIUM COLLECTIBLE 1969 FORD MUSTANG Metal bluee 1 18 DIECAST,. We agree in part.

Neo BMW 2002 (E10) Pneuhage, Obermoser - DRM - 1970 - 1 43,.LOTUS 72D AUSTRIAN GRAND PRIX WINNER 1972 FITTIPALDI 1 18 QUARTZO,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Ferrari 275 Gts Pininfarina Spider 1964 Light bluee Met KK SCALE 1 18 KKDC180243,.HOT WHEELS 1 18 ELITE FERRARI 250GT CALIFORNIA SWB LM 1969 DIE-CAST WHITE T6931,.Volkswagen Beetle Baja Bug 1970 Yellow White NeoScale 1 43 NEO45896 Miniature,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; MATCHBOX BATTLE KINGS K-109 M 551 SHERIDAN TANK LESNEY VINTAGE 1976 UNPUNCHED,.Tobar 1 18 Scale F50 Model Car,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Smart ForTwo Cabrio A453 blue mit silver Ab 2015 1 18 Norev Modell Auto mit od..,; Build The Delorean Issues 102-108 New & Sealed,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Mercedes-Benz C-Klasse Cabriolet (A205) diamant white 1 18 iScale,.PEUGEOT 504 break MAVIC Tour de France cycliste 1977 1 43 velo,Mercedes L911 Postbrauerei 1 43 Model PREMIUM CLASSIXXS,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.EFE Leyland Titan Predotype bus London Transport rte 024 Victora ref 28825 BNIB,.

MINICHAMPS 3x BMW 507 CONgreenIBLE - 1957 RED 1 43 - RARE SELTEN - EXCELLENT,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Chevrolet Impala Coupe 1959 bluee White 1 43 Spark S2902 Model,.Hamann Guardian Yellow Carbon 2011 1 43 Neo Scale Neo45695 Model,.Wiking Mercedes 1620 Röhrensattelzug,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Club Bialbero 008EDL ALFA ROMEO GIULIETTA SPRINT 1 43,; Bentley Embricos 1938 bluee Minichamps 1 43 436139821,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, 1963 Pontiac Lemans GREEN 1 18 Highway 61 50145,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

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Alfa Romeo 6C 1750 G.S. (bluee) 1930,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

DODGE CHARGER WHITE POLICE CAR 1 24,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

EBRRO 1 43 Nissan Skyline GT hardtop KGC10 (43960) finished product,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Corgi 1 50 scale CC20304 Garrett 4CD Showmans Tractor Pride of the south,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Bentley R Type Continental 1955 Green Minichamps 1 43 436139424 Model,.RARE SCHUCO VW T1 VAN OBLETTER SPIELWAREN 1825 PROMO 1 43 NEW BOXED 1 OF 500 RED,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.New Jada Toys Dub City Heat 2006 Dodge Magnum R T Police Car Die Cast Metal,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.1 24 Action Matt DiBenedetto Cosmo Motors 2016 Toyota Camry 1 of 613,.

Dinky 715 Bristol 173 Helicopter. Very Near-MINT & Boxed. Original 1950's,.SPARK LOTUS 72F German GP 1975 John Watson S7129 1 43,.Minichamps 1 18 BMW 635 CSI GP Brno 1984 Brancatelli Kelleners nieuw in doos,.Lote 3 Camiones Pegaso, 1231T Campsa, Mofletes Forestal y 1060 Campofrío (1 43),.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG GT3 no. 30 24h Nürnburgring 2011,.

Wiking 81-51 Wiking Favoriten PMS W686,.Lesney Matchbox 1971 MB4B RED GRUESOME TWOSOME Cream Interior C9.5 NuMINT Boxed,.INTINITY FX50 VERSION 2 2010 PEARL 1 43 Neoscale NEO44541,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Matchbox Series Lesney Jumbo Crane Kran 11 Vintage Old,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Ziegler Z8 Alarm Airport Leipzig 1 87 Herpa 090766 Model,.Matrix VW Rometsch Lawrence Coupe 1959 1 43 MX42105-012,.Modelers 1 43 Initial D Iwase Kyoko Fd3S Rx-7 Finished Goods New,.Norev Porsche 911 Carrera RSR Mid-Ohio 1977 1 18 187427 8,. 43 PORSCHE 911 SPEEDSTER - 1988 - GREY P430066135,.

Fujimi 1 43 Resin 2012 Ferrari F12berlinetta Coupe, Modena Yellow FJM1343013, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.TRUE SCALE MINIATURES 1971 ROLLS ROYCE CORNICHE CONgreenIBLE 1 43rd. SCALE. MIB.,.Vintage Hornby Dublo Lansing Bagnall Tractor and 2 Trailers VGC,. The PartridgeDINKY TOYS 255 MINI CLUBMAN - POLICE - RARE SELTEN - GOOD COND. IN BOX,.1958 CHEVROLET IMPALA ERTL AMERICAN MUSCLE 1 18 NEW MINT,.Wiking Valtra T174 mit Frontlader - 1 32,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Schuco 07712 - Fendt 313 Vario mit Frontlader green white 1 32 NEU, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Rio RI4590 LAMBORGHINI MIURA P400S 1969 gold 1 43 Modellino,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.DINKY 416 FORD TRANSIT MOTORWAY VAN MINT ORIGINAL ON PLINTH WITH DAMAGED COVER,.VW Bus T3 Porsche B32 1984 - grey met. - 1 18 KK-Scale NEW,PartridgeBburago 16901 Ferrari LAFERRARI 2013 1 18 NEU mit OVP,.Citroen GT perlmutt, Salon de Paris 2008, Modellauto 1 18 Norev,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, PORSCHE RS 1960 LM 1960 JOLLY MODEL JL756, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 1 50 Corgi Bernard Type 110 Fourgon Danone 72001,; HOT WHEELS ELITE V7437 1989 89 FERRARI 348 TB 1 18 DIECAST YELLOW,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Maisto 1 18 2007 LAMBORGHINI Murcielago LP640 orange Display Miniature Car, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Trofeu 1 43 Scale 1008 - Ford Escort Mk2 1st RAC Rally 1979, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeMEBETOYS A-20 LAMBORGHINI MIURA P400 (Year 1969) SCALE 1 43 MC41629,.

VOITURE DE RALLYE MINI COOPER S - 1965 - T. MAKINEN 1 18 + LIVRET EN BOITE,.Citroen 2CV 6 Club 1979 Mimosa Yellow 1 18 Norev, Clarke's negligent act.2003 Dodge Viper WHITE 1 18 Ertl American Muscle 33496,.PEUGEOT 504 Pumper Nic (1982) silverINA diecast 1 43 car NEW CONDITION,.SHELBY Cobra Daytona Ford Coupe Harper Sutcliffe 1965 Le Mans Scud. CMR 1 18,.

NEO MODELS Mercedes-Benz 280 CE Boss H. Bohne 1 43 46670 1 43 1 43,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Herpa Actros 10300 Willi Betz Nooteboom Teletrailer Werbemodell,Brand Item No. 116 Ferrari 612 Scagleetti 2004 1 43 Scale Car,. In Noska,LIMOUSINE JOUSTRA GRANDE TOLE ANCIEN JOUET BON ETAT TIN TOY CAR GOOD CONDITION,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Opel Kadett C Caravan 1974 Lime Green 1 43 Minichamps-Rekord,.NEO VOLKSWAGEN KARMANN GHIA TC silverINA 1970 - blueE 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 38 37,.ROAD LEGENDS 1959 CHEVROLET-impala 1 18th SCALE. MIB, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Honda CBR 1000 RR Fireblade 2007 1 12 Roberto Rolfo,.WEISE-TOYS 1042 Schlüter Super 1250 V (1968-1973) 1 32,.Burago 1 24 Scale Diecast - 24APRH Ferrari Testarossa Race Car White,.Herpa 926621 MAN Hängerzug 500 J. Reinheitsgebot Bayern Edition 2016 1 87,. Id., p 923.

Minichamps Pauls Modell Art 439350028 MB L3500 Pritschenwagen Schenker OVP,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Scarce Factory 408067 The Beatles Routemaster A Hard Days Night 2009 1 64 sca,HERPA FERRARI TESTAROSSA TRAILER- DUTCH PROMO - RED 1 87 VERY RARE - GOOD IN BOX,.CORGI JAMES BOND THE DEFINITIVE BOND COLLECTION X 5 DIFFERENT CARS,.Hi-Story HS136RE 1 43 MAZDA CX-5 2015 Soul Red Premium Metallic,.Siku 8612 Man with Low Loader Militärtransporter with Tank 1 50 New Boxed,.HO 1 87 Promotex Kenworth T-800 tri-axle Dump w dump trailer train,.Lotus 24 Winner BARC 200 Aintree 1962 Jim Clark Spark S2137 1 43,.NOREV187585 - Voiture de courses PORSCHE 917 K n°43 des 1000KM de Spa Francorcha,. The parties 2000 chevy impala taxi cab yellow 1 18 maisto special edition,.

TROF 43 Scale Diecast Model - 624 SUBARU IMPREZA WRX HUMBERSIDE POLICE GB,.Best Model BT9288 FERRARI 275 GTB N.53 14th 1000 KM MONZA 1967 VESTEY-GASPAR 1 4,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, OPEL KADETT C SEDAN in bluee 1 18 scale model by KK Scale Models,; Bentley Continental Supersport 2009 Top Gear with The 1 43 MINICHAMPS 519431390, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Old Fire Brigade Model Car Sheet Metal Car 40 cm Oldtimer Fire Engine,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 1 43 McLaren MP4-20 2005 GP Winner Kimi VMM1376 Spark Raikkonen,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Citroen Survolt Le Mans Classic 2010 modelcar Provence Moulage 1 43,.Schuco Set Goggomobil (03475) - 1 43,.Bmw 2000 Cs Coupe 2-Door 1965 Red KK SCALE 1 18 KKDC180122 Model,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Wiking 773 41 Pöttinger Corn Thresher Novacat V10 077341 NEW 1 3 2 Boxed,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.400166100 MINICHAMPS 1 43 SCALE TOYOTA CgoldLLA 2 DOOR 2001 blueE METALLIC,.Dinky a - Wagon - Stone (Type 3) - B NB,.Vintage Racer Toy Car,.Rio 4343 FIAT 128 4 P TRENTO BONDONE 69 1 43,.Norev Jet Car Serie P Matra Simca 670B Courte vintage 1 43 scale France MIB,. The ScottsdaleHi-Story HS146RE 1 43 Nissan SUNNY 1500 SUPER SALOON (1987) Super Red,Ebbro 43 Porsche 610, Winner 1967 ADAC Nurburgring 1000 Km P 17,.AMIE AM43008 Car 1 43 Returned Ultraman Matt Bi Behavior Stabilizer Completion,. Id.,Coffret Alpine A110 Pure & Legende 2018 Limited.500 Pcs 1 43 Model 517864 NOREV,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, FIAT VIOTTI 600 COUPE 1959 BEIGE - green 1 43 MATRIX 30602-082 N,; Norev 187663 Porsche 911 930 Turbo 3.3 Targa 1987 blue metallic 1 18 Modellauto,CITROEN 2CV POMPIERS DE COGOLIN ELYSEE 545 1 43,.Bizarre Models BZ297, Ford GT40 Le Mans Boxed,. The ScottsdaleDIECAST CAR & DISPLAY CASE 1977 DODGE MONACO HUNTER HUNTERLIGHT 19045 1 18,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, 3 x MINICHAMPS PAUL’S ART MODELS - BUGATTI EB MERCEDES BENZ 300s BENTLEY R 1954,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; CHR TOYOTA Storefront Display Items bluee Metallic Not sold in stores Model Car,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 43 SRC10K 1961 FERRARI 156 120 KIT BY SMTS,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, PORSCHE 911 991 GT3 R GT Masters Champion Herberth 2018 Renauer Spark 1 43,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, + REEL ALFA ROMEO GIULIETTA DESPHARAONS AFRICA TOURS RALLY TAN MINT BOXED,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Spark Model S5312 GORDINI T32 A.PILETTE 1956 N.4 6th MONACO GP 1 43 Modellino, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Volkswagen 1303 1972 Green metallic NOREV - NO 188523 - Echelle 1 18, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, RC2 Foose 1 20 Scale Diecast 48036 - Ford Mustang - Green,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeSPARK 1 43 S1125 AVS SHADOW PRESENTATION orange,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Diecast Car Model Benteng Besturn B70 Sport RS 1 18 (White) + GIFT ,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheJAGUAR XJ 220 TWR 1993 GREEN 1 43 SPARK SP0769,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.GAMA MINI 973 - Porsche 911 - 1 42 - 500 Mile Race Decal - NEU in OVP -Model Car,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,CORGI 1 50 COLLECTION HERITAGE 74103 CITROEN TYPE 55 FOURGON CHAMBOURCY,1 18 ERTL Authentics AUTOWORLD 2004 CHEVY CORVETTE INDY OFFICAL PACE CAR,.FORD MODEL T 1 18th by FRANKLIN MINT , unboxed from Deceased Estate.,.1 43 1965 Ford Galaxie 500 New York City Police Department Patrol Car,. The HuygheToyota IQ 2009 Pearl 1 43 Model 44696 EBBRO,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuyghePolistil Porsche 911 Carrera Waldegard Rallye Martini 1 24 S.22 Metallmodell,.

1989 Lancia Delta HF Integrale 16V Red 1 18 Triple-9 1800171,.Spark 1 43 Audi S6 plus Avant 1996 S4884,.

VTG Lancia Alitalia Toy Car Electric 23 Universal Associated Co 1978,.Vintage 1978 Corgi Land Rover and Animal Trailer No. 30 Circus Jean Richard,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Simca 1000 LS 1974 darkred 1 18 Norev,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeRIO RI4549 FIAT 238 TETTO ALTO ASSISTENZA PIRELLI LANCIA 1 43,.TEKNO HOLLAND 950 MERCEDES O302 SWISS PTT - YELLOW 1 50 - VERY GOOD IN BOX,.

For example, in Partridge,UT models 1 18 BMW Z3 roadster rossa red boxed,. In Jorgensen, supra,Citroen CX TGE Break Ambulanz Italien 1 43 Kess Modellauto 11010,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.F1 RED BULL Aston Martin RB14 Tag Heuer 2018 Verstappen Esso Minichamps 1 43,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Mecedes 300sl Roadster Toy By Hubley,. That is the same situation in this case.1956 LINCOLN CONTINENTAL MARK 2 blueE 1 18 DIECAST MODEL BY ROAD SIGNATURE 20078,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Opel Kadett D Caravan 1979 ADAC 1 43 Model 400044190 MINICHAMPS,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Williams Ford Fw08 Keke Rosberg World Champion 1982 MINICHAMPS 1 43 436820106 Mo,.Spark - 1 43 - Mercedes SLS AMG GT3 , City Of Dreams Macau GT CUP 2013,.Porsche 911 997 GTR3 RS green modelcar 18015 Welly 1 18,.

AUDI R8 V10 PLUS WHITE EXCLUSIVE EDITION 1 18 DIECAST MODEL BY MAISTO 38135,.