Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals 1 18 ERTL 1970 FORD MUSTANG MACH 1 SHINING STARS SPECIAL EDITION OF 5000,.BUGATTI EB110 COLLECTION M. SCHUMACHER yellow MINICHAMPS 1 43,.Corgi 31001 - British Road Services Collection - Shap Fell Set - MIB,.1 18 Lamborghini Aventador LP700-4 Welly 18041 Diecast Model Army Green,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.Ferrari 312 P Coupe Monza 1969 Prova Best 1 43 Be9370 Modellino Auto Diecast,.Vintage Hot Wheels Ferrari 312P Redline bluee Hong Kong Base,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Ertl 'International Cab Over Tractor & Plantation Thgoldughbreds Horse Trailer',.Bastian 51494 Kibri 10494-1 LIEBHERR LTM 1800 mit Wippspitze Bausatz 1 87,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Minichamps 1 43 Jonathan Palmer Renault RS17 Formula 1 Australia 2017 417170030,.Diecast Car Model Citroen C3-XR 1 18 (White) + GIFT ,.Spark Citroën C3 WRC Tour de Corse 2018 S. Loeb 1 43 S5969, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
Porsche 911 SC Rally Monte-Carlo 1982 - 1 18 - IXO Models,.DAF XF 105 SSC SZ MAI Logistik KANN 1 87 H0 Baustoff Sattelzug PC Herpa 121521,.Mercedes 300 Limousine 1955 grey 1 18 Norev neu & OVP 183578,.NEO MODELS Saab 95 GL Brown 1 43 43767,.
PORSCHE 911 CARRERA RS TOURING 1973 1 18 NOREV (YELLOW),.MA07.18 20 DINKY TOYS FRANCE 528 PEUGEOT 404 CABRIOLET BL 43,.Rietze 67752 MAN LION S CITY DL 07 1 87,.1 87 Herpa MAN TGX XLX Melmer Starkenberger Bier A Silo-SZ 121743,.MATCHBOX Yesteryears 10 Different Lot 3 from Deceased Estate FREE POSTAGE,.
ALFA ROMEO 75 TAXI PK e ALFA ROMEO 33 TAXI ARS 1 43 metallo,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.1 18 1965 Pontiac GTO (Montero Red) Sun Star 1808,.Zetor 25A Tractor red - Mechanical Tin Toy,.BURAGO 1 18 - COD. 3021 PORSCHE 356B COUPE 1961 - RED,FORD MUSTANG MACH 1 1971, SUNSTAR 1 18,.Spark Model SA112 PORSCHE 911 GT3 N.911 4th MACAU GT WORLD CUP 2016 E.BAMBER 1 4,.
MODELLINO VOLKSWAGEN RACE TOUAREG ESSEN MOTORSHOW 2005 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.DANBURY MINT 1931 MERCEDES-BENZ SSKL DIECAST RARE 1 24 SCALE MIB,.Spark Model Mercedes Benz CLA 45 AMG Shooting Brake 2015 1 43 S4980,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
Cartoon art signed by Artist Paul Hernandez 1993 One of a kind,.
MINICHAMPS Audi 60 Variant im Maßstab 1 43 - OVP,. We agree in part.
Porsche 997 GT3 Cup 24H Nurgburgring 2013 , spark models,.1 18 DIECAST 1947 CADILLAC SERIES 62 CABRIOLET TOP UP IN OLIVE GREEN BY ANSON.,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.MATCHBOX LESNEY C HONDA MOTORCYCLE & TRAILER, YELLOW TRAILER, BOXED TYPE E,.DIECAST CAR & CASE 2008 FIAT 500 WROOM VERSION KIMI NOREV RACING 187733 1 18,.Vintage Radon (Russian USSR CCCP) 1 43 Red Moskvitch 434.With Original Box.,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; 1969 chevy CAMARO baldwin Motion 1 18 american MUSCLE ERTL WHITE,.Porsche 356 B Cabrio 1960 red 1 of 504 1 43 Minichamps neu & OVP 400064331,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, 1 18 ERTL AMERICAN MUSCLE MILLENNIUM 1967 FORD MUSTANG GT,; 1969 SHELBY GT-500 ERTLRC AMERICAN MUSCLE, blueE WITH gold STRIPING,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
Matchbox Moko No 63 is the Army Commer ambulance VNMB,.Bmw 3-Series Alpina B6 3.5S 1986 bluee Met Spark 1 43 S2805 Miniature,Dinky Toys 191 Dodge Royal Sedan Meccano made in England EXC+ Condition,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Norev 187574 Porsche 911Turbo 3,3L silver 1 18,.
Norev NV518549 Scale 1 43 Renault 1000Kgs 1955 Die-Cast Model,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.1 64 Peterbilt 351 w 40' Trailer, Ringsby System, in Fallen Flag Series,.SHELBY DAYTONA COUPE LEMANS 1965 1 43 KYOSHO 03051F,.War Master 1 72 FAMO AND 88MM FLAK GUN,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Rarissimo cofanetto minichamps Jordan set 1999-2000 nuova in box da collezione,; Starter Kit to assemble 1 43 - Porsche 962 Wynn's IMSA 1986,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Spark S2541 1 43 Resin Corvette C6 ZR1, 1st LMGTE Pro '11 LeMans, SiriusXM,,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
Matchbox Superfast No 22 Saab 9000 Turbo blueE MIB Rare,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Lamborghini Murcielago Lp640 Yellow Museum Minichamps 1 43 436103920 Modellino,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
1981 Renault R5 Turbo 1 Metallic bluee 1 18 IXO Models 18CMC005,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
Mercedes W116 350SEL Temperatursensor Fühler 0008350979,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.BARLUX 73055 FIAT CAMPAGNOLA POMPIERI VIGLI DEL FUOCO - FIRE BRIGADE 1 25 - NMIB,.1 43 KIT ASSISTENZA RALLY UFF SUBARU 555 VAN ASSISTENCE RALLY - MERCEDES 507D,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Minichamps 1 43 Porsche 911 GT3 CUP Challenge Sebring 2006 (B3-207),. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Action 1 24 NASCAR Dale Earnhardt Jr. Budweiser 1999,.
1 18 Sun Star Lotus Elise Gt1,.Hot Wheels Redline Double Vision Dark Green Enamel. 1973 - Near Mint ,.Herpa 306232 MB Arocs Container-LKW mit TU3 und Gabelstapler Scholpp ,.NOREV 1 18 Renault 12 Gordini 1971 bluee Art. 185210,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Built bbr mercedes 1 43,.
1 18 Meritorian Tunisan 1971 240Z Simulation Alloy Modified Car Model Ornaments,.Brekina Post Serie 17 Mercedes L 322 con Weber-Behältern Deutsche Bundespost,Dbp,.Burago 1 18 Ferrari 456 GT (1992) green -3036- Die-Cast Scale Modell Auto NEU OVP,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Permot Espewe, DDR Modell,Skoda Pritschen -LKW, m. greyen Rädern, rar (Schub48),; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.JOLLY MODEL - ALFA ROMEO 1150 CONRERO LE MANS 1960 N°40 LEONIBUS - CONSTEN 1 43,.NEO MITSUBISHI Sappgold Coupe bluee Metallic 1 43 43441,.Star Wars Episode VIII Force Link Class B Vehicles with Figures 2017 Wave 1 Asso,.NEO NEO46385 1 43 BMW 502 CONgreenIBLE AUTENRIETH 1956 BROWN,.1 18 Minichamps Williams FW20 J.Villeneuve 1998 NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.
TSM 430146 - Jaguar F-Type Coupe Baujahr 2014 in white - black 1 43 Neuheit, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.MATCHBOX SUPERKINGS K-43 MERCEDES BENZ HOLZTRANSPORTER OVP 1979,.RARE MINICHAMPS 1 43 1983 NELSON PIQUET BMW BRABHAM BT52 WORLD CHAMPION CAR,. The PartridgeDINKY TOYS N°549 Borgward Isabella - PROCHE DU NEUF NEAR MINT CONDITION,.MODELLINO MERCEDES BENZ C CLASS TEST CAR TEAM AMG OCHERSLABEN DTM 2007 IN METALL,.McLaren M6 , Pole¨Position Fuji 1968 , Spark models,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Lotus Elan SE Roadster 1966 Royal bluee 1 18 Model 4055 SUN STAR, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.1956 LINCOLN CONTINENTAL MARK 2 blueE 1 18 DIECAST MODEL BY ROAD SIGNATURE 20078,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.BMW M6 cabriolet brown 1 18 E64M,.Opel Corsa Spider Irmscher I 120 1985 Red 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,PartridgeMercedes Sls Amg E-Cell 2010 Yellow 1 43 Spark S1058 Model,.Premium Classixxs 13350 VW LT28 BUS YELLOW 1 43 Modellino,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, CITROEN C3 blue, C3 PLURIEL orange & C2 black NOREV 1 43, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Best Model BT9343 FERRARI 275 GTB SPYDER 1968 STEVE MC QUEEN blueE 1 43 Modellino,; Norev 41 Simca Marly Ambulance 1 43 red with leaflat difficult to find,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Danbury Mint 1940 Ford Deluxe Coupe 1 24 scale diecast model, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 635D Vintage Politoys M 518 Rolls Royce Coupé 1 43, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeSAUBER SHS C6 Le Mans 1993 FATurbo Bassaler Bourdais Capett Resin Spark 1 43,.
Spark 1 43 Scale US020 - Mazda Predotype 6H Of Watkins Glen 2016,.PARAGON - 1 18 - BMW X4 - 2015 - 97091, Clarke's negligent act.1 18 Jeep Wrangler Sahara (Champaigne) Burago 18-12014,.1 43 Toyota Sports 800 1965,.Spark Model Porsche 93678 H. Pescarolo 1 43 S4432,.
Norev Porsche 911 GT3 RS 2010 - blue + rede Beschriftung 1 18 limitiert 1 1000,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Eso-5094 IMU 1 87 Mercedes LKW Spedition sehr guter Zustand,Führerhaus red,SPARK S5096 Citroën C-Elysée WTCC n°68 Winner R2 Race of Japan 2016 Muller 1 43,. In Noska,Mattel V7428 FERRARI 250 GT LUSSO blueE 1 43,.1971 Valiant Charger R T E49 1 32 Scale Aussie Classic Diecast Model Hobby Car,.Ferrari 512 Bb 1976 Giorgio Armani bluee 1 43 Model BEST MODELS,.1974 Rover 3500 V8 red-black 1 18 MC Group 18044, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Joal JL40071 MINI RUSPA KOMATSU SK 1026 1 25 Modellino,.Premium Classixxs 13300 VW LT28 BOX VAN GREEN 1 43 Modellino,.NOREV 181623 Citroën GS 1971 - Erable Beige1 18,.Herpa 121897 DAF XF SSC Kühlsattelzug Eisinger HO 1 87 NEU,. Id., p 923.
HPI Racing 8091 Alfa Romeo 155V6 TI ITC Suzuka N. Larini 1996 43,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, WESTERN MODELS 1 43 WP 113 FERRARI TESTAROSSA RED,Nissan 1971 DATSUN 240Z 1 18 Maisto Diecast Allory Force Control Car Vehicle Mod,.1 43 Minichamps Ferrari F 310B M. 1997 Schumacher Collection,.1953 Porsche 550 Carrera Panamericana IV Diecast Model,.Spark 1 43 Venturi N.71 Le Mans 1993 S2254,.Lamborghini Miura P400S Bertone 50Th Anniversary 1968 Green RIO 1 43 RIO4584,.MODELLINO PORSCHE 911 GT3 R. WESTBROOK PORSCHE SUPERCUP 2006 IN METALLO MINICHAM,.Art Model AM0332 FERRARI 500 MONDIAL N.535 RETIRED MILLE MIGLIA 1956 G.CASAredTO,. The parties SUN STAR 1 18 SCALE. 1951 KAISER HENRY J. in GREEN . (stunning looking),.
Mercedes-Benz 770 Pullman - Limousine 1938 Rio4085 1 43 Model Diecast,.1 18 Norev VOLKSWAGEN VW Escarabajo Beetle 1303 1972 - RED 188520 cochesaescala,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, MODELLINO PORSCHE 911 GT3 CUP N. D. O’YOUNG CARRERA CUP ASIA MACAU 2007 IN METAL,; POLITOYS M LAMBORGHINI MIURA BERTONE P.400 N.552, BOX ONLY, VERY RARE, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
OLDCARS OLD CARS IVECO TURBOSTAR FORMULA 1 FERRARI F1 MINT BOXED RARE SELTEN ,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Skoda 110R Coupe yellow 1972 NEO44485 1 43,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Gaz 66 SSM 1 43,.BUGATTI VEYRON 16.4 GRAND SPORT VITESSE - 1 18 RASTAR,.Rio 4192 ALFA ROMEO P3 TIPO B MONTE CARLO 34,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Siku Super 3726 00100 DÜWAG MGT6D Straßenbahn DISCO TRAM VIVEZ EN MUSIQUE ,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.UNIVERSAL-HOBBIES 2747 Claas Jaguar 60SF; 1 32,.K&R REPLICAS SAMS - MORRIS 10 CWT VAN - DOVER TRANSPORT MUSEUM SOCIETY,.Unbranded 1 43 Scale Model Car UB7618 - Jowett Javelin - Deep Red,.FIAT PANDA 45 POLIZIA R395 BRUMM+ GIULETTA POLIZIA PROGETTO K 271 MAI USATE ,.JOLLY MODEL JL0780 - STANGUELLINI SPORT BIALBERO LE MANS 1956 N°53 Duval 1 43,. The ScottsdaleMETAL KIT (built) EAGLE T2G 1966 No 10 - DARK blueE F1 1 43 - NICE CONDITION,Spark Model S5091 PORSCHE 934 N.61 DNF LM 1978 G.CHASSEUIL-J.C.LEFEVRE-M.MIGNOT,.SIKU 4913 Battle Tank 1 50 Diecast Model Toy,. Id.,MINICHAMPS 1 43 SCALE AMERICAN HOT ROD TOY FAIR 2004 LIMITED G30-060,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Schuco 1 43 Wiesmann MF5, brown 450888300,; Rio RI4536 ALFA ROMEO GIULIETTA N.249 36th M.CARLO 1963 J.NIELSEN-H.HENRIKSEN 1 ,Best Model BT9028-2V JAGUAR E TYPE SPYDER ENGLISH VERSION 1962 GREEN 1 43 Modell,.WESTERN MODELS 1 43 WMS29 1931 BUGATTI ROYALE TYPE 41 ESDERS ROADSTER Box,. The ScottsdaleHOT WHEELS 1 18 - 29441 FERRARI 550 BARCHETTA PININFARINA - RED,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Sunstar 1126 London Cab Taxi TX1 1998 Targa Red 1 18 OVP,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Mercedes 11-40 1924 White 1 43 Model RIO,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Ferrari 340Mm Touring Spider Street Version 1953 Red JOLLY MODEL 1 43 JL6071 Mod,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, MAJORETTE KOOL KROMES FERRARI F40 (F.40) 1 64 DIECAST (LOOSE) gold CHROME,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, World Cup 32023 Deutz 11 Ps Tractor 1 3 2 New Boxed,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Ford Escort MkI TC Anderson Davenpo S. Remo 1968 1 43 Model 400688116, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, CORGI TOYS BEDFORD HORSE TRANSPORTER NEWMARKET STABLES 2 HORSES NICE CONDITION, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, McLaren MP4 6 Japan GP, 2nd Place, A. Senna 1 43 Scale by TSM,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeLimousine Nissan Skyline 2000 GT 1972 white DISM 1 43,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Trax TRS9 25th Ann Set Ford Falcon XR GT Road Car & 1967 Gallaher 500 Race Car,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheFord Capri Mk. III 2,8 Injection 1982 Crystal Green Metallic 1 18 Norev,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.VINTAGE FRENCH DINKY TOYS MECCANO.F MERCEDES UNIMOG W CANOPY EXCELLENT,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,1930 MATCHBOX MODELS OF YESTERYEAR FORD A VAN BALLANTINES YWG01 M,Citroen DS3 WRC Vainqueur Rallye du Portugal 2011 - 1 18 - Norev,.New 2015 Ford Mustang GT Dark bluee Exclusive Edition 1 18 Diecast Model Car by,.Matchbox Ford A 1930 Y-22,. The Huyghe1 43 Spark - S5952 Ford Fiesta WRC Monte Carlo 2018 E. Evans,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in Huyghe1 50 Char Blinde AMX-30T France Vehicle diecast model Solido 209 1 1965,.
Herpa Motor Sport (Germany) White Man Porsche Renntransporter Plastic 1 87 NIB,.CORGI TOYS ASTON MARTIN DB5 JAMES BOND goldFINGER,.
IXO 1 43 Scale Metal Model LMC007 - Jaguar XJ-R9 V12 Le Mans 1988,.BMW 530i touring E34 green 1 43 Neo,. Nonetheless, on the facts of MINICHAMPS Maserati 5000 GT Allemano MC-437123322,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeCAMION SIMCA CARGO FOURGON ISOTHERME ET REMORQUE PINDER EX72917 CORGI 1 50,.Ebbro 44588 TOYOTA ST010 CASIO 1992 No.33 1 43 scale,.
For example, in Partridge,Moto HUSQVARNA CROSS 250 T. Hallman replica 1 12 MX250,. In Jorgensen, supra,1 18 BMW 503 1956 Revell,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Tatra T148 Pritsche Militär (Army),. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,BURAGO CHEETAH TIGER 1188 1 24 DIE-CAST METAL con scatola VINTAGE,. That is the same situation in this case.NOREV Citroën DS 3 Cabrio 2013 black perle - 1 18ème,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Vintage 1968 Hot Wheels Super-Charger Sprint Set,. Detroit Edison, supra.
DCP 1 64 SCALE 389 PETERBILT DAY CAB RED (LONG FRAME) YELLOW ENGINE,.Porsche 911 Turbo Cabriolet Anno di Costruzione 1987 Avorio 1 18 Norev,.Scale model 1 43 Lancia Kappa Coupe, metallic-light bluee, 1997,.
Norev NV185260 RENAULT BREAK JUVAQUATRE 300 kg 1951 IVORY 1 18 Modellino,.