PANASONIC TOYOTA TF103 2003 2003 2003 FORMEL 1 F1 PANIS 1 18 MINICHAMPS 100030020 RARE 07565d

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
PANASONIC TOYOTA TF103 2003 2003 2003 FORMEL 1 F1 PANIS 1 18 MINICHAMPS 100030020 RARE 07565d
Jada 1 24 Scale 98338 - Fast & Furious Dom's Mazda RX-7 - Red,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals ELYSEE 532 PEUGEOT 402 ECLIPSE 1936 - WHITE 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 45 40,.KK-Scale KKDC180111 VW Beetle Cabrio Hebmueller, 1949, red creme,.Maxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940 023701 - 1960 BMW 700 LS - Red,.EBBRO 1 43 PORSCHE 911 997 SUPERGT 2014 GT300 Die Cast Model,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.HOT WHEELS DHG08 ELITE STAR WARS THE FORCE AWAKENS POE DAMERON'S X WING FIGHTER,.YY Siku 3112 Autotransporter 1 55 PKW Transporter NEU mit OVP YY,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.HOTWHEELS - 1 64 diecast - 50TH ANNIVERSARY 6 cars set + L E CHASE gold Camaro,.CORGI TOYS 492 VW VOLKSWAGEN BEETLE KAFER POLITIE DUTCH POLICE EXCELLENT RARE ,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.1 87 Herpa Scania CS 20 HD KüKo SZ Heide Logistik Lionheart 121903,.(W)Matchbox Lesney FORD PREFECT - 30,.Dinky Toys 417 Ford Transit Motorway Services Van made in England NMIB, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

2018 HOT WHEELS 50th ANNIVERSARY FAVORITES COMPLETE SET OF 10,.MASERATI MC12 GT1 Matteuzzi Perazzini RACING BOX GT ITALIA 2005 300p BBR 1 43,.DINKY TOYS 223 McLaren M8A Can Am mit original Box mint boxed,.CHEVROLET Corvette C1 Congreenible Neo scale models 1 43 NEO45745,.

TROF 43 Scale Diecast Model - 507 FORD ESCORT MEXICO 1971 WHITE,.Britains Skip Lorry 9603 Boxed 1 32 Scale,.Red Bull Event Car F-22 Raptor Land Rover Defender 130 1 43 Bizarre 1058 NEU,.1 64 DCP Massey-Furguson - Kenworth T880 Sleeper Cab with Fontain Renegade Lowbo,.1 18 Laudoracing Models Lancia Delta 1600 HF Turbo 1986 White,.

METTOY WALKIE-TALKIE MILITARY ELECTRONIC - GREEN - EXCELLENT CONDITION - IN BOX,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Citroen Ds19 Cabriolet 1961 Pearl Grey NOREV 1 18 NV181598 Model,.CORGI CC13771 1 50 SCANIA R HIGHLINE BULK TIPPER O'DONOVAN (WASTE DISPOSAL) LTD,.1 18 SAIC Volkswagen 2017 Skoda Octavia Combi Green Dealer Edition,Ferrari 275 GTB 4 NART Spyder 1967 dunkelblue Speichenräder KK Scale 1 18,.1970's Tonka Mini Winnebago Camper, Nice with Original Box,.


I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

CITROEN DS3 CABRIO black 1 43,.

1999 Racing Champions Mac Tools Mark Martin Vaoline--1 24th scale,. We agree in part.

Spark 1 43 Lola F1 LC87 Monaco Gp 1987 P. Alliot Art.S4819,.Vintage Ohio Art Yellow Firebird PEDAL CAR Trans Am Ohioart RARE Pontiac,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.1970 70 CUDA PLUM CRAZY PURPLE Hemi w Shaker American Muscle ERTL 1 18,.1 43 SRC29K 1966 F1 COOPER MASERATI T81 PRIVATEERS KIT BY SMTS,.Corgi 1 76 Scale Diecast - OM46619B New Routemaster GoAhead London 88 Camden,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Maisto Fifty5’s 1972 Datsun 510 TEAL & orange VERY RARE ,.Minichamps Product No. 37 Opel Kadett A,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, CORGI 314 FERRARI 'BERLINETTA ' 250 LE MANS,; 2018 Hot Wheels 18th Nationals Convention Bingo ‘40 Ford coupe Set of 3,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Dinky-toys coffret et son camion N°521 tout d'origine 60 70 ( NO COPIE ),.Rare neo 1 43 lagonda 3-litre 1955 limited 300 pcs,Vintage tin toy Japan Car Police Highway Patrol MERCEDES,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Scale model 1 18 Ferrari 458 Italia Challenge,.

Schuco 7242 MB CLC KLASSE COUPE blueE 1 43,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.The Franklin Mint 1957 Chevrolet Corvette Fuelie Fiberglas in 1 24 scale in box,.HOT WHEELS 1 43 Scale Diecast X5517 FERRARI F1-89 N.MANSELL HUNGARY GP 1989,.1 18 ERTL AMERICAN MUSCLE 2003 CHEVROLET CORVETTE COUPE RED WITH TOP Q2,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Polistil Jeep CJ5 golden Eagle 1 25 Scale Diecast Collectible Vintage Rare Car,; Britains DISPATCH RIDER ON MOTORCYCLE - 9698 mint boxed,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, 1 24 Action 1995 SAMMY SWINDELL Hooters Sprint car 1 of 2,712,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

PANASONIC TOYOTA TF103 2003 2003 2003 FORMEL 1 F1 PANIS 1 18 MINICHAMPS 100030020 RARE 07565dPANASONIC TOYOTA TF103 2003 2003 2003 FORMEL 1 F1 PANIS 1 18 MINICHAMPS 100030020 RARE 07565dPANASONIC TOYOTA TF103 2003 2003 2003 FORMEL 1 F1 PANIS 1 18 MINICHAMPS 100030020 RARE 07565d

Subaru Impreza WRX 1995 - 1 18 - IXO Models,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

PORSCHE 911 991 GT3 Carrera 2017 Coupe red red orange lava Minichamps 1 43,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Franklin Mint 1 24 Scale diecast 03AUG6 1938 Jaguar SS100 Cream,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

DIECAST CAR & DISPLAY CASE 1966 SHELBY GT 350R W & SHELBY SC363 1 18,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.IXO - MERCEDES-BENZ L1519 GERMAN FIRE BRIGADE 1 43 SCALE,.Corgi Chevrolet Impala - Pink - C C,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.LOT DE 3 ANCIENNE VOITURE MINIATURE JOUET NOREV AU 1 43éme RENAULT 8 10 ET 16,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.HOT WHEELS 1 18 - 29441 FERRARI 550 BARCHETTA PININFARINA - RED,.

UNIVERSAL-HOBBIES 2985 Ferguson 40 Einführungsmodel (1955) 1 16,.Piumini TRAMPIO SKYLINE No.22 1990 (Yellow) Japan Import,.1 43 Minichamps Iso Grifo 7 litri 1968 yellow 436 128220,.SPARK MERCEDES BENZ CLS 6.3 AMG - blueE METALLIC 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 39,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.PEUGEOT 404 COUPE 1967 1 18 NOREV (Apink WHITE),.

1 43 Schuco Hanomag L28 Goggomobil-Service +Goggomobil 45 029 3800,.Dinky COOPER BRISTOL RACING CAR - 233 rare red hubs,.Norev 183567 Mercedes-Benz 300 CE Cabriolet 1990 - Bornite metallic,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, CORGI TOYS BEDFORD TRACTOR UNIT W MILK TANKER ORIGINAL,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.TA056 DINKY TOYS FR MECCANO 1 43 SIMCA 1100 GL 1967 70 Ref 1407 BEL ETAT,.MATCHBOX.BEST SET OF BRITISH, 6 OF THE 12 NEVER OPENED SEALED FROM 2007.,.1969 Holden Monaro HT GTS 350 1 32 Scale Aussie Classic Diecast Model Car,.Ferrari 625 LM Le Mans 195 - 1 43 - Art Model,.PORSCHE 911 Carrera 3.0 RSR JLP 1977 John Paul jr. Davis Leasing Spark 1 43,.

1 18 Norev Peugeot 208 Gti 2013 perlweiss 184824, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Neo 43375 AUDI COUPE GT RED 1 43 Modellino,.Frontiart SophiArt Koenigsegg Regera Green color 1 43 Diecast Model,. The PartridgeMARX Wind up Tin Litho Tractor Hill Climber - USA,.201850TH ANNIVERSARY COMPLETE SETOF 5CHASE REDLINEHOT WHEELSRAREBP-BLISTER,.BO718-1x Wiking H0 1 87 Sattelzug Iveco Sixt+Drbinger Spedition etc,sehr gut,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, American Muscle 1957 Chevy BelAir Flag USA Serialized Facing Right SEALED, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.TW Collection 1 43 Scale Built White Metal Kit 58 - Lancia D50 G.P. 1955,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Citroen Ds 19 Cabriolet 1961 (Chapron) Pearl Grey 1 18 Model 181598 NOREV,.Corgi 70301 Pinder - Jean Richard - Berliet TLR Semi Transport Chevaux - MIB.,PartridgeHot Wheels Red Line Club Exclusive Christmas Holiday Texas Drive 'Em,.PEUGEOT 504 COUPE 1969 1 18 NOREV (MIMOSA WHITE),.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Old toy Ets Villet wooden toy on wheels, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Schuco Piccolo 3er-Set 2001 VW-Bus ro DKW Tr. gr Mercedes V170 bl (65052),; Audi S5 COUPE 1 43 Misano Red Manufacturer Jadi 5011615431 Limited to 1000,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, 1 18 Norev Porsche 911 turbo Cabriolet 1987 elfenbein 187661, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Brooklin 1 43 - Ford Sedan Delivery Van O'neill Ford Service, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeSCALEXTRIC SLOT.IT SICA02C PORSCHE 956C LE MANS 1986 FOLLMER-MORTON-MILLER N°8,.

CIJ Renault 4CV vintage diecast toy made in France 1 43 scale rare,.Job Lot Vintage Diecast Corgi Matchbox Lesney Tootsietoys Cars Vehicles Bundle, Clarke's negligent act.RICHARD PETTY 1960 PLYMOUTH FURY CHRISTMAS ED 1 24 LTD AUTOWORLD 24003,.Lola B 05 40 Aer Le Mans 2006 1 43 Model S0243 SPARK MODEL,.EBBRO 44267 1 43 Honda From japan,.

Fiat 238 Van Assistenza Corse Scuderie Filipinetti 1970 Red Rio 1 43 RIO4526,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Renault 20 TS Limousine green Metallic 1975-1984 1 18 Norev Modell Auto mit ode..,Mattel 2004 Hot Wheels 1 18 Metal Collection - Batmobile,. In Noska,Ferrari 308 Gts Gilles Villeneuve Personal Car 1978 Red BEST 1 43 BE9717 Model,.Special scale 1 24 domestic great car collection 13 No. 2017 3 7 [magazine] JP,.Ford Escort Rs Cosworth 1992 Car Miniature 1 43 Collection Solido 4303700,.Smart Forfour bluee 1 18 Kyosho, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Minichamps McLaren MP4-12C 2011 orange 1 43 530133020,.Mercedes GP Petronas W04 , 1e podium Malaysian GP 2014 , Minichamps,.1966 BMW 2000 TI Typ 120 Policia 1 18 MC Group 18042,.Renault Alpine A110 Set Pure & Legende (2018) 1 43 Norev 517864,. Id., p 923.

1 64 Peterbilt 351 w 40' Trailer, By First Gear West Coast Fast Freight 60-0491,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Jada 1 24 Scale Radio Control Car 2.4GHz RC 97602 - Brian's Toyota Supra,NEO Borgward RS 1500 43 46250,.Spark Lotus 109 Alessandro Zanardi 1 43 S1671,.1973 Porsche 911 Carrera RS Model Car 1 43 Scale by Spark,.UT MODELS 962600 BMW 320i SUPERTOURING - 1st SPA 1996 - 1 18 - VERY GOOD IN BOX,.Hotwheels Diecast l 1 18 550 Maranello Ferrari IN FERRARI RED NEW OVP,.Williams FW08C Last Race Carlos Reutemann GP Brasil 1982 1 43 Unique,.MATCHBOX Superfast Rola-matics 35 - Fandango - white bluee 6 Decal - in OVP Box,. The parties Hot Wheels 2012 Ed El Segundo Education Foundation Super Rare,.

NISSAN SKYLINE GTR 45eme ANNIVERSAIRE R35 1 43,.1 18 paragon bmw m4,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, 1950 Bristol 400, 1 43 Lansdowne Model,; Revell 1 18 Scale - 08419 Wartburg 311 Coupe Red - Diecast model car, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]


Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, MINI GT R35 LB WORKS,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Lot of 24 Vintage Yatming Cars in Matchbox Collector Case -AMAZING SHAPE FOR AGE,.Minichamps 410170077 1 43 MERCEDES AMG PETRONAS FORMULA ONE TEAM F1 W08 EQ POWER,.Code 3 Classics 1 64 Scale Model Pierce Engine 12768 Dearborn Heights Fire Dept,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,MINICHAMPS FORD CAPRI RS 2600 1972-73 RED 1 43 430 085802,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Scania 111 Tandom Axle Box Van Montgomery CC15301 1-50 New in box ltd edition,.Tekno 70722 Scania R-Series next Generation 6x2 1 50 New Boxed,.Mercedes Benz C-Class C63S Amg 2016 bluee Met SPARK 1 43 S4913 Miniature,.YELLOW FERRARI 360 MODENA BBURAGO 1 18 - MADE IN ITALY, MINT IN BOX,.Fiat Dino Spider - Replicars 103 England 1 43 36514,. The ScottsdaleLOTUS 72C JOCHEN RINDT 1970 DUTCH GP WINNER 1 18 DIECAST MODEL QUARTZO 18274,2013 Ferrari F70 LaFerrari yellow-black 1 43 Hot Wheels Elite BCT85,.TAMIYA DYNAHEAD 1 18 R C OFF-ROAD VEHICLE BODYSHELL & DECALS NEW,. Id.,1 18 OTTO Model RENAULT 21 SUPER TOURISME Turbo 4x4 1989 Red OT560,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Hot Wheels REDLINE TWINMILL 1969 CREAMY PINK ,; PEUGEOT 205 GTI 1.9 PHASE II 1992 1 18 NOREV (MIAMI blueE),Lola AER Intersport Racing n°32 LM 2005 S0033 1 43 Sparkmodel,.Schuco 450292700 MB L1000 CHRISTMAS M 1 43,. The Scottsdale2012 French Dinky Toys Atlas Edition Diecast No. 25B Fourgon Tole Peugeot,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, BMW M6 cabriolet brown 1 18 E64M,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; MERCEDES BENZ L319 PORSCHE RENNDIENST Premium ClassiXXs red 1 43,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, NEO MODELS Opel Ascona B Gr.2 Simon 1 43 45242 1 43 1 43,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, LANCIA Beta Montecarlo Turbo Gr.5 DivII DRM 1980 Heyer Fruit Loom Spark 1 43,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, FERRARI 360 SPIDER Hotwheels Ferrari Red 1 18 Mint BOXED,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, BMW 502 Bestatter - 1 43 - Schuco, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, TEKNO DANEMARK JAGUAR TYPE E CAB - ORIGINAL - JOUET ANCIEN, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Rio RI4414 VW COCCINELLE N.229 52th MONTE CARLO 1952 NATHAN-SCHELLHAAS 1 43 Mode,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeMinichamps 1 43 Porsche 911 targa Türkis 400061260 + Box 108725,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Minichamps Tempo Hanseat 1950-52 Phoenix Reifen (blue) 1 18 ohne Vp. (1),; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheDinky Toys A C Aceca boxed,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Renault Alpine A110 Premiere Edition • 2017 • NEU • Norev • 1 18,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Porsche 911 991 Targa 4S Exclusive Edition grey Ab 2012 1 43 Spark Modell Auto..,ANSON FERRARI DINO 246GT 1 18 NO BOX,.Minichamps 100015020 Audi TT 2006 silverblue,.Mercury Appx 1 43 Scale vintage diecast 307 Mercedes Benz C 111 orange,. The HuygheIdem 1 43 CITROEN 2CV PredOTYPE White Metal Kit Car,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in Huyghe1 18 Premium ClassiXXs UAZ 452 delivery van lightgreen white,.

Kawasaki GPZ400 1983 1 12 ( Aoshima ),.UNIVERSAL-HOBBIES 5234 Deutz-Fahr AgroPrima 4.56 1 32,.

Corgi Juniors Cartoon Caracters Gift Set 3084,.1962 Aston Martin DB4 Congreenible in 1 43 by Spark,. Nonetheless, on the facts of JOLLY MODEL JL0748 - LANCIA APRILIA BARCHETTA ZAGATO red 1939 1 43,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeSchuco 1 43 Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG GT3 Lim. 1 500 Modellauto Geschenk Spielzeug,.NEW HOT WHEELS ULTIMATE GATOR CAR WASH PLAY SET COLOR SHIFTERS CAR,.

For example, in Partridge,Mercedes Benz F500 2003 Spark 1 43 S1015,. In Jorgensen, supra,Spark Model S4842 MC LAREN MP4 1C NIKI LAUDA 1983 N.8 2nd LONG BEACH GP 1 43 Mod,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Kyosho original Lexus CT200h F Sport White Nova Glass Flake 1 43 Scale Free Ship,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Wiking 1 43 043197 LKW MAN TGM Feuerwehr pinknbauer AT LF - NEU OVP,. That is the same situation in this case.Tonka Trencher Mound Minn 1965 Fully Working Toy Pressed Steel 17 1 4 Long,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Corgi 1 50 Scale CC12201 - Scania Curtainside - A.Wishart & Sons Ltd.,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Scale model 1 43 Citroen Bijou, light green, RHD, 1964,.1 16 TONKA POLISTIL FIAT BALILLA SPYDER 1934 DETAILED DIECAST CAR COLLECTIBLE,.Norev Jet Car Serie P Matra Simca 670B Courte vintage 1 43 scale France MIB,.

DUB City Big Time Muscle 1970 Ford Mustang Boss 429 Green FREE SHIPPING,.