Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Scale Ford 1950 Vintage Classic Car Collections Models Red and Coffee Diecast,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals VW Polo Typ 6N 5 portes bluee Schabak 1 43,.OEM Audi 90 Quattro Red Met. 1 43 die cast model by Schabak Modell No.1030 31,.BMW 320 SI WTCC 2006 PRESENTAZIONE 1 43 Spark SP0410,.Matchbox Lesney Y7-1 1918 Leyland 'Jacobs' Van In Type 'A' Box (ISSUE 2),.

The essential facts are not in dispute.WINROSS 1 64 U S A EASTERN TRACTOR AND TRAILER ,.Hot Wheels 1 64 RETRO ENTERTAINMENT 2014 E cAse Homer James Bond BDT77-996E NEW,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.FERRARI 250 GT CALIFORNIA SPIDER cabriolet blue 60th 1 18 HOT WHEELS L2949 voitu,.Best Model 9403 PORSCHE 908 3 WATKINS GLEN '72 1 43 Modellino,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.WOW EXTREMELY RARE BMW E63 650i M6 5.0L V10 40V Coupe 2006 Red m 1 43 Minichamps,.1 12 Honda RC213V Marquez MotoGP 2015 1 12 • Minichamps 122151193,.Modellauto 1 43 AMR Ferrari 365 GT4 BB N.A.R.T 1975, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Spark Peugeot 405 T16 Grand Raid Winner Paris Dakar 1990 1 43 S5624,.LOTUS EVORA S 2011 CARABINIERI 1 43 Spark S2195 Model,.Corgi Juniors Job Lot Of 14 TV - Film Models,.Opel Ascona Voyage 1970 Feuerwehr Coesfeld 1 43 Model 400045890 MINICHAMPS,.

Ebbro 43 Porsche 610, Winner 1967 ADAC Nurburgring 1000 Km P 17,.Mercedes Benz Gt-S Amg 2018 NOREV 1 18 NV183497,.Kode 9 Spyder (Gulf) 2016,.Chevrolet Corvette C1 1953 Canopy Closed Metallic bluee 1 43 Neoscale NEO45746,.Art Model AM0382 FERRARI 250 CALIFORNIA LWB SPIDER AMERICA 1958 RED 1 43 Modelli,.

NEO Chevrolet Camaro Z28 1978 1 43 44129,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.NEO SCALE MODEL 1 43 Porsche 911 Targa USA 1985 Green Art. 43248,.CLASSICO 1 18 - 040026 FERRARI 1958 250 TESTAROSSA & ROAD FUEL PUMP,.GREENLIGHT 1 18 ARTISAN COLLECTION - 1965 FORD XP FALCON (50TH ANNIVERSARY),Art Model AM0172 FERRARI TRC 500 N.96 WINNER 3H SEBRING 1958 CUNNINGHAM 1 43 Mod,.Solido Trans kit BAM 1 43 - Porsche 911 934 Le Mans 1976 No.65,.

DINKY 163 BRISTOL 450 SPORTS COUPE - VERY GOOD in original BOX,.ZAZ 965 S USSR Post 1962 DIP Models resin 196505 1 43,.Tamiya RC spare parts No.1608 SP.1608 1 10RC Toyota Gazoo Racing WRT Yaris,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

1 18 Triple9 Opel Kadett C2 Coupe 2-Doors red 1977 NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.

Lot Of 100 Plus Hot Wheels Dates From All Eras Working & Rolling 100 CAR CASE ,. We agree in part.

Porsche 911 (991II) Gt3 Rs Año Fabricación 2018 black con Dorados,.Neo Dodge Monaco - metallic-green - 1978 - 1 43,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Mercedes Benz E-Class 300Ce 24V Cabriolet 1990 NOREV 1 18 NV183567 Model,.Danbury Mint Die-cast Vehicle - 1949 MERCURY CLUB COUPE,.HOT WHEELS 1989 blueE CARD BLOWN CAMARO Z28 DARK blueE TAMPO WITH PAMPHLET 17,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; JADI BMW 503 Coupe 1956 (blue bluee) 1 18 99% mint all original condition,.Jaguar E-type Roadster 1970 1 43 • 1 43 MATRIX MX11001-042,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, NOREV 10101 CITROEN 15CV gold 60YR LIMITED EDITION - 1 43 GOOD CONDITION IN BOX,; Dinky Dublo No 067 Austin Taxi in excellent condition and near mint box.,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast 3396 Chevrolet Corvette Targa Burgundy Model Car,.OPEL ASCONA B i2000 1980 yellow WEISS 1 43 NEO 43710 NEU,Revell 1 18 Scale diecast - 08426 Audi Avus Quattro Brushed Alloy Finish,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Renault 4L No. 28 the Renault 4 Tilbury 1986+ Specification Passionauto09 ,.

Meri Kit to assemble White Metal 1 43 - Ferrari 640 F1 1989 Airscope,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.RARE Ford Focus WRC 2001 Rally Monte Carlo Auto Art 60112 1 43,.Red Line Kit Monté 1 43 - FERRARI F 550 Maranello- 24 Heures du Mans 2003,.Renault Sport Set Clio R.S.16 + Megane R.S 2017 1 43 Norev 517598,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Fast and the Furious 1995 Mitsubishi Eclipse series 1 by Racing Champions RCERTL,; Bentley Corniche Paulin 6th Le Mans 1949 1.43 Spark,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, PORSCHE 911 CARRERA RS TOURING 1973 1 18 NOREV (YELLOW),; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).


Mercedes LA911 Fensterkoffer Katastrophenschutz 1 43 PremiumclassiXXs neu & OVP,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Carrera Digital 132 - Porsche 911 Carrera S Cabriolet Exklusivmodell, 20030762,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Corgi Toys 224 Bentley Continental Sports Saloon (hell-dunkelgreen) ohne Vp. ,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Dinky No 140b Rover 75 Saloon - Maroon (Original 1950's NEAR MINT),. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Minichamps PKW 1 43 Porsche 991 GT3 Werksabholung yellow,.PORSCHE 917 K - LE MANS 1970 - MAQUETTE 1 24 - HELLER HUMBROL,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Opel Manta B OPACO Anno di Costruzione 1991 yellow Arancione 1 18 Modello Car,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.FIAT GARDINIERA 1960 NOREV 187720 1 18,.

DIECAST CAR & DISPLAY CASE FERRARI RACE AND PLAY LAFERRARI BBURAGO 16001 1 18,.BBburago Lamborghini Countach (1988) no. 3737 1 18 Boxed,.Hape E0381 Hap-E0381 bluee Camper Van Walker,.BMW Z4 GT3, 24H Spa 2014 , Sparkmodels,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Aston Martin Vantage Volante Zagato (Red)1987,.

Spark 1 43 Aston Martin Rapide S No. 100 - 24 Hours of Nurburgring 2013 SG098,.Base Norev Kit Assembled 1 43 - Citroen SM Presidential Chapron Closed,.Maisto Design 1 18 Metallmodell -32611- 1971 Datsun 240Z in red - Neu in OVP,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Premium ClassiXXs 18054 1 43 Zündapp Janus ADAC Limiterte Edition OVP (JS2170),; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Spark 1 43 Lancia Beta Monte Carlo Daytona 1980 Facetti Finotto Ricci,.Spark Model 1 43 Pagani Zonda Cinque Roadster 2009 Art. S2006 rare ,.1 18 Ertl Chevrolet Chevelle Phase III Mr. Motion black 33097,.OM99186 CORGI 50TH ANNIVERSARY BUS SET,.MO Rare predotype RENAULT 19 phase 1 toit ouvrant 3 portes 1 43 Heco modeles,.

AUTO CAR SET MOSC WHITE MINI COOPER ANTONI MADE IN GREECE 70's PLASTIC GREEK VTG, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.McLAREN F1 GTR Le Mans 97 Lark Nakaya PMA 1 43,.RARE MINICHAMPS 1 43 McLAREN MERCEDES MP4-21 Interim Test Car Kimi Räikkönen,. The PartridgeALFA ROMEO GIULIA RED ONS 1973 Minichamps 400120994,.Jaguar Xkr Roadster Green 007 James Bond Die Another Day 1 43 Model MINICHAMPS,.Sunbeam Alpine Tiger MkII 1967 Red 1 43 Model S4063 SPARK MODEL,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Spark 1 43 Scale S4514 - Ford Fiesta WRC th Monte Carlo 2015, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.POLISTIL RJ23 RENAULT 5L - blueE - RARE SELTEN - VERY GOOD CONDITION IN BOX,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Minichamps Lotus Renault 97T Team Lotus 43 540854312,.CORGI TOYS FORD MUSTANG LARGE & LITTLE OVP 1981,Partridge03411 - Schuco Classic 1 43 - Opel Corsa A, porzellanblue Japan Import,.Porsche 911 CARRERA RS Touring 1973 1 18 Norev 187636 White 1963 Urmodell,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Anson 1 18 Scale Diecast - 30342 Renault Megane Congreenible Yellow, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, F2004 Ferrari Rubens Barrichello Hot Wheels 1 18 with box,; Porsche 911 (991 II) GT2 RS Baujahr 2018 indischred 1 43 Spark,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Minichamps 1 43 Scale 436 139001 - Bentley Arnage R - Metallic bluee, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, AUTO WORLD 1 18 1967 FORD MUSTANG SHELBY GT500 AMM993, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeMinichamps 430087091 - Ford Focus Turnier - Ordnungsamt Köln, Maßstab 1 43,.

MC01 MCC Smart Fortwo 42 450 Cabrio BRABUS black 1 18 KYOSHO,.Trolleybus KTB-4 KIEV (1963-1969) Soviet Bus 1 43, Clarke's negligent act.MIRA 4008 Seat 1200 Policia,.Porsche 911 Turbo S Exclusive Edition Spark 1 43 carrerawhitemetallic Ltd.Edition,.55312 AutoArt 1 43 Lotus Esprit TYPE 79 green,.

Matchbox Lesney Ford Zephyr With Original Box,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, RIO 1 43 1923 Fiat 519S Torpedo Open, red,Kess Alfa Romeo Alfa 90 Quadrifoglio Light Grey Metallic 1984 KE43000191 Ltd 250,. In Noska,Giocher BRVDF FIAT BRAVA STR. VIGILI DEL FUOCO 1 4,.Ferrari 250 California 1957 Yell.1 43 Model 0070 ART-MODEL,.Spark 1 43 Scale Resin S1467 - Lola T70 Mk1 Winner Players 200 Mosport 1965,.Hot Wheels Lot Of 2 Pop Culture T1 VW Panel Bus Grateful Dead & Wolfman VHTF, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Ferrari 275 GTS Pininfarina Spyder silver Alufelgen mit Softtop 1964 1 18 KK die,.1 43 TRAX TR24C Ford Falcon XTGT,.Wonderful modelcar MERCEDES W125 GERMANY GP FORMULA 1 1937 R.Caracciola 1 43,.BAL COASTAL MISSILE SYSTEM ZZ MODELL 1 72 RESIN P.E KIT,. Id., p 923.


In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Ferrari 458 Red Speciale Signature Series 1 18 Diecast Model Car by Bburago,Brooklin Ford F1 Panel Delivery Modelex Special 1990,.French Vintage dinky toys 825 Dukw,.Peugeot RCZ Coupe Weiss mit blackem Dach Ab Facelift 2013 1 18 Norev Modell ..,.HOT WHEELS SUPER TREASURE HUNT TREASURE HUNT BONE SHAKER SHORT CARD,.UH Universal Hobbies 1 50 Komatsu PC210LCi-10 Excavator DieCast Model UH8094,.1 18 MGB EX182 24 Horas Le Mans año 1955 Triple-9 1800162 Green,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 410 120114 - F1 Sauber C31-Ferrari,. The parties Ferrari 375 MM H Pescara 1953 Villoresi Marzotto 1 43 Model 0081,.

BROOKLIN MODELS LA SALLE 2 4 PASSENGER COUPE 1934 - GREY MET 1 43 - EXCELLENT -6,.Schuco Deutz 8.30 with Twin Tyre 1 32 450768700,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Spark 1 43 Porsche 911 CARRERA RSR Winner Sebring 12H 1977 43SE77,; 1974 Alfa Romeo Alfasud 1.3 White 1 18 Kk Diecast, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Norev 1 43 Scale Diecast Model Car 270302 - Morgan Plus 8 - BRG,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Spark 1 43 Oreca 03R Nissan KCMG LeMans 2014 S4224,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Grand Prix Models 1 43 Scale Model Car - Ferrari Mondial 8 - Red,.Dinky Toys 23G Cooper-Bristol England Meccano Mint,.Jada 1 24 Scale Radio Control Car 2.4GHz RC 97602 - Brian's Toyota Supra,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Spark 1 43 Scale S3794 - Ford Fiesta RS WRC Monte Carlo 2014,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.FORD Capri 3.0 S Belga Winner Sieger Spa 24h Martin Marti 1980 Premium X 1 43,.CORGI 1 50 SCALE CC12004 A.R.R CRAIB TRANSPORT MAN FLATBED TRAILER WITH LOAD,.Classic Metal Works 1 24 CLEVELAND CITY POLICE Ford Police Interceptor,.Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast Model 18-16801R Ferrari SF15-T - K Raikkonen 2015 F1,.PORSCHE 911 964 Carrera RSR Le Mans Chereau Yver Leco 1994 Spark Resin 1 43,. The ScottsdaleSpark 1 43 Ken Okuyama Design Kode7 SJ028,Norev Citröen 2CV FOURGONNETTE Year 1956 Assistance BERLIET Yellow, 1 18,.Best Model BT9342 JAGUAR E COUPE' N.177 DNF TOUR D.FRANCE 1963 CARDI-KLUKASZENWS,. Id.,Porsche 962 IMSA 24H Daytona 1984 , minichamps,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Ebbro Team Jota Zytek 04S Lemans2005,; NOREV NV184826 PEUGEOT 504 CABRIOLET 1970 CAPUCINE YELLOW 1 18,Autocult Brütsch Pfeil 1956 Red 1 43 ATC03003,.NEO Hamann Volcano 2011 1 43 45710,. The ScottsdaleMinichamps 400144772 1 43 1974 Dodge Monaco Diecast Model Car,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, 1 18 Scale Toyota Highlander 2015 White Diecast Car Model Dealer Edition,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Nylint Mr Goodwrench Semi Tractor Trailer Large,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1973 Mercedes 220-8 (W115) Policia Alemania 1 18 MC Group 18054,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, UNIVERSAL-HOBBIES 5201 Massey Ferguson 3090 1 32,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Johnny White Lightning – VW Bus T1 Samba orange white Bondi Beach Neu OVP,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, 1 18 Mitsubishi Lancer Evo Evolution 8 VIII tuning fast furious -JADA-3L 050, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, 1 43 Unknown manufacturer Handmade White Metal Model Car, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Alpine Renault A110 1600S 1971 White 1 18 - 185303 NOREV,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeBest Model BT9166 FERRARI 250 LM N.28 7th 1000 KM PARIS 1966 NOBLET-GOSSELIN 1 4,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, PMA 1 18 Scale Diecast - 10011 Aston Martin V12 Vanquish 007 James Bond,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheErtl 1 18 Scale Diecast - 32296 1960 Ford Starliner Light bluee White Faulty,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.RENAULT 5 GT TURBO RALLYE COTE D IVOIRE 1990 OREILLE 1 43,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Ferrari 250 Lm Spyder 1965 Prova Red 1 43 Model BEST MODELS,Autoart 1 43 Bugatti EB 6.4 Veyron Coupe Showcar Frankfurt 2001 mit Box 509782,.Ferrari Limited Edition 9601 Diorama Rally Montecarlo 1966 Nr.444 3000 M 1 43,.Wyatt & Tizard 4mm Scale White Metal Kit - B1 - Freelance Steam Crane Engine,. The HuygheMclaren Mp4-12C Gt3 Street 2012 bluee Minichamps 1 43 437121397,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuyghePirana Bertone - Politoys 588 1 43 in Box 36702,.


J Collection 1 43 - Seat Ibiza ST Break blue,.MINICHAMPS MASERATI INDY 1970 NEU OVP 1 43,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Weise-Toys 1103 Fendt Favorit 612 Lsa, 1 3 2,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeCMR 1 43 Scale SBC006 - Porsche 956K 1st 200 Meilen Norisring 1983 - S.Bellof,.Lane Exact Detail 1 18 1967 Chevrolet Camaro Indy Pace Car Mint in box,.

For example, in Partridge,NOREV 1 18 1970 CITROEN DYANE 6 181620,. In Jorgensen, supra,Mercedes 250T W123 red KK-Scale 1 18 NEU OVP,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.CORGI OM 46510A THE WITCHWAY BUS,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Siku Super 1330 Maserati Boomerang, Bpr. PR.Z.F.MANAUS I.BRAS., Siku Brasilien,. That is the same situation in this case.Vintage 1966-69 Tonka Toys Mighty Shovel VG,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Majorette Card Race Car Farm Tractor Wood Log France Hot Cast Vtg Trailer Deere,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Starter Kit à Monter 1 43 - Porsche Kremer K8 N°1 Le Mans 1996,.1 18 GUILOY BMW 320si WTCC JORG MULLER BMW TEAM GERMANY SCHNITZER MOTORSPORT,.Rio RI4166 FIAT 128 CARABINIERI 1 43 Modellino,.

Tekno Denmark Opel Rekord P1 red weiss red white in Box,.