Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Lamborghini Murcielago LP670-4 Top Gear 1 43 519431031 Minichamps,.Porsche 993 RS Club Sport , Spark models,.Toyota IQ 2009 Pearl 1 43 Model 44696 EBBRO,.Greenlight 1 24 Scale 84011 - 1974 Dodge Monaco blueesmobile - The bluees Bredhers,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.RIO RI4239 FIAT 238 ASSISTENZA FIAT 1971 1 43,.Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG GT3 no. 36 Nürnburgring 2011,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.MERDECES-BENZ 300 B (W186 III) 1955 blueE MINICHAMPS 1 43 NEW,.FORD GALAXIE CONgreenIBLE 1 18 1964 64 sunstar red 1 18,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.AUDI S6 A6 Plus Avant Quattro 1996 green green Kombi V8 Resin Highend Spark 1 43,.MATCHBOX LESNEY a CATERPILLAR BULLDOZER RESTORED ,NEW GREEN TREADS NEAR MINT,.Rare Minichamps 436 144000 Dodge Viper 1993 - 2003 10th Anniversary Set in Red, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
1 18 KK Alfa Romeo red red Limited Edition OVP,.SPARK MODEL SJ042 DAIHATSU MIRA WALK THROUGH VAN 1990 1 43,.NOREV CITROEN JUMPY - GREY METALLIC 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 22,.Ferrari 512 Bb 1976 Red 1 43 Model BEST MODELS,.
Simca Aronde Monthlery Speziale 1962,.Corgi CC10704 Scammell Highwayman Flatbed Trailer & Cradled Load, NEU & OVP,.VW Volkswagen Bus T3 Multivan White Star weiss 1993 Diecast KK 1 500 NEW 1 18,.MINICHAMPS BMW 7 SERIES - METALLIC BURGUNDY RED 1 43 - EXCELLENT IN BOX,.Burago 1 18 Scale - 3005 Bugatti Type 59 1934 white box version,.
Ford Falcon XA 351 GT Sedan 1 32 Scale Aussie Classic Diecast bluee Model Car,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Politoys URSS 1 43 - Ferrari 250 GT Berlinetta Grey,.Renault R20 Ts 1978 Light Green Met NOREV 1 18 NV185265 Miniature,.1 18 SUNSTAR Mercedes-Benz 350 Sl Cabriolet bluee,CORGI VANGUARD Ford Granada MkII, 2.8 Ghia, Imperial Red - VA12410,.Matchbox 40A Bedford Dk Tipper GPW 1957,.
1 43 Mitsubishi Lancer EVO VIII 2003 IXO MOC024 evo 8 MOC 024 VERY RARE ,.Mint Nissan Skyline 2000 Gt-R (Kpgc 10),.Spark Model Porsche 93678 H. Pescarolo 1 43 S4432,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
BMW M3 E30 EVO 24h Spa Winner 1992 Bastos Fina Danner Soper Marti Spark 1 43,.
Porsche 956 n.2 Le Mans 1983 Resin Model Car in 1 43 Scale by Spark,. We agree in part.
SNJ-3 Texan Quantico 1942 First Marine Aircraft Wing HOBBY MASTER HA1512 1 72,.CORGI TOYS OSI DAF CITY CITY CAR 1 36,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Vitesse 04422 CITROEN XSARA WRC GARDEMEISTER 1 8,.Corgi Juniors Cartoon Caracters Gift Set 3084,.SPARK Porsche 904 winner Japan GP 1964 SJ027 1 43,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Benetton Renault B195 British Grand Prix Win 1995 in 1 43 Scale by Spark,.1963 Studebaker Avanti black 1 18 Signature Models 18101,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Wyatt & Tizard 4mm Scale White Metal Kit - B1 - Freelance Steam Crane Engine,; Dinky Toys 190 Monteverdi 375L made in England rare 5 spoke wheels NM+ Condition,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
Hot Wheels 1 64 RETRO ENTERTAINMENT 2014 E cAse Homer James Bond BDT77-996E NEW,.DINKY TOYS 543 RENAULT FLORIDE intérieur capot lisse made in FRANCE 1958 TBE,WOW EXTREMELY RARE Opel Rekord D Coupe bluee met 1975 1 43 Minichamps-Diplomat,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Burago 1 18 scale Diecast - 3020 Mercedes Benz 500K Roadster 1936 Red,.
Mercedes-AMG - GT-R 2017 - silver - Almost Real - 1 43 - 420706,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.BO544-0,5 x Wiking H0 1 87 Fw Fire Service Model VW Volkswagen T2,Very,.Brabham BT24 n.17 German GP 1968 Kurt Ahrens S4780 Spark 1 43 New in a box ,.IXO LM2003 Mini Car Bentley Speed 8 2003 Le Mans 24H Winning from JAPAN NEW,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, NOREV 1 18 1962 FIAT 500 GIARDINIERA GREEN DIECAST TOY CAR 187723,; Norev 187427 1 18 PORSCHE 911 CARRERA RSR 2.1 FOLLMER HOLMES 3H MID-OHIO 197,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, 2003 TOYOTA SUPRA JGTC AU CERUMO 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY AUTOART 80317,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
1980 BMW M535i METALLIC gold 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY NOREV 183268,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Quartzo 1 43 Scale - Q4019 LOTUS 72 JOCHEN RINDT WINNER GERMAN GP 1970,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
PORSCHE CAYENNE TURBO, WHITE WELLY 1 18 DIECAST CAR COLLECTOR'S MODEL , NEW,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
Fiat 500 L con espositore da negozio prodotta dalla POLITOYS vedi foto,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.CMR 1 43 Scale SBC027 - Porsche 956B 1000Km Spa 1985 - Bellof Boutsen,.DINKY TOYS 264 ROVER 3500 - POLICE- RARE SELTEN - GOOD CONDITION IN BOX,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Burago Mercedes-AMG GT Die Cast Model Car 1 18 Scale Diecast,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.HOT WHEELS - 21ST CONVENTION - MAKE-A-WISH '67 GTO Bingo 1 125 gold,.
Jada 1967 Shelby Mustang GT500 KR 1 24 scale NIB 2005 release bluee,.KK-SCALE 1 18 VOLKSWAGEN T1 SAMBA 1959 red CREMA MODELLINO,.ALPINE A110 PREMIERE EDITION black 1 18,.SS3408 - CHEVROLET IMPALA OPEN CONgreenIBLE 1961 ALMOND BEIGE 1 18 MODELLINO MODE,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.MG B Roadster Hard Top bluee white Spark S4138 1 43,.
DINKY Meccano England 1954 BEDFORD CA VAN 'OVALTINE & Ovaltine Biscuits',.CLASSIC 1 43 2008 BATHURST 1-2-3 FINISH WHINCUP LOWNDES MURPHY COURTNEY SET,.1 24 CFS - Nascar 2009 Marcos Ambpink Toyota Kingsford NEW IN BOX,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Mattel 1 43 1992 Ferrari F92A Alesi Spain,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.AUTO WORLD 1 18 MUSCLE CARS 2016 CHEVROLET CAMARO SS - 50TH ANNIVERSARY AW239,.POLITOYS-M 516 ALFA ROMEO GIULIA TZ - blueE 1 43 - GOOD CONDITION,.NEO MODELS Opel Ascona B Gr.2 Venere 1 43 45243,.Onyx 1 24 Scale Model Car 5016A - F1 Williams Renault FW16 - Ayrton Senna,.IXO Models CLC088 1 43 scale GAZ M21 VOLGA sedan pink white CCCP USSR DDR,.
Minichamps Opel Kadett 1.9 GT E 1 43 VP, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Best Model BT9440 FERRARI 275 GTB SPIDER RED S.MC QUEEN 1 43 Modellino,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Audi 60 F103 1.5L 3Drs Variant 1969 Green 1 43 Minichamps-100,. The PartridgeKINSFUN RENAULT TWIZY 1 18 SCALE METALLIC blueE NEW NO BOX USA FREE SHIP,.Ferrari 365 Gt4 2+2 1972 Light bluee Met KK SCALE 1 18 KKDC180162 Model,.1 43 Spark - Lotus Evora GTE 2011,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, FORD GT 2017 blue 1 18 GT40, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Ebbro 45389 Weds Sport ADVAN Lexus RC F Super GT GT500 2016 Okayama 1 43 scale,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Spark 1 43 Scuderia Tgold red STR12 Australian GP 2017 S5039,.Fiat 238 Ambulanza Servizi Sanitari 1 43 Model RIO,PartridgeMatchbox Superfast No 44 Boss Mustang Lemon Yellow Light Amber Glass MIB,.Honda Vfr800P 2002-2008 Japan Police Bike 1 43 Diecast Model Set Of 2 With Case,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Neo Bentley T2 Saloon - metallic-grey mattblack - RHD - 1977 - 1 43, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Herpa 1 87 Scania Topline Guy Guerin 1 in PC Box,; NV187593 by NOREV PORSCHE 911 1994 1 18,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, CORGI CC12906 P & C HAMILTON SCANIA TOPLINE FRIDGE TRAILER BNIB MIB UK FREEPOST, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, MERCURY 1 43 - FIAT 850 COUPE NO= 44 - VERY RARE - GOOD CONDITION, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeWolga GAZ M24 Limousine green Weiss Volks Polizei DDR 1967-1992 1 18 Model Car ..,.
BROOKLIN MODELS BRK 30 1954 DODGE ROYAL 500 CONgreenIBLE YELLOW MIB mq,.Trofeu 1 43 Scale 517 - Ford Escort RS 1600 - R.Clark 1st RAC 1972, Clarke's negligent act.Dinky Toys GB n° 449 camion Ford Johnston Road Sweeper neuf en boite MIB,.Wonderful modelcar FORD CAPRI III TURBO 1981 in r e d,.Neo Jensen Healey MkII - green - 1972 - 1 43,.
FINEWORK Chgold Q size M.Benz UNIMOG ver2.0 HG Resin Kit,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Ford Econoline turquoise white 1964 1 43 Whitebox 284,Matchbox RW 51B Tipping Trailer Fässer am Giesast in E1 Box,. In Noska,FIRST GEAR 1 50 SCALE CASE IH STEIGER 485HD TRACTOR MODEL BN COMBO1,.Volkswagen T1 Samba (1962) 1 18 KK Scale KKDC180153,.1969 HONG KONG BASE HOT WHEELS REDLINE LIGHT MY FIREBIRD RED WHITE INTERIOR,.Morgan Aero 8 GT3 (2007) Resin Model Car S0373, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Britains Skip Lorry 9603 Boxed 1 32 Scale,.Spark 1 43 Gebhardt JC 853 8th Le Mans 1986 S4097,.Mitsubishi Eclipse Baujahr 1995 black 1 18 Greenlight,.BENTLEY DIE CAST MODEL SI CONTINENTAL FLYING SPUR MiniChamps,. Id., p 923.
Land Rover Series Defender Dakar Handmade 1 43,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Schabak Models 1 43 Scale Diecast - B66005748 Mercedes Benz SL 500 Green,Mac Due MCG18091 VW 1500 S (TIPO 3) LIGHT blueE 1 18 Modellino,.Bentley Brooklands 1992 Dark Red 1 43 SPARK S3812,.Spark Model S5465 HONDA CIVIC EF9 N.14 3rd GRP3 AIDA GP 1992 N.HATTORI-K.KANEISH,.CJM PANHARD DYNA X86 CABRIOLET KIT METAL PLOMB monté BON ETAT D'ORIGINE 1 43,.Norev 2012 MERCEDES BENZ A 250 SPORT blueE 1 18 Diecast Car 183595,.Audi A3 S3 8V 3 Türer red Ab 2012 1 43 Minichamps Modell Auto mit oder ohne in..,.Starter Models Kit 1 43 Scale Resin sx11 Mercedes Benz 190 Evo2 Rosberg DTM '92,. The parties MINICHAMPS 808501 FORD CAPRI Gr.5 KRAUS HIFI 1980 LUDWIG 1 43 - EXCELLENT IN BOX,.
OPEL ASCONA B 400 greySMANN ACROPOLIS 1982 LIM. SCHUCO RFS11 1 43,.1 43 NEO GAZ M22 Volga,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Microworld AS026 BUGATTI T59 COPPA VANDERBILT 36 1 43,; LOT 40695 Minichamps Porsche 911 Coupe 993 red-metallic Modellauto 1 43 in OVP, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
White 1 24 BMW M3 GTS Alloy Metal Diecast Model Sports Car KDW 1 24 19.5cm 8 ,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, SPARK Lotus 18 No.9 2nd British GP 1960 John Surtees S1825 1 43,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)1 18 Die Cast Collectors Edition American Muscle Ford Legends Series Shelby,.Maxichamps 1 43 Scale 940 081200 - 1974 Ford Capri II - Metallic Green,.Corgi 1 50 Scale CC12709 - ERF ECS Feldbinder Tanker - bluee Circle,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Solido 1 18 Scale Diecast - 9054 Citroen Xsara Tour de Corse 2004 Signed,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.1948 CHRYSLER TOWN & COUNTRY BROWN 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY SUNSTAR 6143,.Nissan Gt-r R-35 2008 Dark Grey Metallic 1 18 Model 188053 NOREV,.Porsche 935 Zolder DRM 1977 n° 51 Vaillant 1 18 Norev 187432,.Lancia Kappa 2.0 Turbo 1994 Met.Dark Red 1 43 Neoscale NEO44965 Model,.JEMMPY FRANCEn° 012 Pajero Dakar 1985 neuf mint boite kit résine monté 1 43,. The ScottsdaleGAMA 1 24 - VOLKSWAGEN PASSAT TS NO= 0444 RARE VERSION - GOOD CONDITION,Hot wheels Valentino Rossi special limited edition serie completa,.Matchbox 2005 Superfast SET OF ( 6 ) NEW IN BOX LIMITED EDITION,. Id.,Spark 1 43 Scale S3359 - Volkswagen Polo R WRC nd Monte Carlo 2013,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Minichamps 1 43 scale 436 139424 Bentley R-type Continental 1955 green,; Jada 97168 - 1 24 Scale Model Car Fast & Furious - Brian's Toyota Supra,Mitsubishi L200 dark grey 1 43 Vitesse,.NOREV 1 18 2012 MERCEDES-BENZ CLS 500 SHOOTING BRAKE DIE-CAST GREY 183549,. The ScottsdalePeugeot RCZ R Concept Coupe Matt black mit gold Ab Facelift 2013 1 18 Norev ..,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Dub City Big Baulers GMC Yukon Denali 1 18 Die Cast,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Minichamps 1 43 VOISIN C 27 AEROSPORT COUPE - 1934,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Rio 4384 ALFA ROMEO GIULIETTA TI n.102 1 43,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, F1 BAR HONDA SHOWCAR 2001 O. PANIS MINICHAMPS 1 18 NEUVE,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Mercedes Benz C Class Estate 2014 in Grey Metallic 1 18 SCALE New in box,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, CORGI CC82215 ITALIAN JOB FILM MOVIE RED MINI COOPER DIECAST MODEL CLASSIC CAR, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, SUBARU IMPREZA GT Turbo blue 1 18 RHD WRX, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, LADA NIVA - 1 43 SCALE - DARK YELLOW orange TYPE COLOUR - BOXED,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgePremium Classixx PREM18327 MERCEDES Lo2750 HOLZVERGASER BEIGE 1 43,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Ferrari 365 GT4 2+2 Baujahr 1972 hellblue metallic 1 18 KK-Scale,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheMATCHBOX SUPERFAST 72-CAR COLLECTOR CASE, ORIGINAL, LOT B,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Maserati 5000 GT Allemano black 1960 Neoscale 1 43 NEO45655 Model,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,FERRARI 250 LM RED 1 18 DIECAST CAR MODEL BY HOTWHEELS 23914,Dinky 436 Atlas Copco compressor lorry,.DAYS GONE 10 Different HORSE DRAWN VEHICLES Deceased estate FREE POSTAGE,.Eastwood Ertl Jim Dunn Race Car And Cab OverHauler Super Hauler Christmas Gift ,. The Huyghe1 18 Minichamps MB SLS AMG GT3 mattblack,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuyghePEUGEOT 406 PROCAR TOURISME BRITANNIQUE 1996 HARVEY MINI RACING Kit Monté 1 43,.
Corgi Toys 9002 Bentley 1927 3 Litre with original box,.Tarmac Works 1 64 Honda FK2 Civic type R,.
Spark 1 43 - Renault Dacia Logan Concept Steppe,.James Bond 007 Aston Martin Vanquish Beanstalk Group 1 18 Diecast Model Car,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Maisto 1 18 RANGE ROVER SPORT Sliver Display Miniature Car,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeMärklin n° 8010 Mercedes W196 1 43 peu fréquent,.Mercedes E-Klasse 250 T (S123) blue 1 18 - KK-Scale 180091,.
For example, in Partridge,Audi R8 LMS , 24H Nurburgring 2013 , Sparkmodels,. In Jorgensen, supra,WSI 1 50 SCALE SMIT TRANSFORMER MODEL BN 12-1027,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Revell Steve Mcqueen Bullitt Dodge Charger Metal Kit,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra, MINICHAMPS FORD CAPRI RS 2600 RS2600 1972-73 WHITE MINT BOXED,. That is the same situation in this case.SPARK RENAULT 5 Turbo Winner Tour de France 1984 J. Ragnotti S3863 1 43,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Model Car Cadillac 1927 Nostalgia Tin Model, Metal 33 cm, New (ko),. Detroit Edison, supra.
Set of the 4 Lotus Esprit of James Bond 007 - Diecast Model car,.PARAGON MODELS 1 18 2012 BMW M5 F10M LHD SEDAN DIECAST MODEL CAR SAKHIR orange,.CORGI JAMES BOND THE DEFINITIVE BOND COLLECTION X 5 DIFFERENT CARS,.
1 18 Norev Peugeot 206 RC 2003 red 184823,.