Miniature IXO Car CITROEN ID 19 19 19 Break 1958 Scale 1 24e Diecast Metal 913223

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Miniature IXO Car CITROEN ID 19 19 19 Break 1958 Scale 1 24e Diecast Metal 913223
Renault R5 Supercinque Gt Turbo 1986 Light bluee Met NOREV 1 18 NV185207 Miniatur,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Road Signature 1 18 Scale Diecast - 92608 1971 Jaguar E-Type Roadster red,.Maisto AMG Mercedes-Benz CLK-DTM 2002 1 18 Jean Alesi (FRA) (JS),.Greenlight super chase Hollywood Godfather 1955 Cadillac Fleetwood red tires,.Matcbox Lesney Superfast Sleet N Snow Preproduction Bare metal casting,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.1 18 ERTL 1969 CHEVROLET BALDWIN MOTION CAMARO 454 BUTTERNUT YELLOW bd,.Mercedes 11-40 1924 Bianco White Rio 1 43 RIO4462 Model,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Schuco 1 43 450370900 Porsche 914 6 Clubmodell 2013 Marathon 1970 s.Foto (B1232),.1 18 Greenlight Ford Gran Torino 1976 greenmetallic,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.MERCEDES BENZ L319 PORSCHE RENNDIENST Premium ClassiXXs red 1 43,.Jensen Healey MkII (green) 1972,.Rare Minichamps 436 144000 Dodge Viper 1993 - 2003 10th Anniversary Set in Red, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Mercedes S Klass W221 2005 Gun Metallic 1 43 Spark S1063 Modellino,.KK-Scale Alfa Romeo Alfasud 1.3 - red - 1 18,.CORGI 1 50 - HERITAGE EX70905 RENAULT JL20 FOURGON - WAGNER & BONNEFOIS,.Ferrari 312 P Coupe' Prova 1969 1 43 Model BEST MODELS,.

NEO BMW 502 Congreenible Autenrieth 1 43 46385,.Norev 181481 Citroen DS19 brown weiss 1959 Maßstab 1 18 Modellauto NEU °,.CORGI MODEL No.80305 GARRETT 4CD ROAD TRACTOR & TRAILERS MIB,.1 43 Minichamps BMW 320i Group 5,.SPARK Lancia D20 Winner Targa Florio 1953 Umberto Maglioli 43TF53 1 43,.

1 18 BBURAGO Beige1955 Beetle Kafer-Beetle Alloy Car Model Vehicles Toy Gift,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Buddy L JEEP pressed steel Japan bluee white stars and stripes vintage 6 metal,.AUTOART MAYBACH 62 DEALER-VERSION gold ART.B66961970 NEW DIE-CAST 1 43,.FDS Kit à Monter 1 43 - Ferrari 250 TR Testarossa 1958,Precision 100 Collection 1964 1 2 Ford Mustang Congreenible Diecast 1 18 Scale,.PORSCHE MACAN S DIESEL 2013 GREY METAL MINICHAMPS WAP0201510E 1 43,.

Huion Inspiroy H640P Graphic Drawing Tablet Battery-free Stylus Pen digital with,.Corgi 1 50 scale CC12912 - Scania Topline Curtainside - STEPHEN SANDERSON LTD,.Best Model 9535 PORSCHE ABARTH 1000 KM PARIGI 1 43 Modellino,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

SSM LKW 1 43 Tatra-815S1 Muldenkipper Emergency Service,.

Audi Tt Roadster 1999 White, Model Car 1 43 Minichamps,. We agree in part.

BURAGO BG16802V 1 18 FERRARI SF16-H 2016 SEASON S.VETTEL,.Volkswagen VW T1 Samba Bus 1959 Red Creme 1 18 Model KK SCALE,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Vintage hallmark steelcraft murry mini kiddie car w box,.Hot Wheels Star Trex 50 Full Set Rare,.Neo Ford Ranchero - black - 1979 - 1 43,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Fire Brigade models 1 72 Scale - FBM7 Road traffic collision set moden B Figures,.NOREV 1 18 2010 PORSCHE 911 TURBO 187622,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Ebbro EB45597 NISSAN NV350 CARAVAN SCHOOL BUS 2012 YELLOW 1 43 Modellino,; Brumm BMAS53 FIAT 600 50,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

RARE BROOKLIN FORD FAIRLANE 2 DOOR VICTORIA 1956 LIGHT GREEN REF 23 IN BOX,.Diecast Car Model JMC All New Yusheng S350 SUV 1 18 (Red Brown) + GIFT ,1 18 Hot Wheels Williams F1 FW28 Rosberg 2006 Bahrain NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.New Ebbro 44252 CALSONIC SKYLINE R33 JGTC 1998 No.23 1 43 scale,.

Pegaso Z-102 B Touring 1956 Metallic Grey 1 43 Neoscale NEO43790 Model,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.SPARK PORSCHE 936 (908 80) Le Mans 1981 Whittington - Joest S5502 1 43,.Scarce Minichamps 430 976601 Porsche 911 GT1 GTS-1 Champion 1999 Team Rohr,.NEO SCALE MODELS NEO45100 FIAT 1100 ES PININFARINA 1950 RED 1 43,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Hot Wheels 2016 Red Line Club Rlc Neo-Classics Volkswagen VW Drag Bus ' D 7500,; DE AGOSTINI II^ G.M. Dornier Do 335A-1 Pfeil 1 72 N°24 ε,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, 1 50th International HX520 Day Cab Tandem Diecast Masters 71002 Trailer Head,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Miniature IXO Car CITROEN ID 19 19 19 Break 1958 Scale 1 24e Diecast Metal 913223Miniature IXO Car CITROEN ID 19 19 19 Break 1958 Scale 1 24e Diecast Metal 913223Miniature IXO Car CITROEN ID 19 19 19 Break 1958 Scale 1 24e Diecast Metal 913223

Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast - 3041 Lamborghini Diablo 1990 yellow,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

SUNSTAR 1392 CHEVROLET C10 STEPSIDE LOWRIDER diecast model metallic orange 1 18,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]


This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

CORGI 233 HEINKEL BUBBLE CAR ORIGINAL IN DAMAGED ORIGINALWORN BOX EXCELLENT CAR.,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Burago 1 18 Scale - 3005 Bugatti Type 59 1934 white box version,.Mini-Champs 1 43 Mercedes-Benz 190E 2.3-16,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.BROOKLIN MODELS BRK 42X1952 FORD F1 PANEL DELIVERY,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Hot Wheels Premium DC Batman & Justice League & Aquaman (Set of 6) Scale 1 64,.

Pagani Huayra (2012) Resin Model Car S3563,.TSM Model 1 43 Rolls Royce Ghost 2009 Grey very nice, collectors item,.1 24 Franklin Mint 1955 '55 Chevy Corvette Roadster Congreenible bluee Free Ship,.GT-S 47 Caterpillar conveyor snow and swamp-going vehicle. AutoHistory,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Porsche 911 991-2 Carrera 4 Gts Coupe 2016 HERPA 1 43 WAP0201060H,.

Ebbro 1 43 Scale Model Car 643 - 1964 Nissan blueebird 410 - Red,.2018 Hot Wheels Car Culture Team Transport Set Duster Cuda Porsche,.Spark Models 1 43 Scale - S0169 Corvette C5-R Luc Alphand Adventures LM 2007,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Jaguar Heritage E-Type Coupe Lightweight 1963 Aluminium BEST 1 43 BE9680 Model,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.1 18 Premium ClassiXXs UAZ 452 delivery van lightgreen white,.Maisto Lillian Vernon 4-Car Luxury Car Set (Porsche BMW Jaguar Ferrari) 1 36 NIB,.1 18 Tatra 87 año 1937 MC Group 18069 black,.Greenlight Ford Galaxie 500 1964 MIBIII Chrome 1 18 Limited Edition,.OEM Audi 90 Quattro Red Met. 1 43 die cast model by Schabak Modell No.1030 31,.

KIT REVELL 1 24 CAMION MERCEDES BENZ ACTROS MP 3 LUNGHEZZA 25,9 CM ART 07425, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.F1 LIGIER JS31 Judd V8 3.5 Japan GP 1988 Arnoux Gita n es Loto Spark 1 43,.DINKY Cart - 428 (R),. The PartridgeSUBARU IMPREZA RALLY SPORTS TOY CAR DIE CAST REAL LOOK MODEL boy dad gift NEW,.Lotus Elan SE Roadster 1966 Royal bluee 1 18 Model 4055 SUN STAR,.Kit JPS - Porsche 930 LM - 24 H du Mans 1983 - Prépeint - ref KP420,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Spark Model SG414 SCG003c N.705 WINNER SP-X CLASS 24 H NURBURGRING 2018 MUTSCH-M, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Volkswagen Beetle Kafer 1951 With Trailer bluee Schuco 1 43 SH3894 Model,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.UNIVERSAL HOBBIES UH5293 1 32 MASSEY FERGUSON 8740S,.JOHNNY LIGHTNING HERBIE FULLY LOADED CLASSIC HERBIE RARE FIND 1 64 VW BUG,PartridgeHot Wheels Redline Hot Pink Ferrari 312P USA Grand Prix Decals,.1 43 Ferrari 250 GT TDF Stradale Scaglietti 1957 Carrera D43 (Handmade),.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, SPARK Scuderia Tgold red STR8 No.19 2013 Daniel Ricciardo S3062 1 43, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, SPARK LM S3728 Corvette C6 ZR1 n°73 24h Le Mans 2012 Garcia Magnussen 1 43,; CAT 906H Wheel Loader Model 85213 1 50 scale Mechanical Loader Toy Hobbies,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Matchbox Regular Wheels Nr. 4 B Massey Harris Tractor red MTW Lesney, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, SUNSTAR - 1 18 - CHEVROLET CORVAIR - 1963 - 1486, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeSpark Porsche 911 2.7 RS 1973 1 43 S4467,.

FORD Taunus P7 Coupe metallic Green 1971 1 43 NEO 43135,.Camion MERCEDES LP911 baché blue 1 43, Clarke's negligent act.PEUGEOT 3008 DKR 2ND DAKAR 2017 LOEB 1 43 spark,.1989 Sauber-Mercedes C9 No.63 Winner Le Mans Model Car in 1 43 Scale by Spark,.Muscle Milk Oreca 03 Nissan 2014 , Spark models,.

Hot Wheels 1 18 scale Diecast - 50430 Ferrari F50 red Red,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, FORD MUSTANG 1 2 HARD TOP 1964 whiteHE WELLY 1 18,MODELLINO FORD ESCORT I TC ALAN MANN RACING GP TOURING CARS NURBURGRING 1968 IN,. In Noska,NEW Initial D Toyota Trueno AE86 1 64 Scale Diecast Takumi Fujiwara Jada Toys,.Volkswagen Beetle Wiesbaden Police Speed Control 1957 RIO 1 43 RIO4556 Model,.Mercedes Amg G 500 4x4 (2) 2015 White 1 43 Model S4693 SPARK MODEL,.Spark Model Porsche 93678 H. Pescarolo 1 43 S4432, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Diecast Car Model Benteng Besturn B70 Sport RS 1 18 (White) + GIFT ,.(V) tekno FERRARI 750MONZA - 813 NETHERLANDS,.BEST MODEL BT9275 FERRARI 512 BB PROVA 1978 1 43,.Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast - 3024 Chevrolet Corvette 1957 Red Model Car,. Id., p 923.

1975 Hot Wheels Paramedic (White) (Redline) (Hong Kong),.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Corgi Priestman Shovel, Good Condition in Original Box,Minichamps Mercedes-Benz Unimog 70200 1 43 Unimoggreen (JS),.PORSCHE 911 Carrera RSR 2.8 Daytona 1973 Donohue Follm Sunoco Minichamps 1 43,.Datsun 260 Z2+2 1975 bluee Metallic 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,.Rio RI4195 VW 1200 DE LUXE 1953 BROWN 1 43 Modellino,.1 18 Dongfeng Honda 2016 Civic Sedan orange Dealer Edition,.RARE, DY-30 Austin Healey Austin Healey Club 1997 , Dinky, Code 2, w.Box,.Porsche 911 RSR 2.1 T Practice 1000km Spa 1974 1 18 Norev 187426,. The parties Scottoy 27MIL AUTOBOTTE VIBERTI MILITARE GREEN Modellino,.


Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, TONKIN 1 53 SCALE VALLEY FARMS - KENWOOD T680 DAY CAB MODEL BN 14006402,; Corgi OOC OM46610 A NBFL New Bus London Go Ahead LT Route 11 Liverpool St MIMB, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

PORSCHE Cayenne Turbo Limited Edition Model Alu 1 43 Modell,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Schuco SH7228 AUDI R8 GT 2011 DAYTONA GREY,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)BEST MODEL BT9370 FERRARI 312 P COUPE' 1969 PROVA 1 43,.Porsche 991 Carrera 4 GTS , silver, 1 43, I-Herpa,.Japanese famous car collection vol.33 1 24 Toyopet Cgoldna Mark II Magazine,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,DTE 1970 HOT WHEELS REDLINE METALLIC GREEN TNT-BIRD W WHITE INTERIOR,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.HOUZAN KRAFT SC430 2008 SUPER GT GT500 Bugzees 1 32 Scale Diecast Model,.Ertl American Muscle 1934 Ford Baby bluee Newstalgia Street Rod , 1 18, Very Nice,.Maserati Khamsin 1977 Grey Metallic Minichamps 1 43 437123220,.Gitanes Ligier JS27 1986 1 43 Rene Arnoux,.Hot Wheels Redline 1971 HK Green Sugar Caddy with Tough White Interior,. The ScottsdaleMinichamps BMW 1600-2 1 43 Ovp,Spark 1 43 MG B GT 1967 S4140,.CMR 1 43 Scale SBC006 - Porsche 956K 1st 200 Meilen Norisring 1983 - S.Bellof,. Id.,MINICHAMPS 1 12 VALENTINO ROSSI FIGURINE MOTO GP 2005 LAGUNA SECA 46,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 18 Sun Star Citroen Xsara WRC C. Mcrae D.Ringer Rarity §,; Maisto 1 18 Scale 1936 M-B 500 K Type Specialroadster Diecast Vehicle,Train Faithfull bus (1 80 scale die-cast model) No.12 Nishi-Nippon Railroad Co.,.MITSUBISHI The Challeng of World Rally Championship 3Pcs Set Chgold Q TAKARA NEW,. The ScottsdaleTrofeu 1 43 Scale 626 - Subaru Impreza WRX North Yorkshire Police,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, El Viento (Sega Mega Drive Japan),; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Corgi Toys 152 BRM F1 Racing Car,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, (V) triang spot on HUMBER SUPER SNIPE - 183,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, FORD CROSSWORD REPSOL CARLOS SAINZ KIT CAR MODEL 1 72 SCALE REPLICA,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, MODELLINO VOLKSWAGEN 1200 EXPORT 1951 VIGILI DEL FUOCO DORTMUND IN METALLO MINIC,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, PORSCHE 911 GT1 Lister Greasly Wallind G-FORCE STRANDELL FIA GT 1997 UT 1 18, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, JEEP RESCUE CONCEPT orange MAISTO PREMIERE EDITION 1 18 1 18 GRAND CHEROKEE, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, IXO -9 motorcycles of competition IXO ALTAYA 1 24,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeNorev Citroën GS X3 1979 - Mimosa yellow 1 18 - 181624,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, 1963 Studebaker Avanti black 1 18 Signature Models 18101,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheHot Wheels Redline Mclaren M6A US Brown  Excellent to Near Mint,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Ferrari 275 GTB 4 NART Spyder 1967 yellow - 1 18 KK-Scale NEW,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Porsche 917K GP Magny Cours 18 187580J,AUTOart 1 43 Lamborghini Huracan LP610-4 Matt White Diecast Model 54601,.ALFA ROMEO 8C 2004 METALLIC RED SPARK S0396 1 43,.RAI'S 1 43 Toyota Allion A20 ZRT261 2013 Japan Police Car H7431305,. The HuygheToyopet Skb Kiyoken Van bluee Yellow 1 43 Model EBBRO,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheNorev 1969 Porache 911 T 1 18 Model Car 187630 Dark Red,.

Minichamps 410130201 Replica Model, bluee,.SPARK MODEL S2923 CADILLAC SERIES 62 BERLINE 1950 P.V.GREEN 1 43,.

LION CAR - LION TOYS DAF B Delivery Van Red + box,.Original Audi SQ7 4M S Q7 Modellauto 1 43 Daytonagrey Daytona grey 5011617613,. Nonetheless, on the facts of GRAND PRIX MODELS - 1 43 FERRARI BREADVAN 1962 - UNBUILT KIT - GOOD CONDITION,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeVW Volkswagen K70 Limousine Weiss 1970-1975 1 43 Norev Modell Auto mit oder oh..,.2013 Pagani Huayra RHD - 1 43 scale - Spark - NEW,.

For example, in Partridge,NOREV185260 - Voiture break RENAULT Juvaquatre Elfenbein de 1951 de color crèm,. In Jorgensen, supra,Action Xtreme Kevin Huntley Peterbilt Sprint Car 1 18,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Giocher FST01CC FIAT STILO CARABINIERI 1 43 Modellino,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Mercedes 450SEL 6.9 1972-79 - Minichamps 1 43 in Box 35197,. That is the same situation in this case.Renault 30 Tx 1981 Bronze 1 18 Model 185271 NOREV,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.NEO NEO45875 1 43 MERCURY TURNPIKE COUPE 1957 METALLIC blueE WHITE,. Detroit Edison, supra.

MÜLLER TRANSPORTE (CH), Scania CS KÜHLkoffer-Sattelzug Cristallo ,.Bitter SC Coupe' Red 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,.Spark S4936 1 43 Resin 2016 Porsche 991 Carrera S Coupe with LHD, Dark Grey,.

Hotwheels Borja set with STH, Error, Premium car and Mainlines VHTF MINTY,.