Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Minichamps 400788409 1 43 FORD ESCORT II RS1800 ESSO CLARK WILSON RAC RALLY 1978,.Vintage Auburn Rubber Toys Police Officer On 3-Wheeler Motorcycle 521 Excellent,.Yonezawa Toys Diapet Nissan Auster Multi-Coupe 1600 CS E L in Red on 1 40 in Box,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK75 1960 Edsel Congreenible bluee - White Metal Model Car,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.Dinky Toys GB n° 991 AEC Thompson Monarch SHELL repeint,.Spark 1 43 McLaren MP4-20 n.10 Winner British GP 2005 S4304,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Citroen C5 Sedan 1 43 Noreve Diecast Minicar,.Ferrari 860 Monza Rouen 1956 E. Castellotti Winner 1 43 Model 0228 ART-MODEL,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Matchbox Kingsize No K-1 2 Foden 8 wheeled tipper Hoveringham VNMB,.Norev 187660 - 1987 Porsche 911 3.3 Turbo Targa - white - 1 18 - NEU,.Norev 185225 1 18 RENAULT MEGANE R.S. 2017 TONIC orange, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
BMW M3 E30 hrs SPA 1987 E VAN DE POELE 1 43 SPARK SB067 NEU,.Opel Kapitan 2.5 1958 White bluee Neoscale 1 43 NEO43943,.SUNSTAR 1 18 AMERICAN COLLECTIBLES 1948 CHRYSLER TOWN & COUNTRY SS6143,.Neo Enzmann 506 Cabriolet (Basis VW) - red - 1957 - 1 43,.
GUISVAL SPAIN CARAVANA CAMPING WITH SKIEING FIGURE RARE RARE SELTEN ,.1 43 THE DARK KNIGHT - BAT POD Hot Wheels Elite X5496,.Polistil 1 16 Scale - 016793 Porsche 911 Turbo Cabrio metallic grey,.PORSCHE 911 GT3 RS Rallye Ardenne bluee Duez Gordon Class Wi Minichamps 1 43,.Maxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940039001 Mercedes Benz 300Sl Coupe 1955 Red,.
Spark Mercedes-Benz F600 Concept Car 2006 1 43 gold Metallic (JS),. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.NEO Chevrolet Corvette C1 1959 1 43 45997,.MINICHAMPS MERCEDES-BENZ 300 S CABRIOLET 1951 blueE OVP 1 43,.MODELER'S 1 43 Keisuke Takahashi RX-7 FD-3S Painted Model Japan,CITROEN DS 21 Break 1970 1 18 Norev 181592 BORDEAUX DS21 Kombi,.1 43 Minichamps Mercedes 230E 1990,.
GREENLIGHT 1 18 STARSKY & HUTCH - 1976 FORD GRAN TORINO RED CHROME DIECAST 19023,.Koenig Testa Rossa 1985 White 1 43 Neoscale NEO45923 Model,.Hotwheels 1 43 Scale Model Car P9928 - Ferrari GTO - Red,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
MOKO LESNEY MATCHBOX A London Trolley Bus Very Scarce SPW Excellent.,.
WOW EXTREMELY RARE Mercedes W202 C220 1993 Green 1 43 Minichamps-200,300,560,SE,. We agree in part.
Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car - 2003 Alfa Romeo 8C Coupe - Metallic Red,.Spark Model S43SE71 PORSCHE 917 N.3 WINNER 12 H SEBRING 1971 V.ELFORD-G.LARROUSS,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Hot Wheels 2013 Red Line Club RLC Holiday Car - Green Drag Dairy RR d 2500 4000,.MERCEDES BENZ L319 ISETTA SERVICE TOW VEHICLE PREMIUM CLASSIXXS LIM. 18202 1 43,.Minichamps 1 43 BRABHAM ALFA ROMEO BT45C NIKI LAUDA 1978 L.E.1296 pcs. 400780001,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; BMW M6 cabriolet brown 1 18 E64M,.Don Adams Get Smart 65 Sunbeam TIGER V-8 Roadster 1 64 Scale Limited Edit U,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, SPARK MERCEDES-AMG C63 DTM 2016 Daniel Juncadella SG285 1 43,; Best Model BT9094 FERRARI 250 LM N.28 DNF LM 1966 G.GOSSELIN-E.DE KEYN 1 43 Mode,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
Fiat 500 F 1965 blue Notte 1 43 Spark S2692 Model,.Mg Mgb Roadster Hard-Top 1964 bluee White Spark 1 43 S4138 Model,Hot Wheels Ferrari F355 Berlinetta, Red, 1 18 Scale Diecast Model (BLY57),. Pontiac School Dist, supra.FORD P7A 20M 1968 Neo scale models 1 43 NEO44350,.
PEUGEOT 406 PROCAR TOURISME BRITANNIQUE 1996 HARVEY MINI RACING Kit Monté 1 43,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Ebbro Ebro Arta Skyline R33 Jgtc1998,.Greenlight Dioramas Series 5 Limited Edition Steve McQueen Bullitt 1 64 Scale,.ELIGOR 1 43 CAMION HOTCHKISS PL60 POMPIER Premier secours GUINARD ref 101541 ,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, CORGI TOYS- CHEVROLET Camarro 350SS,; 1969 Hot Wheels Redline Grand Prix Chaparral 2G PRETTY OLIVE REAL WING KEEPER SC,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, MRF Kit to assemble 1 43 - Ferrari 365 GTS,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
Minichamps 1 43 Scale 400 931401 - Audi V8 Evolution Belgian Procar '93,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Porsche 911 (997 II) GT2 RS black limitiert auf 500 Minichamps 1 43 neu & OVP,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
Minichamps 1 43 Scale 430 882056 - BMW M3 DTM 1988 G.Muller,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
NEO MODELS Porsche Panamericana Closed 44585 1 43 1 43,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.RENAULT FREGATE NOREV 1 18,.Minichamps 410020040 - BMW 1er M Sport Coupe ACS1 Baujahr 2011 orangemet. 1_43,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.PORSCHE 911 CARRERA RSR MEZNARIE LE MANS 1974 1 43 SPARK S3495,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.BMW 320 SI WTCC 2006 PRESENTAZIONE 1 43 Spark SP0410,.
Rio RI4195 VW 1200 DE LUXE 1953 BROWN 1 43 Modellino,.Atlas Police Car Edizione Lada 2106 Vaz 1976 + Atlas Police Auto Collection 1 43,.Kit Ferrari 212 Ghia Eagle ch.0137 1952 - Tron Models kit 1 43,.DINKY TOYS 543 RENAULT FLORIDE intérieur capot lisse made in FRANCE 1958 TBE,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Lotus J.Herbert 1992 S.Africa 1 43 Spark Sp1675 Model,.
DINKY SUPERTOYS FODEN 8-WHEEL WAGON TATE & LYLE UNIKAT CODE 3,.NICE 1927 TOOTSIETOY DIECAST FAGEOL BUS,.1 18 Ford Crestline Sunliner Coupe año 1953 Welly 12525r red black,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Rare Minichamps 400 132574 1968 Triumph TR6 in Yellow Ltd Ed. 1 of 1536,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.CAMION BERNARD 110 CENTRALE E;ECTRIQUE CIRQUE PINDER EDITION LIMITEE CORGI HERIT,.1 64 Scale Rare Brown Hot Bird 1977 from Hot Wheels Mattel USED JC,.Whitebox 1 43 Scale Model Car WBX0004 - Ford Sierra Cosworth - Met bluee,.1 43 Minichamps Opel Blitz 1,75t Pritschenwagen Schultheiss Bier 439 051024,.McLaren MP4-12C GT3 , 24H Nurburgring 2014 , Sparkmodels,.
Borgward Hansa 1500 Light Grey 1 43 NeoScale NEO45075 Model, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Ebbro 1 43 Nissan Skyline GT-R R34 JGTC 2003 Test car,.Original Jaguar Modellauto I Pace Corris Grey 1 43 50JEDC280GYY I-Pace grey,. The PartridgeBMW M 535i 1987 1 18 Norev 183267 Metallic bluee M535i,.Schuco Mercedes SLS AMG Gran Turismo 5 PS3 Signature Edition 1 43,.Vintage Tri-Baby Hot Wheels Redline Purple US Base Nice Condition Decals,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, 1 18 scale model cars, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.GLM 1 43 Kaiser Jeep Panel Delivery 1963 white,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.1 43 1978 OPEL KADETT C AERO - NEO,.New KB MODLE Brumm 1 43 Ferrari 126 C2 Turbo Long Beach GP 1982 Japan F S,PartridgeMMP EBBRO HONDA ACCORD - PEARL WHITE 1 43 - EXCELLENT CONDITION - 14,.HWP9888 by HOT WHEELS FERRARI 575 GTZ ZAGATO 2006 1 18,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Porsche 908 3 Gulf n° 12 Sieger Targa Florio 1970 1 43 Spark 43TF70, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, MODELLINO PORSCHE 911 GT3-RSR 12H SEBRING 2008 WERNER MILLER IN METALLO MINICHAM,; NOREV - 1 18 - PEUGEOT 205 GTI 1.9L - 1992 - 184856,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Renault L'Supercinq Gt Turbo R5 Red 1986 1 18 Norev 185208 Phase, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 1 76 CMNL UKBUS 5026 Mercedes Citaro Euro 5 Diecast Bus Car model, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeAMG CLS63 Shooting Brake S-Model in weiss metallic GLM 1 43 OVP NEU,.
U.S MODEL MINT 1937 STUDEBAKER COUPE 1 43,.Norev 1 43 Scale 517704 - 2014 Renault Megane RS Trophy - Pear White, Clarke's negligent act.Pirate Models 1 76 Scale White Metal Kit - 406 Q1 Trolleybus,.NEO47150 - CITROEN SM OPERA BY HENRY CHAPRON DARK RED 1 43 MODELLINO MODELLO AUT,.SIKU 3279 Fendt 939 Diecast Model Toy,.
MODELLINO OPEL REKORD C COUPE’ 1966 RED IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, NOREV 1 43 CAMION RENAULT new MIDLUM TRANSPORT TAT Express 518623,Spark Model Oreca 03R Nissan 43 S4224,. In Noska,Ferrari 275 GTB 4 NART Spyder 1967 dunkelblue - 1 18 KK-Scale NEW,.Kamaz 6460 orange SSM1248 1 43,.Durham Classics DC-4d 1938 Lincoln Zephyr Cream 1 43,.CORGI TOYS 319 Lotus Elan S2 Coupe bluee white excellent plus condition, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.WESTERN MODELS 1 43 WP 108 1983 CHEVROLET CORVETTE ORAN,.Art Model AM0247 FERRARI 500 TR N.1 4th GP DI SVEZIA 1957 C.LINCON 1 43 Modellin,.Chevrolet Corvair Van 1963 red white, Modellauto 1 43 Neo Scale Models,.1 18 Triple 9 Toyota country Cruiser FJ40 1967 green white,. Id., p 923.
DODGE 600 Congreenible (red metallic),.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Mint Ixo 1 43 Citroen C4 Wrc Cyprus Rally 2009,007 James Bond Suntory Collection Diecast Toy Car 8pcs Set Japan Mini Car 2012,.NEO Borgward Hansa 2400 1955 1 43 43452,.1 43 Russian GAZ-21 Volga 1958 Handmade Kherson-Models,.1999 Ertl American Muscle Collector's Edition '1967 Chevrolet Chevelle SS L-78',.DINKY TOYS HUDSON COMMODORE LIGHT GREY MID blueE 1954 SCALE 1 43,.Audi Händlermodell 1 18 5011407615 Audi Q7 Argusbrown OVP neuwertig (JS5375),.RIO RI4527 MERCEDES SIMPLEX 1902 RED 1 43,. The parties Scale model 1 18 Ferrari 458 Italia Challenge,.
Herpa 1 87 5 LKW Texaco Pilkington BMW Team Kühne&Nagel Auto-Transporter (64871),.1 64 Kyosho Toyota SPORTS 800 No.20 Diecast Model Car,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Best Model BT9733 FERRARI 330 GTS 1967 NOCCIOLA MET. 1 43 Modellino,; 1 24 Special Scale Japanese Cars Collection Vol.59 Honda Prelude 2.0Si 1985, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
Siku Super 1820 Rettungsset. Audi, VW Passat & VW Multivan Sondermodell Schweiz,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Rio 1 43 Scale Model Car 4199 - 1930 Alfa Romeo 1750 Torpedo - Red,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Volkswagen T3A Van 1979 Carro Funebre Con Bara Hearse Premium 1 43 PREM18430 Mod,.1994 Racing Champion Max Dumesny Sprint Car -- 1 24th scale,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model MIN 052003 - VW Der Millionste Beetle - gold,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Brekina 75 Jahre KVG, Büssing, limitierte Nummer 485, OVP, Neu,H0,1 87, Rar 2003,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Paul's Model Art 1 43 Minichamps Lotus Honda 99T Ayrton Senna 1987 4138...,.What 4 Original Hot Wheels Redline Premium Restoration Red,.Dinky Toys GB 1 43 - Triumph TR7 Red 211,.1 18 Greenlight Ford Crown Victoria Interceptor The Walking Dead 2001,.FIRST GEAR 1 50 SCALE CASE IH STEIGER 485HD DUAL-WHEELED TRACTOR BN 50-3191,. The ScottsdalePORSCHE 911 991 Facelift 2018 GT2 RS Weissach grey 2018 Resin Highend Spark 1 43,EBBRO 1 24 KIT IN PLASTICA FURGONE CITROEN H CREPE MOBILE TYPE ART 25010,.Art Model AM0390 FERRARI 860 MONZA N.2 2nd GP VENEZUELA CARACAS J.M.FANGIO 1 43,. Id.,ROAD Signature 1963 White FIAT Abarth 695SS 38 1 18 Metal Die-Cast Fast Ship,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Corgi Dibnah's Choice GARRETT SHOWMANS PRINCESS MAUD STEAM ENGINE Tractor MIB ,; Spark 1 43 Lotus XI n.41 16th Le Mans 1957 A. Héchard - R. Masson S4401,Lexus LFA Test Car Nürburgring 2011,.Porsche 911 GT3 RS Indischred Minichamps 1 43 Limited Edition 500 WAX02020084,. The ScottsdaleSpark Model SA115 AUDI R8 LMS N.11 10th MACAU GT WORLD CUP 2016 CHENG CONGFU 1 4,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Minichamps 1 43 F1 Brabham Alfa Romeo BT45B C. Pace 1977 Art. 400770108,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Best Model BT9246 FERRARI 250 LM N.7 DNS 9 H KIALAMI 1966 HAILWOOD-ANDERSON 1 43,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Spur N 1 160 Metallmodell MAN Tank-Lastzug Aral (SL8071) o.,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Rial ARC1 No.22 Japan GP 1988 Andrea de Cesaris S4314 Spark 1 43 New ,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, 1 43 MG EX 182 LE MANS 24 HOURS 1955 LUND WAEFFLER BIZARRE MODELS,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, SPARK - 1 43 - PORSCHE PANAMERA 4E HYBRID SPORT TURISMO 2018 - S7616, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Hot Wheels BATMAN TV Series 1966 BATCYCLE & SIDECAR robin 1 12 scale large model, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, CITROEN CX Turbo II 1986 1 43 Neo scale models NEO45510,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgePMA Minichamps F1 McLaren Mercedes MP 4 13 von 1998 in 1 18, David Coulthard ,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, 1.18 FAST TIMES AT RICHMONT HIGH CAMARO EXTREMELY RARE ORIGINAL ERTL VERSION,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in Huyghe60s.LESNEY.MATCHBOX 72 Yellow Standard Jeep.Mint in box.ALL Orriginal,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Minichamps 1 43 Scale MIN 062122 - 1992 Porsche 911 Carrera 2 4 - Met bluee,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,Wiking 81-51 Wiking Favoriten PMS W686,BMW 1er M 1M E82 Frozen Grey GT709 1 18,.Spark 1 43 Aston Martin DB3 S LeMans 1955 S2422,.BK45-0,5x Wiking H0 1 87 Feuerwehr FW BMW 501 + Opel + Magirus Deutz etc TOP,. The HuygheSpark Model S5805 TOYOTA TS050 HYBRID N.9 DNF LM 2017 LAPIERRE-KUNIMOTO-LOPEZ 1 ,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheAutocult Citroën 350 Belphégor Guinard 1966 1 43 ATC12002,.
Mac Due MCG18021 LAMBORGHINI URUS 2012 METALLIC YELLOW 1 18 Modellino,.1 18 NEUHEIT Norev - Citroën DS 23 Pallas 1973 - Tholonet Beige,.
Greenlight 1 43 Scale 86522 - 1973 Ford Falcon XB - Green Chase Car,.MERCEDES SLR McLAREN 722Edition TAMIYA 1 24 PLASTIC KIT,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Maisto 1 18 Scale Diecast - 31854 1948 Chevrolet Fleetmaster Woody Burgundy,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeAlfa Romeo Giulia Europa-Testfahrt 1970 Sizilien-Hammerfest,.Auto Art Gateway 60191 SUBARU IMPREZA WRC 01 n.5 1 43 RALLY,.
For example, in Partridge,1935 Duesenberg SSJ Ertl 1 18 diecast Millennium Clark Gable EL Cord Gary Cooper,. In Jorgensen, supra,CORGI HERITAGE 1 50 SCALE - 08707 - 1926 BAZAR DE L'HOTL - RENAULT KZ,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Porsche Panamera Sport Turismo metallblue - Spark 1 43 - WAP0200170E - fabrikneu,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Ferrari 512 Bb 1976 White 1 43 Model BEST MODELS,. That is the same situation in this case.PORSCHE 919 Hybrid Le Mans 2015 Dumas Lieb Jani Resin Spark 1 43,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.MERCEDES AMG GT METALLIC blueE EXCLUSIVE EDITION 1 18 MODEL CAR BY MAISTO 38131,. Detroit Edison, supra.
MOTORMAX MTM73112R CHEVY IMPALA OPEN 1958 RED 1 18,.MINICHAMPS STEWART FORD 1998 HSBC - No 19 VERSTAPPEN 1 43 RARE - EXCELLENT IB,.Spark Model S5672 HILL GH1 T.BRISE 1975 N.23 RETIRED BELGIUM GP 1 43 Modellino,.
Ertl Corvette Engine Set Item 7987,.