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Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
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Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals CORGI 1 50 - 70001 BERLIET TLR8 SEMI CITERNE - CHAMBOURCY,.Lotus Elise S1 green 1. Generation 1996-2000 1 18 Sun Star Modell Auto mit oder..,.Corgi Whizzwheels 164 Dragster Ison Bros. Wild Honey Near mint boxed,.Maxichamps 1 43 Scale 940 069201 - 1993 Porsche 911 Turbo 993 - Metallic bluee,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.LOT DE 3 DINKY TOYS CITROEN BREAK ID 19 AMBULANCE + DS19 24C green + DS19 24C,.Bmw Z4 M Coupé (E86) red 2009 Neoscale 1 43 Neo44466 Miniature,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Spark 1 43 Aston Martin Vantage GT3 n.107 24H SPA 2014 SB099,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Mini Cooper 1.6 bluee White 2001 1 43 Auto Art-Minichamps ΒΜW,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Jaguar F-Type Svr Adw Caldera Red TRUE SCALE MINIATURES 1 43 TSM430147 Model,.Best Box 2511 Ford Taunus - Rare Colour bluee,.Spark Porsche 956 n°1 Winner 24h du Mans 1982 1 43 S43LM82, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

HERPA 1 500 - 512220 BOEING MCDONNELL DOUGLAS MD-11 SANTA CLAUS CHRISTMAS 2000,.Dinky toys no.559 Ford Taunus,.PORSCHE 911 993 GT2 Le Mans 1995 Repsol Saldana de Castro Bourbo Spark 1 43,.Fujimi 1 43 Resin 2012 Ferrari F12berlinetta Coupe, Modena Yellow FJM1343013,.

JAGUAR XJS CABRIOLET 1988 black 1 43 MINICHAMPS 400130434 NEU,.MINICHAMPS 1 43 BUGATTI TYPE 57C ATALANTE 1939,.Autocult Hanomag L28 Gruppenkraftwagen 1 43 ATC12004,.Lancia Beta Berline 1600 2S 1978 Platino Metallic 1 43 Model KESS MODEL,.BENTLEY CONTINENTAL T 1996 LIGHT blueE Minichamps 436139940,.

GAMA NO. 973 1 43 PORSCHE 911 - MINT BOXED - RARE,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Vintage Tootsie Toy rare Style Congreenible Car Circa 1950's,.Corgi OOC OM46614 OM46614A NBFL Routemaster Bus Go Ahead London Marylebone,.Spark 1 43 Lancia Aurelia B20 n.39 Le Mans 1952 S4391,Dinky toys no. 165 Ford Capri ovp,.1 18 Porsche 911 GT2 Street 1997 , original brake discs - UT -3L050,.

Mac Due MCG18088 CITROEN CX 2200 SUPER BREAK SERIES 1 1976 LIGHT BEIGE 1 18 Mode,.Renault 30 Tx 1981 Bronce brown Metálico, Coche Modelo 1 18 Norev,.Dinky Frankrijk 575 Panhard vrachtwagen SNCF,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

AUDI Sport Quattro Turbo 20V white 1984 der Kurze Minichamps Maxichamps 1 43,.

Giocher PN01P PUNTO NUOVA POLIZIA,. We agree in part.

ACRYLIC DISPLAY SHOW CASE SHELF FOR 24 PIECES 1 43 SCALE MODELS BY AUTOART 90031,.Solido 1 43 OPEL GT E RALLYE MONTE CARLO 1978 Model Car + Decalsheet MIB`78 ,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Maxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940133020 - McLaren 12C - 2011 - Yellow,.Corgi n°453 Commer Refrigerator Van Wall's Ice Cream ancien,.Art Model AM0008-2 FERRARI 166 MM N.624 WINNER MM 1949 C.BIONDETTI-E.SALANI 1 43,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Original VW Volkswagen T1 blue Weiss Samba Bully Bus 1950-1967 1 18 Welly Mode..,.FRANKLIN MINT 1958 EDSEL CITATION CONgreenIBLE, 1 24 SCALE, EXCELLENT, BOXED,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, UH Universal Hobbies 1 50 Komatsu HB215LC-2 Excavator DieCast Model UH8095,; Herpa LKW MB Actros 11 Bigspace Kühl-KSz Henglein 121927,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Citroen GT electric bluee 2008 1 18 Norev 181613,.Mercedes-Benz 770 Open Cabriolet 1938 Rio4021 1 43 Model Diecast,Renault Toys Slot 1 60 - Set of 2 renault Maxi Megane,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Minicar Kyosho 1 43 Nissan Gt-R Tokyo Smart Driver,.

MINICHAMPS 1 43 - 400 034090 MERCEDES BENZ 200 - POLIZEI,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Citroen 2CV6 DOLLY 1 18 NOREV 181494 2 CV Ente 2CV 1985 deux chevaux Grey White,.RAR Auto Pilen Spanien Spain Monteverdi Hai 450 SS blue Met.1 43 MIB TOP ,.Bentley Mulsanne Turbo S 1995 Green SPARK 1 43 S3803 Model,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Fiat 131 Abarth red 1980 IXO 1 18 18CMC003 Model,; MODELLINO ASTON MARTIN V12 VANQUISH 007 J. BOND IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Vintage Dinky Diecast Toys No. 180 Rover 3500 Saloon Car 1979 Version,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

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Kyosho 05611GW Bentley Mulsanne Speed Model White 1 43,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Pilen M296 - Mercedes Ambulancia - White - A+ A,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Stahlberg Mercedes-Benz W123 T-Modell 1 20 Brown metallic (JS),

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Damon Hill 1 8 Helmet 1996,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Trofeu TF0826 ALPINE RENAULT A110 N.60 10th MONTE CARLO 1972 MOSS-CRELLIN 1 43 M,.CONSTRUCTOR MODELS - 1 18 - BENTLEY CONTINENTAL GT - 2011 - BL835,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.CORGI TOYS MERCEDES BENZ 190 E & CARAVAN SET OVP 2003 MB,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Signature Ferrari California T Open 2014 White 1 18 Burago BU16904,.

Matchbox MoY Code 2 YSW-04 Cord Genltemen Racer black bluee Box 1 von 9,.Franklin Mint 1935 Mercedes 500k Roadster,.EBBRO HONDA CRX - BALLADE SPORTS - RED 1 43 - EXCELLENT CONDITION - 31,.Matchbox Moko Lesney 3 cement mixer perfect orange metal wheels mint in box,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Fujimi model 1 20 Grand Prix series No.46 Ferrari F2012 Malaysia GP,.

Norev 188521 - 1 18 - Volkswagen 1303 cabriolet 1973 - orange,.AMT PRO SHOP MERCURY COUGAR 1 25 PREPAINTED PLASTIC MODEL KIT RARE ,.Schuco 4768 AUDI R8 V10 NURBURGRING 2009 1 43 Modellino,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, McLaren MP4-12C Spider 2012 0range metallic 1 43 Minichamps neu & OVP 530133030,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.MATCHBOX Yesteryears 10 Different Lot 3 from Deceased Estate FREE POSTAGE,.Autoart 1 18 Scale 70035 Toyota Harrier Met Red (Lexus RX) diecast Model Car,.Renault Alpine 1600S A110 1971 bluee Metallic 1 18 Norev 185300,.Neo 1 43 - Opel Ascona B Sport blacke,.Best Model BT9400 ALFA ROMEO TZ 1 N.62 17th TARGA FLORIO 1964 A.NICODEMI-F.LESSO,.

COMANDO MERCEDES BENZ 220 AVEC BOITE 1 32, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.PORSCHE 911 RSR n°59 vainqueur 24H DAYTONA 1973 1 18,.EIDAI GRIP NISSAN DATSUN FAIRLADY 240 Z 240Z RALLY MINT RARE,. The PartridgeDinky Toys rare Dublo 061 Ford Prefect Near Mint Boite ( Dkc),.Maisto 2006 Pontiac Solstice Diecast 1 24 Red Special Edition NIB,.NOREV - 1 18 - FIAT 500 GIARDINIERA - 1968 - 187724,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Plumbies Model 1 43 Scale Unbuilt Kit - 23 Mercedes Benz Typ 300S Cabriolet 1955, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Somerville Models 1 43 Scale 117A - Ford A494A Anglia Tourer - Green,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Diecast Masters Int'l HX520 Day Cab Tandem Tractor Grey 1 50 Trailer Head 71005,.PEUGEOT 504 break MAVIC Tour de France cycliste 1977 1 43 velo,PartridgeHOT WHEELS LOT 2000 VIRTUAL COLLECTION SERIES,.Code 3 Classics 1 64 Scale Engine Model 12393 Boston Massachusetts Fire Dept,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, SPARK 1 43 S0396 ALFA ROMEO BC 2004 RED, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, LIAZ-677M “ Assistance Technique Urss Russe Bus 1 43 1 43 Modèle À L'Échelle,; Brumm BMAS53 FIAT 600 50,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Mercedes R107 350 SL 1974 gold modelcar 940033431 Maxichamps 1 43, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, HOT WHEELS SUPER TREASURE HUNT TREASURE HUNT BONE SHAKER SHORT CARD, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeConrad 1 50 Scale Diecast - VAN4 Container Trailer + Scania Cab,.

Minichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast - 400 120431 Alfa Romeo 6C 1750 G.S 1930 bluee,.Formule 1 Ferrari F 300 - M. Schumacher, Clarke's negligent act.Citroen Ami 6 1964 jade green1 18 Norev neu & OVP 181536,.Matchbox SF Nr.45A Ford Group 6 d'redmetallic greyer Motor top in Box,.Marx 14 1 2 Pressed Metal - Friction - Fire Engine - Yr. 50's,.

PONTIAC GTO CONgreenIBLE - NEO SCALE MODEL 1 43 - 1966 - MINT BOXED - NEO MODEL,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Art Model AM0256 FERRARI 860 MONZA N.17 WINNER SEBRING 1956 FANGIO-CASTELLOTTI 1,Mercury Monterey Sun Valley 1954 türkis dunkelgreen 1 43 NEO 44057 NEU OVP,. In Noska,Minichamps Mercedes Benz SLS AMG GT3 MS Racing 1 18 151113102,.Porsche 911 Carrera 2.7 RS (1973) 1 18 Norev 187636,.J.E. MORGAN KNITTING TAMAQUA ERTL 1 64 T384 INTERNATIONAL CAB W TRAILER,.Excellent DINKY SUPERTOYS 963 Blaw Knox Heavy Tractor & Early Original Box, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Schuco 1 43 Mercedes-Maybach G650, blue 450900400,.Dinky Toys A C Aceca boxed,.1 18 Minichamps Porsche 911 GT3 R Limited Edition,.Mercedes-Benz Modellauto LKW Actros GigaSpace FH25 4x2 Taxi IAA 2012 1 50 limiti,. Id., p 923.

371G Novoexport CCCP Saratov Moskvitch 408 Militia Police Soviet 1 43,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, WESTERN MODELS 1 43 JIM LINK CHEVROLET 20TH ANNIVERSARY,Ford Country Squire 1960 Wooden Red 1 18 Model MODELCARGROUP,.BMW 2000 CS (1965) 1 18 KK Scale KKDC180122,.AutoWorld 1 18 1969 Pontiac GTO Hard Top Diecast Model Car gold AMM1081,.MINI VAN RAC SERVICE 1975 SPARK 1 43 SP1510 Model,.1 24 Special Scale Japanese Cars Collection Vol.45 Mazda Familia redary Coupe,.PEUGEOT 604 Limousine Heuliez 1978 1 43 NEO 47080,.NOREV - 1 18 - CITROEN C4 CACTUS - 2014 - 181650,. The parties 1940 FORD PANEL DANBURY MINT, ACTION 1 24 DIECAST FUNNY CAR BOYS GIRLS 10 UP,.

Ebbro EB44020 HONDA NSX N.100 FUJI SUPER GT 2007 1 43 Modellino,.Ferrari 365 GT4 2+2 Baujahr 1972 hellblue metallic 1 18 KK-Scale,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Mercedes Benz SLK 230 Cabrio 1996 - Modellauto 1 18 Maisto Mint IN DEALER BOX,; Jada - 1 24 Scale - 97036 - Fast & Furious 7 Brian's Nissan GT-R (R35), (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

NOREV - 1 18 - RENAULT CLIO 16S PHASE 1 - 1991 - 185234,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Renault R5 Supercinque Gt Turbo 1986 Light bluee Met NOREV 1 18 NV185207 Model,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Mitsubishi Eclipse 1995 black Modellauto 1 18 Greenlight Collectibles,.Norev 185300 Renault Alpine A110 1600S Baujahr 1971 bluemetallic 1 18 NEU,.Herpa 309110 H0 LKW Liebherr Mobilkran LTM 1045 1 Scholpp Kinderkran,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Skoda 110 R 1972 Green 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.CITROEN DS 21 Chapron Lorraine 1969 1 43 Neuf en boite I39,.Heco Modeles 87 Aston Martin DB 2 Cabriolet kit hand built perfect mint in box,.Porsche 956 h LeMans 1983 Henn, Schlesser, Ballot-Lena 1 43 Spark,.Spark Model SB164 MERCEDES GT3 N.48 NC 24H SPA 2017 DONTJE-ASSENHEIMER-HEYER 1 4,.Majorette Peugeot 205 Turboom (x2),. The Scottsdale2017 Hot Wheels Fairlady 2000 Lot of 36,Mercedes 11 40 1924 black Rio 1 43 Rio4353 Model Diecast,.Opel Commodore C 4 Türig grey metallic 1978, model cars 1 43,. Id.,Franklin Mint Corvettes 1955 bluee Congreenible w Tag, Top and Box 1 24,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Fiat Ritmo Abarth 130 Tc 1984 grey Quarzo (639) 1 43 Kess Ks43010011 Model,; PredAR MYTHIC BIKE COLLECTION 1 9 SCALE CAGIVA 500CC M BOXED,Revell 1 32 Maßstab Slotcar Drm 1977 BMW 320 Jorg Obermoser,.Maserati A6G 2000 Allemano Coupe 1956 red black 1 43 Neo 46560 NEU,. The ScottsdaleMATRIX Cisitalia 33DF Volo Radente 1954 1 43 MX10307-011,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Ferrari Challenge Team Shelton North American Champion 2006 1 18 Autoart..,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Matchbox BOXED No 75 Ferrari Berlinetta,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, SCHUCO 02568, VW BREZELKAEFER, DARK RED, 1 43 SCALE,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, MECCANO DINKY TOYS 172 STUDABAKER LAND CRUISER EXC NM-- ENGLAND UK CAR,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, FIAT 500 Giardiniera 1962 1 18 Norev 187723 Cinquecento Light Green,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Fiat 238 Assistenza Ferrari Le Mans 1977 Red 1 43 Model RIO, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, NEO MODELS FORD RANCHERO - RED 1 43 - EXCELLENT CONDITION - 29, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Fiat Ritmo Abarth 130 Tc 1984 grey Quarzo (639) 1 43 Kess Model Ks43010011,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgePremium Classixxs 13300 VW LT28 BOX VAN GREEN 1 43,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Rare Gem Magazine 1928 sir Malcolm Campbell blueebird tin toy record car model,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheOpel Rekord A Coupe Bj.1965 - Scheunenfund Diorama im Maßstab 1 43 Barn find,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Porsche 911 (991II) Gt3 Rs Paquete de Weissach 2018 yellow black 1 43 Spark,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,1969 Base Hot Wheels Redline Nitty Gritty Kitty orange White Interior Honk Kong,Best Model BT9141 A.ROMEO TZ 2 N.29 MONZA 1967 1 43 Modellino,.ERTL 1 64 SCALE JOHN DEERE AIR SEEDER PLAYSET BN 45555,.Scale model 1 43 Rometsch Lawrence Coupe, red white, 1957,. The HuygheCorgi 1 50 scale 15901 Scammell Highwayman generator + trailer & Dodgems,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheMatchbox Lesney Vauxhall Cresta Sedan,.

RENAULT MEGANE VAMPIRE Norev blue 1 18,.EMEK 30795 MAN TGS LX Tieflader mit Bagger 1 25,.

DeAgostini DINKY TOYS OPEL KAPITAN blueE 177,.Citroen HY 1969 blue-white 1 18 Solido neu + OVP 1850006,. Nonetheless, on the facts of 1 43 DIECAST MINICHAMPS LOTUS 98T DUMFRIES 1986 NEVER DISPLAYED,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeVW Passat B3 Variant VR6 (1991) 1 18 KK Scale KK180073,.1 43 Pathfinder PFM CC2 Borgward Isabella Coupe 1959 1 of 600 No box,.

For example, in Partridge,Burago 16907. Coche de colección. Ferrari Signa FXX K red. Escala 1 18,. In Jorgensen, supra,Corgi 26403 AEC MkV Mammoth Major Platform wool Bales Ltd Edition,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.1 43 Western 1927 Rolls Royce Weyman Saloon white metal WMS36 Box England,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,EAGLE RACE 1 18 212001 PORSCHE 911 CARRERA 1973 BAZAR,. That is the same situation in this case.Corgi TC1003 Triumph Centenary 1902 - 2002 3 car Diecast Set,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.ISUZU VehiCROSS 1997 4x4 bluee Hi Story 1 43 HS059BL,. Detroit Edison, supra.

FERRARI 512 BB N.73 49th LM 1982 HENN-LANIER-MORIN 1 43 Best Model BT9323,.Audi R10 TDI, No.2, Winner Le Mans 2008 in 1 43 scale by Spark 43LM08,.Auto World American Muscle 1971 Plymouth GTX 1 18,.

1 24 '66 Chevrolet Chevelle 396 - Maisto 124 66 1966 Ss Classic Muscle M31333,.