Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Spark 1 43 - Renault Dacia Logan Concept Steppe,.CHEVROLET NOMAD STATION WAGON 1 NEO SCALE MODELS,.Corgi Toys 208 JAGUAR 2.3 LITRE Saloon White Collectible Car 1960's No Box,.MATCHBOX MOKO LESNEY HORSE DRAWN MILK FLOAT METAL WHEELS WITH ORIGINAL BOX,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.DINKY TOYS HUDSON COMMODORE LIGHT GREY MID blueE 1954 SCALE 1 43,.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM26 - 1953 Jowett Javelin Deluxe - Athena Grey,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.GAZ 47 GT-S All-terrain car with cover SSM 3004 1 43,.Spark 1 43 Porsche 911 Carrera RSR 3.0 h Le Mans 1975 Art. S5088,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.7 Mixed Lot Lesney Matchbox Cars in their original boxes 1980 circa models 18,.American Car Series Friction Drive T225-59 Cadillac Sedan Made In Japan W Box,.LANSDOWNE MODELS LDM66 TRIUMPH GLORIA VITESSE SPORTS SALOON - GREY 1 43 - 24, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
IXO 1 43 Ferrari BB512 Red FER005,.Vintage - ALFA ROMEO Junior Zagato - 1 43 Mebetoys A-46,.Fiat 519 Croce Rossa Italiana 1932 1 43 Model RIO,.1948 48 ford woody wagon Yatming Road Signature Series 1 18 box damaged bad,.
MINICHAMPS MERCEDES-BENZ 250 TD (S123) 'AUTOBAHNPOLIZEI BERLIN' 430032294,.SPARK BeatriceLola THL2 Alan Jones 1 43 S1788,.REVELL 48837 ALFA ROMEO SPIDER PININFARINA - RED 1 18 - EXCELLENT IN BOX,.Fiat 238 Pirelli Servizio Rally 1971 1 43 Model RIO4238 RIO,.SUNSTAR QUARTZO 1 18 LOTUS 72E RONNIE PETERSON 1973 ITALIAN GRAND PRIX WINNER,.
Tuk Tuk Taxi 1 18 Rare,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A. BOBBY MARSHMAN ECONO-CAR GMP 7625 OFFENHAUSER VINTAGE DIRT CHAMP RACE CAR 1 18,.1 43 RL86K Jaguar E-type lightweight Samir Klat low drag coupe KIT BY SMTS,.Trofeu TFRRAL22 AUDI QUATTRO N.18 3rd PORTUGAL 1982 WITMANN-DIEKMANN 1 43 Modell,Ferrari LaFerrari Coupe Matt black Ab 2013 Signature 1 18 Bburago Modell Aut..,.1 43 Aston Martin One-77 2009 Spark S2160 MINIMAX resin car model 1 43 scale,.
Fiat 238 Polizia 1974 1 43 Model RIO,.MAYBACH ZEPPELIN 1932 WHITE blueE blue WEISS L. E. 528 PMA 436039408 1 43 NEW OVP,.Fiat 18 BL 1914 Beige 1 43 Model RIO4316 RIO,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
Greenlight 11018 2017 22 Juan Montoya Penske Racing Fitzgerald Glider 1 18 Scale,.
CORGI 1 50 CC13915 FODEN ALPHA FRIDGE TRAILER J.A. KILLOH TRANSPORT (D29),. We agree in part.
Drake Z0B009 Yellow Ballast Box,.Bitesu Vitesse 1 43 Fiat 124 Abarth Monte Carlo 1973 New F S,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Opel Kadett C2 Limousine Weiss 1973-1979 Triple 9 1 18 PremiumX Modell Auto mi..,.NEO SCALE MODELS NEO45911 MASERATI 3500 GT TOURING COUPE' 1958 METALLIC GREY 1 4,.1 43 Best Model Lola T70 Spyder Car from 1967 Riverside G.Follmer,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Honda NSX Kyosho 1 18 sehr guter Zustand in OVPGreat condotion with box,.Models of Yesteryear Y-8 Morris Cowley Bullnose 1926 in brown, Originalbox Typ A,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Rapha 1 24 scale Citroën Type H Van die cast model Use And Broke Wheel And Light,; Scarce Factory 408067 The Beatles Routemaster A Hard Days Night 2009 1 64 sca,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
Minichamps Mercedes AMG F1 W08 Mexican GP Bott 1 43 410171877,.Vintage 1966 Matchbox Lesney Series Ferrari Berlinetta Spoke Wheels NOS,Toyota TS010 () 1992 JSPC -- HPI 43,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Minichamps 1 43 Scale 400 931401 - Audi V8 Evolution Belgian Procar '93,.
Audi Tt Roadster 1999 White, Model Car 1 43 Minichamps,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Spark 1 43 Mercedes Benz SLS AMG GT3 n.67 24H SPA 2014 GDL Motorsport SB083,.Diecast Car Model LCD Models Range Rover 1 18 (Champagne) + GIFT ,.Batman Arkham Knight Batmobile black in 1 43 Hot Wheels Elite BLY30,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Chgold Q Toyota rally history set,; Kit monté Métal 1 43 - Peugeot 302 bluee,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Lamborghini Aventador J black Autoart 1 43 AA54653,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
Vanguards 1 43 Scale Model Car VA10111 - Triumph Stag Mk2 - BRG,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Kyosho 1 43 Nissan Gran Turismo Price 5800 Yen,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
Porsche 962 , No.68, BF Goodrich, IMSA, Riverside, 1 18, Norev,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
MAN Car Transporter With trailer Red and Grey 1970 IXO TTRX007,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Jada Toys Import Racer Option D Mazda RX-7 FC3S Yellow Drift Diecast 1 64 Scale,.Porsche 911 997 II Turbo Coupe grey 2004-2012 Ab Facelift 2010 1 43 Minichamps..,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Western Models Predotype, Plumbies Porsche 356B 1 43 Scale, Loose,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Herpa 310215 Jubiläumsset mit zwei Modellen 80 Jahre Spedition Wandt ,.
Die Cast Model 1 24 F60 AMERICA 2014 Ferrari Collection No.42 New from Japan,.Tamiya Collector's Club Eunos Roadster 1 64 Scale MAZDA Open car From Japan 7Q,.Spark 1 43 BRM P160E No.14 5th Argintina 1974 Jean-Pierre Beltoise S1149,.FERRARI FXX 2005 SOLAR DIRECT LOOKSMART LS 159F 1 43 n AMR BBR MR BOSICA ABC,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.WILLIAMS FW20 GP AUSTRALIA 1998 TAMEO KITS IN METALLO 1 43,.
Spark Model Porsche 996 GT3 Duez Marc 1 43 S3797,.HOT WHEELS 1 18 AUTO DIE CAST FERRARI 250 TESTA ROSSA FUORI PRODUZIONE 23913,.Spark 1 43 Porsche 997 GT3 Cup n.88 2013 Vainqueur Carrera Special Run SF073,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, 1 43 RL58K LOTUS 34 JIM CLARK KIT BY SMTS,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Road Signature 1 18 Scale 92208 1957 Ford Ranchero Pink White Diecast model car,.Neo Fiat Abarth 1000 GT Monomille - red - 1963 - 1 43,.MINICHAMPS 1 43 1993 PENSKE MARLBgold CHEVROLET TEST CAR AYRTON SENNA 540934308,.SPARK LIGIER JS31 GP Japan 1988 René Arnoux S3968 1 43,.SCHUCO PICCOLO 740 BUS MERCEDES - VOITURE MINIATURE GERMANY REF31294,.
Bentley Continental GT3 no. 8 Spa 2015 ( M. Buhk - M.Soulet - A.Soucek), the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Spark Model S5805 TOYOTA TS050 HYBRID N.9 DNF LM 2017 LAPIERRE-KUNIMOTO-LOPEZ 1 ,.DeAgostini 328 GTB 1985 1 24 Model Le Grandi Ferrari Collection No.24 Japan F S,. The PartridgeHOT WHEELS --2010 SELECTIONS SERIES 69 CAMARO--2704 4748,.BBU16904 by BBURAGO FERRARI CALIFORNIA T OPEN TOP (CABRIOLET) 1 18,.Mercedes Classic Collection 1 43, 50 Jahre SL in OVP,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Tatra 128N oliv grey Pritsche mit Plane - 1 43 Premium Classixxs PCL47077 NEW, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.1 18 Norev MB 280 SL Cabrio 1969 red 183520,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Nex 1 18 Scale 1963 Volkswagen T1 Bus Splitscreen Red Cream Diecast model Car,.OLIVER 1850 TRACTOR W PERKINS DIESEL PURPLE 1 16 DIECAST MODEL SPECCAST SCT689,PartridgeMint Ixo 1 43 Citroen C4 Wrc Cyprus Rally 2009,.Brooklin Ford F1 Panel Delivery Modelex Special 1990,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, VW Volkswagen Käfer 1303 Rally Acropolis silver grey Kallström Nr 7 1 18 Solid.., (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, KYOSHO original 1 43 Lexus RC350 F Sport White No ve glass flakes,; Hot Wheels Redline Mclaren M6A US Brown Excellent to Near Mint,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Porsche Panamera G1 II Exclusive Series black 1. Generation 2009-2016 Ab Fac.., (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Spark 1 43 Renault 21 Superproduction 4x4 Superturisme 1988 Art. SF015, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeSchuco 450903900 VW Käfer 1600-S, red,.
Best Model BT9554 ABARTH 2000 S N.418 TRIESTE OPICINA 1969 F.PILONE 1 43 Modelli,.Mclaren F1 1995 Papaya orange High Mirrors True Scale 1 43 TSM134326 Model, Clarke's negligent act.OLIVER 1650 TRACTOR W FRONT WHEEL ASSIST 1 16 DIECAST MODEL BY SPECCAST SCT684,.NEO MODELS BMW E39 Polizei 2002 1 43 43298,.Maxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940039031 Mercedes Benz 300sl Roadster 1955 Red,.
Minichamps 1 43 Scale 400 882031 - BMW M3 Eifelrennen DTM 1988,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Porsche 911 GT3 Cup--1 18-OVP,TAKARA JAPAN 803644- FLIGHT ATTENDANT JAL - JENNY's TRAVEL UNUSED IN - BOX RARE,. In Noska,Modelcar Klassiker Mercedes Benz 220 8 Einsatzfahrzeug Polizei OVP, 1 18, K020,.Italian Style Vignale 340 Mexico 1952 1 43 Art1002 Auto Diecast Miniature,.Rio RI4414 VW COCCINELLE N.229 52th MONTE CARLO 1952 NATHAN-SCHELLHAAS 1 43 Mode,.Precision 100 Collection 1 18 Scale 1964 1 2 FORD MUSTANG CONgreenIBLE (RED), necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Mercury Cougar Eliminator 1970 Yellow 1 18 Model 0345 WELLY,.Renault Megane R.S. 2017 Yellow, Model Car 1 18 Norev,.Matchbox 40A Bedford Dk Tipper GPW 1957,.LOTUS 72E RONNIE PETERSON 1973 ITALIAN GP WINNER 1 18 BY QUARTZO 18292,. Id., p 923.
Porsche 356 C Cabriolet Hardtop (Red White) 1963,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Siku VW Volkswagen Transporter T3 Badische Zeitung in Green on Blister,Americana 1 43 Scale White Metal Kit - 13 Chevrolet Styleline 1950,.GERMANY SIKU BATTLE TANK DIECAST CAR SU4913,.Mercedes 200 Pompieri Schrndorf 1965 1 43 Model MINICHAMPS,.SUNSTAR SS4056 LOTUS ELAN S3 1966 YELLOW 1 18,.Spark 1 43 Scale S3341 - Ford Fiesta RS WRC - th Monte Carlo 2012,.Porsche 935 LM 1978 n°94 S2014 1 43 Sparkmodel,.2009 Nissan GT-R Skyline R35 Rear Fog Light And Surround,. The parties NEO47150 - CITROEN SM OPERA BY HENRY CHAPRON DARK RED 1 43 MODELLINO MODELLO AUT,.
1 18 Lamborghini Aventador LP700-4 Welly 18041 Diecast Model Army Green,.Porsche 356A 1600 Speedster - Minichamps 1 43 in Box 34701,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, TOP Schuco 00096 Goggomobil Limousine Baujahr 1965 hellblue-white 1 18,; Corgi CC04307 James Bond Aston Martin DB5 goldfinger 1 36 Scale New & Unopened, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
MERCEDES BENZ 300 SEL 6.8 AMG DRM Norisring 1972 Heyer Minichamps 1 43,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, NEO SCALE MODELS NEO45119 FIAT 128 CL MARADONA 1982 WHITE 1 43,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)KINSFUN RENAULT TWIZY 1 18 SCALE RED NEW NO BOX USA FREE SHIP,.Wiking 1 32 077320 Traktor Anhänger Claas Uniwrap Rollant 455 - NEU OVP,.Ebbro 44697 TOYOTA IQ blueE 1 43 scale,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Porsche 911 991 Carrera Gts Cabriolet 2017 SPARK 1 43 S7622,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Minichamps 1 43 - F1 Coffret Jordan Mugen Honda 199 1999 et EJ10 2000,.OLDMOBILE Cutlass 442 Hardtop Coupe br 1968 Muscle Car V8 ERTL Autoworld SP 1 18,.Art Model AM0291 FERRARI 857 S N.1 ACCIDENT NASSAU TROPHY 1956 P.HILL 1 43 Model,.STAR WARS 2017 CHARACTER CARS, HOT WHEELS, LOT OF 6 DIFFERENT SETS, NEW,.Porsche 911 Turbo 1977 Slate bluee Metallic 1 43 Minichamps 430069007 NEW,. The Scottsdale1 64 Greenlight - Special Edition 1970 DODGE CHARGER R T Factory Print Error,MIRA 4008 Seat 1200 Policia,.1 18 Norev Opel Manta A 1970 greenmetallic,. Id.,Audi A5 Cabrio Teak brown Facelift Ab 2011 1 43 Norev Auto mit oder ohne indiv..,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, METAL BUILT KIT K&R REPLICAS ACE 31 MG TD MIDGET - 1 43 - RARE SELTEN - IN BOX,; Spark Models 1 43 Scale S1462 - Gillet greenigo GT 2005,MODELLINO MERCEDES BENZ CLK DTM 2003 J. ALESI TEAM HWA IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.Antique 1930s barclay vehicle lot ,. The ScottsdaleERTL 1969 Baldwin Motion Camaro 1 of 2500 Hobby Edition Diecast 1 18 Scale w box,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Auto Replicas 1 43 Scale White Metal Built Kit AR18 - Triumph TR6 - bluee,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Skoda 110 R green 1972 Neoscale 1 43 NEO44487,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Honda R-1300 Km Suzuka Race 1969 1 43 Model RIO414107 RIO,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, MINICHAMPS JAGUAR XJ-S CABRIOLET GLACIER WHITE 400130430,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Mac Due MCG18050 OPEL 4 PS LAUBFROSCH 1924 GREEN 1 18 Modellino,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Nissan GTR R35 2008 grey metallic 1 18 Norev Diecast 188053, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Premium X 1 43 Scale Model Car PRD306 - Morgan 4 4 1974 - Cream, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, CITROËN DS3 CABRIOLET 2013 1 18 NOREV,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeBrooklin Models 1 43 Scale Model Car BRK30 - 1954 Dodge Royal 500 - Unboxed,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Vanguards 1 43 - Coffret 2 Ford Classic 109 E Brands Hatch Diorama,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in Huyghe1953 Ford Crestline Sunliner Coupe red-black 1 18 Welly 12525,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Mercury Cougar Racing Zippo US Vintage Grand Prix'04 1967 1 18 Sunstar 1579,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,Fiat Sport 16 20 24 HP Open 1903 Red 1 43 Model RIO4401 RIO,Guisval Porsche Skis n°101 ,avec catalogue 1980 neuf en boite 1 37,.Universal-Hobbies 4932 Kubota Rm3005v 1 3 2,.Genuine MINI Congreenible 2016 Miniature Die Cast Model Car Toy White 80432405582,. The HuygheNOREV CADILLAC XLR 2004 - GREY METALLIC 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 21 39,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheSpark Model S43SE71 PORSCHE 917 N.3 WINNER 12 H SEBRING 1971 V.ELFORD-G.LARROUSS,.
Dodge Challenger RT 426 Hemi 1970 Red S3612 Spark 1 43 New in a box ,.CORGI CLASSICS MODEL No.96011 MR BEAN'S MINI ( 2nd VERSION ) MIB,.
POLITOYS E Ghibli Maserati ref 591 EXPORT (made in ) + Box,.CODE 3 1 50 JOHNSON SECURITY MERCEDES LORRY ROYAL MAIL POST OFFICE,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Norev 1 43 Plastik Simca Marly Ambulance leuchtorange,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeVitesse 1 43 Scale V98155 - 1964 Mini Moke Conv - Snowberry White,.NOREV 1 18 2014 MERCEDES-BENZ C-CLASS ESTATE DIE-CAST GREY 183475,.
For example, in Partridge,Herpa, MAN Bayern LKW 2012, Hopfen und Malz-Gott erhalts , 909846,. In Jorgensen, supra,NSU RO80 Wankel - Mebetoys A-37 1 43 34382,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.AUTOart 1 43 Lamborghini Gallardo LP570-4 Super Leger over La (White),. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,VINTAGE MIDGETOY RACE CAR WITH ORIGINAL BOX MIDGETOY ALL METAL SAFE DURABLE,. That is the same situation in this case.Abarth 1000 SP (1968) Resin Model Car S1331,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.FERRARI 312T4 INCIDENTATA GP OLANDA 1979 G.VILLENEUVE Brumm AS59B,. Detroit Edison, supra.
MODELLINO AUDI V8 TEAM AZR F. BIELA DTM CHAMPION 1991 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.Ebbro MMP EBRRO 1 43 Lotus ELAN Type 26 S2 Yellow Finished Product 44164,.NOREV 185708 1976 76 SIMCA 1000 RALLY 2 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR MAYA YELLOW,.
PAUL'S MODEL ART MINICHAMPS BMW M3 Sport Evo Team MM Diebels Danner 1 43 MIB,.