Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Aoshima Bunka Kyozai 1 24 Liberty Walk Series No.11 LB · Works R35 GT-R type 1.5,.Burago 1 18 Ferrari 456 GT (1992) green -3036- Die-Cast Scale Modell Auto NEU OVP,.Barkas B1000 Wohnmobil 1973 brown 297 1 43 Ist Ixo Modell Auto mit oder ohne i..,.RENAULT ESTAFETTE PIK-UP orange MODELE NOËL 2010 DINKY TOYS ATLAS,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.1 18 Norev Simca 9 Aronde 1954 hellblue 185741,.PORSCHE 956C 956 C Le Mans 1985 Winner Joest New Man Ludwig Barill Spark 1 43,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.1969 Base Hot Wheels Redline Nitty Gritty Kitty orange White Interior Honk Kong,.Mercedes 300 D Pompe Funebri 1960 1 43 Model RIO,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Auto Art Gateway AA68932 MERCEDES 500 SEC N.6 SPA 1989 1 43,.Pirate Models 1 76 Scale White Metal Kit - 406 Q1 Trolleybus,.Simca Aronde 1951 black 1 18 Norev, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
Minichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast - 400 120431 Alfa Romeo 6C 1750 G.S 1930 bluee,.Diapet 1 30 Scale Diecast SV-17 - Toyota Celsior 4000 - Pearlescent White,.Matchbox No. 12 Safari Land Rover,.CORGI TOYS AUSTIN MINI VAN POLICE REF 448 TRÈS BON ÉTAT,.
Auto World 64172 1 64 Version B 1976 Pontiac Firebird Trans Am ULTRA RED CHASE,.Giocher PN01P PUNTO NUOVA POLIZIA,.Spark Lotus 69 F2 Graham Hill 1 43 S2146,.Art Model AM0161-2 FERRARI 166 MM BARCHETTA N.23 ACCIDENT LM 1949 J.LUCAS-HELDE',.Norev 183634 Manta A GT E 1975 white black 1 18,.
Purple Passion, Hot Wheels, White, GHOSTBUSTERs, Limited Edition, 1 of 25 ,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Ferrari 550 von 1996, red, 1 43, PMA MInichamps,.Greenlight Garage Indycar XM Honda NEW IN BOX 1 18,.Toyota IQ 2009 Bronze 1 43 Model 44698 EBBRO,Model Van Scooby Doo. Includes characters. Kit mounting. Scale 1 25,.CORGI TOYS 236 Austin A.60 Motor School Car. Right hand drive version near mint,.
KK-SCALE 1 18 VOLKSWAGEN T1 SAMBA 1959 red black MODELLINO,.Spark 1 43 Porsche 935 n.18 Trans Am Champion 1979 John Paul S4415,.Eidai Grip 1 28 Scale 1600 Porsche 930 911 Turbo Martini Vintage diecast car,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
Fiat 128 CL 1978 White 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,.
Mercedes Benz SLS AMG GT3 no. 36 ADAC GT Masters 2011,. We agree in part.
Spark Model S4780 BRABHAM BT24 KURT AHRENS 1968 N.17 12th GERMAN GP 1 43 Modelli,.Nissan Patrol Geländewagen Bj.1984 - Scheunenfund Diorama im Maßstab 1 43,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.MOTEUR V8 CHEVROLET BLOWN HOT ROD 1 6,.Old Vtg Adams Bros Probe 16 Diecast Toy Car Pilen 1 43 ESSO Decal Made In Spain,.Corgi Scania R & W Floor Trailer- Williams Transport,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; BURAGO 1 18 3010 LANCIA AURELIA B24 SPIDER 1955 METALLIC RED,.FERRARI 330 P MONZA - 1964 L. SCARFIOTTI 1 43 art.337 ARTMODEL Made in ,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Mercedes Benz Actros FH25 StreamSpace Sattelzug beleuchtet Weiss 1 87 Neu OVP,; 1 43 Ixo Ferrari Enzo,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
Rio 1 43 - Citroen DS 21 Sedan 1969 Green,.Ferrari 250 LM 1965 Le Mans yellow, 1 18 DIECAST Model HotWheels 29753, NEU & OVP,Mint Kyosho Mini Champs 1 43 Lamborghini Gallardo Lp 560-4,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.UT MODELS 28106 MERCEDES BENZ C - F1 MEDICAL SAFETY CAR - 1 18 - EXCELLENT IB,.
MATRIX 50408011 DELAHAYE 235 CHAPRON COUPE 1953 - blueE 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 39 38,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.1997 Action 1 24th Diecast Nascar Jeff Gordon Jurassic Park,.EFE 10104A AEC RT Bus London Transport Austrian Airlines Vienna 81 LondonAirport,.Corgi 73401 Pinder - Jean Richard - Berliet GLR8 Fourgon Lorry & Trailer - MIB.,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Schuco 1 43 03031 LKW Pritschenwagen Krupp-Titan s.Foto OVP (B1255),; Maxichamps 1 43 Scale 940 063201 - 2014 Porsche Cayenne - Yellow,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Art Model 236 FERRARI 750 MONZA 1000KM PARIS 1 43 Modellino,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
1 18 ANSON 1953 CADILLAC ELDORADO CONgreenIBLE BURGUNDY bd,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Franklin Mint 1 43 Scale Model Car B11UK13 - 1952 DeSoto Firedome - Bue,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
Ebro 1 43 Nissan GT-R LM NISMO LM2015 test car finished product,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
Mercedes L1000 'MARKLIN METALLSPIELWAREN' 1 43 Model SCHUCO,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Quiralu Repro 1 43 Scale Diecast - Mercedes 300 SL - Cream bluee + Box,.Maserati Quattroporte Iv 1994 Amarant 1 43 Neoscale NEO45172 Model,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.MATCHBOX HOT WHEELS DATSUN LOT OF 22 ZAMAC 240Z JAPAN HISTORICS 620 510 blueEBIRD,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.UNIVERSAL-HOBBIES 68128 La Campagne blue yellow 1 32,.
MODELLINO OPEL KADETT E 1989 GREEN IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.MC01 MCC Smart Fortwo 42 450 Cabrio BRABUS black 1 18 KYOSHO,.BRITBUS LLA-02, ALEXANDER BODIED ALBION LOWLANDER, ALEXANDER MIDLAND LTD,.HS213RE Hi-Story 1 43 Mazda CX-8 2017 Soul Red Crystal Metallic resin model car,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Eligor Scania S730 - black - B.R.M - 1 43,.
F1 Team Lewis Hamilton Winner Brazilan GP 2016 Diecast 1 43 Scale by Minichamps,.International 1 50 scale HX520 White Tandem Tractor - Diecast Masters 71001,.Porsche 911 991-2 Gt2 Rs Coupe 2018 SPARK 1 43 S7623 Model,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Corgi 1 50 scale CC20304 Garrett 4CD Showmans Tractor Pride of the south,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Solido CITROËN Dyane 6 Jade Green 421184010 1 18,.Hot Wheels 2019 Coche Cultura Equipo Transporte C Funda Juego de 3 Datsun,.Mercedes 600 Pullman 1972 Red Baron The Hilton Family True Scale 1 43 TSM154340,.Bentley Continental Supersports Coupe Grey,.NOREV NV183467 MERCEDES 300 SL 1986 INCA RED 1 18,.
Maisto 1 18 Scale Diecast - 31854 1948 Chevrolet Fleetmaster Woody Burgundy, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.1 18 Bburago Ferrari 250 Le Mans 1965 KIT BAUSATZ NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.LOTUS ELAN S4 SPRINT 1971 blue METALLIC 1 43 SPARK S1242 NEU,. The PartridgeHeavy Chevy Original Hot Wheels Redline Premium Restoration Lt. Green,.Citroen DS19 Charles De Gaulle 1960 With Figure 1 43 Model RIO,.Art Model AM0397 FERRARI 166 MM BARCHETTA N.642 DNF MM 1949 TARUFFI-NICOLINI 1 4,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, 1 43 Schuco 03520 MB LP 608 Koffer LKW Martini Racing, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.DIECAST MASTERS 1 50 SCALE CATERPILLAR 12M3 MOTOR GRADER MODEL BN 85519,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.SPARK 1 43 - S908HDI PEUGEOT 908 HDI FAP N'7 LM 2008,.REVELL 1 18th SCALE DIE CAST BMW 530 I 4 DR SEDAN CAR RE 8841 BOX SCUFFED,PartridgeMETOSUL 24 PEUGEOT 204 TAXI NEAR MINT BOXED RARE SELTEN,.Spark 1 43 Mercedes AMG GLA45 2016 (Cirrus White) S4911,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Spark Porsche 997 GT3 RSR LeMans 2010 Felbermayr S2585, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Dinky Dublo 064 Austin Lorry - Mint in Mint Box,; Best Model BT9570 ABARTH 700 S N.55 24th LM 1961 CONDRILLIER-FOITEK 1 43 Modelli,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Norev Citroën DS3 WRC 2012 1 18 Merksteijn Chevallier Rally Portugal (MCC), (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Ferrari 375 MM 1953 Red 1 43 Model 0079 ART-MODEL, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeVINTAGE HOT WHEELS 1969 REDLINE YELLOW PEEPING BOMB-MADE IN USA-VERY NICE PIECE,.
Spark Model S5813 ORECA 07 GIBSON N.26 DNF LM 2017 RUSINOV-THIRIET-LYNN 1 43 Mod,.Ferrari 625 LM Le Mans 195 - 1 43 - Art Model, Clarke's negligent act.Audi R8 LMS no. 97 24h Nürnburgring 2009,.Diapet 1 40 NISSAN SKYLINE GTS 2-Door Sports Sedan Model Car G-51 MIB`85 RARE,.1 64 Greenlight - Special Edition 1970 DODGE CHARGER R T Factory Print Error,.
Minichamps F1 minicar 1 43B.A.R Honda 006 Takuma Sato,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, MAISTO 1 18 - 31145 BMW M6 CABRIOLET - DARK blueE,John Day Kit Métal Monté 1 43 - F1 Williams FW02 - GP de Brasil 1975 Laffite,. In Noska,Rio RI4198 VW BEETLE N.263 79th (8th CLASS) CARRERA PANAMERICANA 1954 M.HINKE 1 ,.VINTAGE DINKY TOYS MODEL No.25c FLAT WAGON ( orange VERSION ),.SPARK LIGIER JS31 GP Japan 1988 René Arnoux S3968 1 43,.IXO VOLKSWAGEN POLO R WRC MIKKELSEN-JAEGER T.DE CORSE 2016 1 18, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Spark MG B GT V8 1973 1 43 S4141,.Chgold Q TAKARA Toy's dream project 2003 Limited 5 Cars Set Vol.2 NEW F S,.Rare 1 43 scale SCHUCO 450365100 Barkas B1000 VoPo Volkspolizei MIB,.Vintage - ALFA ROMEO Junior Zagato - 1 43 Mebetoys A-46,. Id., p 923.
1 18 Novelty Norev - Renault Alpine A110-50 Year 2012 in bluee orange,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, A.S.S WIKING ALTER LKW MB 1620 KONTINENT MÖBEL 1975 GK 513 11B CS 774 1A 1WTOP,NOREV 1 18 1970 PORSCHE 917K 5TH PLACE 1000KM SPA LAINE DIE-CAST YELLOW 187585,.Aquavit 7711147491 1 43 1990 Renault Laguna Concept Handmade Resin Model Car,.NEW Spark 1 43 Schuppan Porsche 962 CR 1994 metallic bluee KBS035 from Japan F S,.Ford Evos Concept Nürnberg Toy Fair 2014 Spielwarenmesse 1 43 Norev Dealer,.Day Maist Maisto 1 18 Wagen Beetle Volkswagen Kafer 1955 Type1,.BMW 5er 550i Limousine (F10) saphirblack, Art.Nr 80422158006 Maßstab 1 43,.Conrad Metal Model Mercedes Pumi Putzmeister Concrete Pump Ovp 1 50 7.BM-147,. The parties Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale Model Car BRK30 - 1954 Dodge Royal 500 - Unboxed,.
1966 Ferrari 365 California Spyder red 1 18 KK KKDC180051,.UT Models Mercedes-Benz C-Class DTM 1994 1 18 Klaus Ludwig (GER) (MBC),
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Hasbro Nerf Nitro Flashfury Chaos Toy Autoblaster Playset from 5 Years,; Lancia Delta HF Integrale 16V 1989 Metallic bluee 1 18 Model 3152 SUN STAR, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
MATCHBOX MAJOR No 5 - Massey Ferguson 780 SPECIAL - Mähdrescher Combine - Lesney,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, NEW James Bond 50th Anniversary Aston Martin DB5-SKYFALL FREE SHIPPING FROM USA,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Majorette 1 65 Nr. 213b Citroen DS 21 Limousine redmetallic Nr. 2,.1 43 Minicar Mclaren Mercedes,.Franklin Mint 1 24 Scale Chevrolet Corvette 1953 White, with ALL paperwork & tag,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Diecast Car Model 8th Generation Toyota Camry Hybrid 2018 1 18 (bluee) + GIFT ,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Volkswagen T1 Samba Minibus 1959 bluee Cream KK SCALE 1 18 KKDC180152 Model,.Saab 95 1959 bluee White 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,.FIAT 500L 1968 1 18 Norev 187770 500 Cinquecento bluee Turchese Türkis,.Matchbox Lesney No. 38 Vauxhall Victor Estate Car oc16191,.SUN STAR 1 18 1970 DUTCH GP WINNER DIE-CAST RED SS18274,. The Scottsdale1 43 Toyota Gt One Street 1999 Mini Car Fair 2005,Lola T 70 Coupe' 1967 Prova Red 1 43 Model BEST MODELS,.PORSCHE 934 LE MANS 1978 SPARK S5091 1 43,. Id.,MINICHAMPS 1 12 VALENTINO ROSSI FIGURINE RIDING MOTO GP 2005,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Best Model BT9534 FERRARI 330 P2 N.60 2nd MONZA 1965 SURTEES-SCARFIOTTI 1 43 Mod,; 1 64 DCP WELLBORN FOREST FREIGHTLINER EVOLUTION W DRY VAN TRAILER,Porsche 911 Turbo Targa 1987 bluee Metallic, Model Car 1 18 Norev,.Sun Star 1 18 European Collectibles 1957 Porsche 356A 1500 GS Carrera GT SS1342,. The ScottsdaleTin Wizard Opel Super 6 cabriolet 1938 in Red on 1 43 in Box,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, 1 43 Minichamps Maserati Mistral 1964 Red 437123430,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 1 43 THE DARK KNIGHT - BAT POD Hot Wheels Elite X5496,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, OXFORD 76SET57 - 1 76 10 PIECE LAND ROVER MILITARY SET,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Fiat 238 Assistenza Ferrari 1973 Rio 1 43 RIO4427,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, FIAT PANDA 45 POLIZIA R395 BRUMM+ GIULETTA POLIZIA PROGETTO K 271 MAI USATE ,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Herpa 121910 H0 LKW MAN TGX XXL Euro 6c Kühlkoffer-Sattelzug Müller Stauder Pi, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, 2011 Hot Wheels Selections Blown Delivery 1 of 2, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Ferrari 365 California Spyder 1966 Red 1 18 Model KK SCALE,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeSpark Morris Mini Cooper Monte Carlo Rally 1963 1 43 Scale model car,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, HOT WHEELS CMC91 ELITE STARSHIP STAR WARS EPISODE IV A NEW HOPE X-WING FIGHTER,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheMaisto 1 18 Scale Diecast - 31814 Porsche Boxster Red,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.1 18 ERTL AMERICAN MUSCLE 1957 CHEVROLET BEL AIR CONgreenIBLE 40TH ANNIVERSARY,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,Saller Modelle 1 87 A8733 Morgan Threewheler (1934), Wine Red,RARE MATCHBOX Lesney Series No27 Cadillac 'Sixty Special' Grey Tyre Version,.Dinky No 950 Foden Fuel Tanker BURMAH - Red White (Original 1978 Boxed),.Rio RI4524 ALFA ROMEO P3 N.3 11th BROOKLANDS 1939 KENNETH EVANS 1 43 Modellino,. The HuygheKINSFUN RENAULT TWIZY 1 18 SCALE orange NEW NO BOX USA FREE SHIP,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheVW Beetle 1303 Red 1973 1 18 Norev 188520 Beetle Volkswagen,.
POLITOYS 1 43 FIAT 1500 GT GHIA 528 - RARE COLOR - IN NEAR MINT CONDITION,.Spark Models 1 43 Scale S1329 - 1968 Abarth 2000 Sport Spider - Red,.
Minichamps 1 43 ASTON MARTIN VANTAGE V12 - STREET -2012,.1969 Peugeot 504 Coupe weiss 1 18 Norev 184825,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Matra MS120B Winner silverina GP 1971 Chris Amon Spark S1592 1 43,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeMercedes Benz GLA 45 AMG 2015 bluee S4912 Spark 1 43 New in a box ,.SUN STAR Mercedes Benz 350 SL R107 Softtop Yellow 1 18 4568,.
For example, in Partridge,Kibri 19600 N Gauge, Gottwald Railway - Telescopic Crane GS 100.06 T New Boxed ,. In Jorgensen, supra,Siku Plastik V 172 Ford M 17 Badewanne green hellyellow V-Serie 2,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.NOREV 1 18 PEUGEOT 205 GTI 1.9 1992 MIAMI blueE ART.184856,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,SUIT ATLAS 1 43 4PCS DINKY TOYS 569 + 589A + 588 ALLOY DIECAST CAR MODEL TOY,. That is the same situation in this case.Spark 1 43 Porsche 911 RGT n.25 2015 SG225,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Italeri IT3883 SCANIA R V8 TOPLINE IMPERIAL KIT 1 24 Modellino,. Detroit Edison, supra.
UT 1 18 FERRARI F355 SPIDER,.JOLLY MODEL JL0784 - Ferrari 225 Export 1954 blue 1 43,.Tekno Denmark 415 Ford Taunus in good condition very difficult model to find,.
Ferrari 365 GT4 2+2 1972 red Modellauto 1 18 KK Scale,.