Fiat 500 F 1965 blue Notte 1 43 Spark S2692 S2692 S2692 Model ce6eb0

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Fiat 500 F 1965 blue Notte 1 43 Spark S2692 S2692 S2692 Model ce6eb0
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Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals SCHUCO 04153 PORSCHE CARRERA 4S - 1 43 - WHITE - MINT IN BOX,.Burago 1 18 Ferrari 456 GT (1992) green -3036- Die-Cast Scale Modell Auto NEU OVP,.UT Models 1 18 Scale diecast - 25OCT2017G Mercedes C AMG F1 Safety Model Car,.1 50 Solido (France) Char AMX 30,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Bburago B18-11042Y 1 18 Lamborghini Urus Grey,.FERRARI 348 SPIDER - 1 43 HECO MODELES,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Ferrari 512 Bb 1976 White 1 43 Model BEST MODELS,.PEUGEOT 504 BREAK-1970 - ´GENDAMERIE´ police 400112590 Minichamps 1 43 New Rare,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast - 3051 Porsche 356B Cabriolet 1961 Flat bluee,.BMW M4 F82 Coupe DTM 2016 Wittmann Red Bull Champion Norev 1 18 SP,.DINKY FRANCE 1413 CITROEN DYANE MADE IN SPAIN 77 COMME NEUVE EN BOITE D'ORIGINE, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Alfa Romeo 8C Le Mans 1934 E. Howe - T. pink Richards Spark S3887 1 43,.Wonderful modelcar VW BEETLE CARRERA PANAMERICANA 1954 - red - 1 43 - lim.,.Best Model BT9394 PORSCHE ABARTH STRADALE 1960 RED 1 43 Modellino,.Mercedes 11 40 1924 black Rio 1 43 Rio4353 Model Diecast,.

Modèle réduit RENAULT 4L décapotable à l'échelle 1 18,.Alfa 33 2 , 24H LeMans 1968 , Spark models,.Johnny Lightning 1970 Plymouth Superbird Barn Find Junker 1 24 Scale Diecast Car,.Ertl 7219 NASCAR Monte Carlo Kellogg`s 1 18 OVP ,.Bmw Z4 M Coupé (E86) red 2009 Neo Scale 1 43 Neo44466 Model,.

Porsche 914 6 Rally Monte Carlo 1971 , Minichamps,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Ferrari 250 Gtl Steve McQueen Personal Car 1964 1 43 Model BEST MODELS,.Camion PANHARD MOVIC ANTERIST & SCHNEIDER 1 43,.BMW M535i de 1987 bluee Metallic NOREV - NO 183539 - Echelle 1 18,Talbot T23 F&F Teardrop Coupe 1983,.Kit BUS LONDONIEN en brique à assembler,.

1 43 24 32 18 Ferrari Decal Schumacher,.CSM Collector's Model 1 76 Scale V202B - Leyland Victory II Bus - Hong Kong R70,.Chevrolet Camaro Z28 Indianapolis 500 Official Pace Car 1982 - 1 18 - Sun Star,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Minicar GT R R35 Liberty Walk Nissan,.

Matchbox Moko No 23 Berkeley Cavalier Caravan AND ORIGINAL BOX VN MINT,. We agree in part.

Very Scarce DINKY 252 BEDFORD REFUSE WAGON - GOOD,.Model Correct 1 72 Russian Army T-72B2 Rogatoka Main Tank 2010 MODAS72127,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.MODELLINO OPEL MERIVA 2010 RED IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.1973 Matra Simca Ms 670 B, No.12, 3th Le Mans Modell Auto in 1 43 von Spark,.1970 1 2 Camaro Z28 American Muscle Ertl 1 18 Diecast - Green,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Premium ClassiXXs 1 43 KrAZ 255B1 Pr.PL. NVA - olive,.RENAULT DOMAINE 1957 STATION WAGON - CLASSIQUE 1 43 HANDMADE IN FRANCE RARE,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, J.E. MORGAN KNITTING TAMAQUA ERTL 1 64 T384 INTERNATIONAL CAB W TRAILER,; 4x Francorchamps Belgium 1 32 JAGUAR Type D ASTON MARTIN DBR PANHARD Racing Car,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

1 18 Ertl Chevrolet Chevelle Phase III Mr. Motion black 33097,.PEUGEOT 504 CABRIOLET 1970 1 18 NOREV (orange),HO 1 87 Herpa Scania R Pendel-X Heavy Haul Tractor Trailer,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.AMT Kits 1 25 Scale Plastic - AMT750M 12 Ghostbusters 2 ECTO-1A Cadillac,.

AUDI RS6 2008 1 43 MINICHAMPS 400017200,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Art Model AM0317 FERRARI 166 MM N.30 7th G.P. DEL PORTOGALLO 1951 E.CASTELLOTTI,.Art Model AM0391 FERRARI 250 CALIFORNIA LWB N.18 WINNER NASSAU TROPHY 1959 B.GRO,.Mercedes Benz 180 220 S Ponton 1956 Faller 1 43,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, McLaren MP4-12C 2011 orange 1 43 Model AUTOART,; EBBRO EB44572 TOYOPET SKB KIYOKEN VAN 1 43,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, NOREV CITROEN 2 CV FOURGONNETTE MIKO BEIGE GREEN 1 18 DIECAST CAR,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Fiat 500 F 1965 blue Notte 1 43 Spark S2692 S2692 S2692 Model ce6eb0Fiat 500 F 1965 blue Notte 1 43 Spark S2692 S2692 S2692 Model ce6eb0

Provence Moulage Kit à Monter 1 43 - Mazda 787 N°201 Le Mans 1990,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Saab 9-3 Sport Wagon (2003) Red Scale 1 43 Cararama Hongwell Diecast model car,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Aoshima Bunka Kyozaii 1 24 Liberty Walk Series No.11 LB Works R35 1.5 type GT-R,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Citroen 2CV A Baujahr 1950 matt gold 1 18 Norev,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.BO822-0,5 Wiking H0 1 87 Werbemodell-Lkw Scania Spedition Shepherd Aachen,VG,.WILLIAMS FW20 GP AUSTRALIA 1998 TAMEO KITS IN METALLO 1 43,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Gm Tdh 3714 Autobus Santa Monica Municipal 1955 2 Tone bluee IXO 1 43 BUS007 Mini,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.1964 Chevy Corvette Grand Sport Roadster Diecast Model Collectible 1 18 Scale,.

TOYOTA Tercel 4WD 1983 Neo scale models 1 43 NEO44530,.Spark 1 43 Scale Resin Model Car S2132 - Jaguar D - Le Mans 1955,.NEO US Dreamcar 1954 Green 1 43 44826,.Ertl 1 18 - 10 Fastest Mopar hemi 50TH - 1970 Challenger 340 T A Rally Red,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.International Harvester Fleestar F2000-D Tractor 1963 Neoscale 1 64 NEO64005 Min,.

Renault 300 Kg 1953 'PARFUMS REVILLON' 1 18 Model NOREV,.WSI 1 50 SCALE 3-AXLE CONTAINER CHASSIS MODEL BN 03-1148,.Spark 1 43 Matra MS 120B 3rd Spain GP 1971 S4840,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, PORSCHE 911 993 GT2 RS Carrera Cup Super VIP RTL Shell 1995 Minichamps 1 43,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.VINTAGE 1967 HOT WHEELS REDLINE blueE SILHOUETTE DIECAST CAR MATTEL,.Kibri 10568 MAN MB Schwertransporte 1 87,.1 18 Ferrari Mondial 8 Hot Wheels Elite Serie 60th Anniversary F1 cherry red 19,.1 50 Diecast Masters Trailer Head 71001 International HX520 Day Cab Tandem,.PAUL'S MODEL ART MINICHAMPS BMW M3 Sport Evo Team MM Diebels Danner 1 43 MIB,.

Dub City Big Baulers GMC Yukon Denali 1 18 Die Cast, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Porsche 917k th 1000 Km Spa 1970 H. Laine G. Van Lennep 1 18 Model 187585,.Corgi Classics GMC Fishbowl Bus CTA Scenic Cruiser 1 50 Scale .,. The PartridgeAUTO WORLD 1 18 AMERICAN MUSCLE 71' PLYMOUTH DUSTER 340 DIE-CAST YELLOW AMM1154,.SPARK 1 43 - S1902 PORSCHE 997 RSR TEAM SEIKEL MOTORSPORT LM 2007,.BMW 5er E12 520 Limousine yellow 1. Generation 1972-1981 1 43 Minichamps Maxicha..,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Corgi 1 50 Scale Model Fire Engine 54901 - E-One 75ft Ladder - Demo Colours, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Ferrari 308 Gtb 1975 Prova 1 43 Best Be9199 Model Car Diecast,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Bentley Continental Flying Star by Touring 2010 NEO44215 1 43,.1 43 EBBRO 44579 nismo fes limited model car nissan leaf nismo rc Carbon F S NEW,PartridgeVINTAGE 60's DINKY TOYS MERCEDES C 111 WHITE MIB,.NOREV185261 - Voiture utilitaire RENAULT 300kg de 1953 aux colors Parfums Revi,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, DINKY 828 JEEP HOTCHKISS WILLYS LAUNCHER SS10 MILITARY MIB 9 EN BOITE L@@K, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Mazda MX-5 white Triple 9 1 18 OVP NEU,; New Ferrari California T Closed Top Red Signature Series 1 18 Diecast Model Car,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, SS1343 - PORSCHE 356A 1500 GS CARRERA GT 1957 METALLIC GREEN 1 18 MODELLINO MODE, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Mercedes 540K Autobahnkurier 1938 - black - 1 18 KK-Scale, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeCorgi 80204 Vintage Glory Foden Steam Wagon With Tank Ind Coope Burton Brewery C,.

1 18 Saab 96 V4 año 1971 MC Group 18059 whiteo,.DINKY 262 SWISS POSTAL VOLKSWAGEN original cellophane never opened, Clarke's negligent act.Dacia Duster Vltt Sdis 28 Sapeurs Pompiers 2010 Red Yellow ALARME 1 43 AL-007 Mi,.1 18 Hot Wheels Ferrari F2002 150 GP Wins M.Schumacher NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.SUNSTAR - 1 18 - CHEVROLET CORVAIR - 1963 - 1486,.

2019 Hot Wheels Fast And Furious B Set - Original Cars w Set A GT-R R34 Skyline,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Alfa Romeo Alfasud Anno di Costruzione 1974 red 1 18 Kk-Scale,Vintage polistil 1 24 scale Toyota Land Cruiser restored excellent rare,. In Noska,Tin s Manufactured 75601 FORD MUSTANG BOSS 429 302 RACER n.01,.McLaren MP4-12C GT3 BOUTSEN GINION RACING 24H Spa 2012, Minichamps,.Kyosho 1 64 Ferrari LaFerrari red FUOCO Karuwaza Limited 2014 10th Anniversary,.635D Vintage Politoys M 518 Rolls Royce Coupé 1 43, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Minichamps Tempo Hanseat 1950-52 Phoenix Reifen (blue) 1 18 ohne Vp. (1),.Minichamps 1 43 Iso Grifo 7 Ltr 1968 limited edition model,.Brico Collection 1 43 BC04 Fiat 600 Multipla 1956 Brico in OVP (NL1987),.EBBRO 25007 Model Car 1 24 Citroen H Transporter,. Id., p 923.

1 18 Norev Audi A4 DTM 2008,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, 1 18 MaiHe 1988 Tianjing Xiali TJ7100 (Daihatsu Charade) Red,DINKY TOYS 112 PURDEY'S PURDEY S TRIUMPH TR7 TR 7 YELLOW NEAR MINT BOXED,.Rietze 73635 Mercedes-Benz Citaro G 15 DVG Dresden 1 87 H0,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK16 045B - 1935 Dodge Van San Francisco Relief 1 Of 100,.1 18 Norev Porsche 911 (997) GT2 white 2007 NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.Willys MB Jeep WWII Construction Battalion 1941 - 1 18 - Auto World,.Ford Fiesta WRC No19 20th Monte Carlo 2015 Raoux Escartefig S4514 Spark 1 43 NEW,.Best Model 9458 PORSCHE CARRERA ABARTH AUDUSTA 1 43,. The parties Fiat Abarth 1000 Gt Monomille 1963 Red NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO44605 Model,.

1980 BMW 535i M 535i E12 weiss 1 18 Norev 183265,.Norev 183635 Opel Manta green metallic 1970 Maßstab 1 18 Modellauto NEU °,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Vintage Matchbox Lesney Moko No. 15 - Prime Mover - orange. Metal wheels - RARE,; FRANKLIN MINT BUGATTI TYPE 57 SC LIMITED EDITION 1936 IN BOX, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Ferrari 275 Gts Pininfarina Spider 1964 Light bluee Met KK SCALE 1 18 KKDC180243,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, KYOSHO MERCEDES BENZ DEALER VERSION SEALED CLK DTM AMG CABRIO NEW 1 18,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)FIRST GEAR DCP 1 64 LITTLE AUDREY'S PETERBILT 351 WITH 40' REEFER VAN TRAILER,.Universal Hobbies 1 50 DOOSAN DX160W Wheeled Excavator Diecast Model UH8134,.Herpa LKW Scania S 450 Topl Aerop. Kühl-KSZ blue white,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,AUTO WORLD ERTL 1967 SHELBY GT500 AMERICAN MUSCLE 1 18 AMM993,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.1 18 Minichamps BMW M3 DTM 2013 ICE Watch WIT DEALER NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.Spark 1 43 Scale SG251 - SCG P4 5 Comp M16 24h Nurburgring 2016,.ZC510 Provence Moulage K744 Resine Vehicule 1 43 Ford RS Cosworth Monte Carlo 93,.DIECAST MASTERS 1 50 SCALE CATERPILLAR 335F L HYDRAULIC EXCAVATOR BN 85925,.Siku Plastik V 172 Ford M 17 Badewanne green hellyellow V-Serie 3,. The ScottsdaleYonezawa Toys Diapet Nissan Auster Multi-Coupe 1600 CS E L in Red on 1 40 in Box,SUN STAR Ford Mustang Sportsroof 1971 1 18 3619,.Norev 184881 Peugeot 309 GTi16 1991 Miami bluee 1 18,. Id.,Bentley Continental GT (2011) Diecast Model Car 436139981,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, VW Volkswagen 1303 Beetle Cabriolet 1972-80 - Minichamps 1 43 in Box 34147,; MATCHBOX SUPERFAST MODEL No.25d FORD CORTINA GT MIB,Spark Models 1 43 Scale S2580 - Corvette C6 ZR1 Corvette Racing LM 2010,.2010 Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG Gullwing red Metalizado 1 18 GT Autos 11002,. The ScottsdaleCorgi 1 76 Scale Diecast - OM46619A New Routemaster GoAhead London 88 Camden,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, MOTORMAX MTM73108Y FORD COUPE' 1940 YELLOW 1 18,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; ROAD SIGNATURE 1 18 92498 1969 CORVAIR MONZA blueE,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Maxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940 060221 - 2012 Porsche 911 Carrera S - orange,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Ebrro Honda Civic Type R Fd2 purple (1 43 Die-Cast 44295) New F S,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, BROOKLIN MODELS BRK 42x FORD F1 PANEL DELIVERY 1952 - MODELEX 1992 - 1 43 - NMIB,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Chevrolet El Camino Red 1959 NEO 44850, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Gama bluee 1 25 Scale Monza Die Cast Car on Base, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Pontiac GTO The Judge 1970 weiss white 1 43 NEO Scale Models 45985 NEU,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeMercedes LP608 Metzeler white-blue 1 43 Schuco neu + OVP 3529,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, 1 43 Lancia ECV2 Presentation 1988 (White) Bizarre BZ410,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheVINTAGE 1969 HOT WHEELS REDLINE POWER PAD HOT PINK W DARK INT.USA BASE,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.EFE 1 76 - 'A' 5X SET OF RT RTL BUSES LONDON TRANSPORT ETC,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,DV5279 STARTER LOLA T 98 10 VODACOM REPSOL LE MANS 1999 Ref SL024 1 43 NB,1964 Lotus Elan 26R Walker Racing Crystal Palace 1 43 by Spark S0267,.SIKU 3279 Fendt 939 Diecast Model Toy,.Vintage - SEAT 600 - 1 43 Auto-Pilen M-335 Mint Box,. The Huyghe1 18 Bburago Ferrari 250 Le Mans 1965 KIT BAUSATZ NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheDUVI 797 MATRA 530 LX 1968 - YELLOW 1 43 - EXCELLENT CONDITION - 9,.

Spark 1 43 BR01 - Nissan n.27 LMP2 SMP Racing S4644,.1 50 BALLANTINE'S ALBION LORRY Corgi 26001,.

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Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeConversion 1 50 Scale Diecast - VAN3 D. Steven & Sons + Trailer,.Sun Star Mercedes Benz 220 SE Cabriolet 1958 1 18,.

For example, in Partridge,Kyosho Nissan Skyline 2000 Gt-R 1971 Hakosuka Novelty,. In Jorgensen, supra,Atlas Editions Dinky Toys 589A - Depanneues Berliet G.A.K. Autgoldutes MIMB ,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.DIECAST CAR & CASE 1976 JILL MUNROE FORD MUSTANG II COBRA II CHARLIE ANGELS 1 18,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,1969 Camaro Z-28 American Muscle 1 18 Scale Die Cast Metal,. That is the same situation in this case.Cars 2 - Supercarreras en Tokio V3615 - NUEVO,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.BRM P261 th Monaco GP 1966 Bob Bondurant Spark S1859 1 43,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Minichamps Suomy helmet Neil Hodgson (GBR) 2001 1 2 Ducati SBK WSB,.VW Volkswagen T4 Transporter Personen Elfenbein Taxi Beige 1990-2003 1 43 Prem..,.TOYOTA Starlet Tourenwagen Gr.5 1979 Test Advan Fuji Spark Resin Reve Edit 1 43,.

Vintage Dinky Toys Mercedes Benz C.111 Diecast Car No.22 -Mint Mint Display Case,.