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Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
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Force India Mercedes VJM05 Paul di Resta Formula 1 2012 1 43 410120011,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Nissan GTR R-35 2008 blue 1 18 Norev 188052 neu & OVP,.Corgi 1 36 Scale CC99101 - 007 The Difinitve Bond Collection 3 Model Set,.BROOKLIN MODELS BRK 34 NASH AMBASSADOR 1954 - 1 43 - NMIB,.BURAGO 1 18 - COD 3002 MERCEDES BENZ SSKL CARACCIOLA 1931,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Mercedes-Benz Actros Mp4 Kit REVELL 1 24 RV07439 Model,.Citroen DS3 blue Belle Ile toit black 1 18 Norev neu & OVP 181539,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Duesenberg J Derham Tourster Cabrio in red brown, Franklin Mint, 1 24, o.OVP,.Mercedes-Benz SLS GT3 , Winner 24H Dubai 2013, Spark models,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.JAPAN Tin Toys Retro Ice Cream Seller,.KK Scale KKDC180021 Alfa Romeo Alfasud, 1974, red,.Starter 1 43 Scale Unbuilt Kit - SX21B Mercedes 190 AMG Circuit GrA 1990 2 Vers, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

MERCEDES BENZ 280 CE 1980 W123 1 18 NOREV (blueE METALLIC),.McLaren M6 , Pole¨Position Fuji 1968 , Spark models,.Citroen T45 France 1934 IXO FOR Hachette 1 43 New Boxed GA2 µ,.SPARK Matra MS10 th Spain GP 1968 Jean-Pierre Beltoise S1588 1 43,.

Premium ClassiXXs 1 43 13901 VW T1b flatbed Zündapp with Bella Roller,.Franklin Mint 1926 Mercedes-Benz Model K Congreenible- Midnight bluee -1 24,.JOHNNY LIGHTNING 50´s BATMOBILE DC COMICS OVP 1 24,.1937 Peugeot 302 Darl's Mat Roadster - Norev 184821 - 1 18 Scale Diecast Car,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale - 430 074122 Ferrari 512M 1994 red,.

DINKY NO. 451 TROJAN VAN - DUNLOP - RARE,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.CITROEN SM 1971 1 18 NOREV (goldEN LEAF),.Ferrari F12berlinetta White Special ver Kyosho 1 64 Diecast Model Car 9 neo,.Art Model AM0100 FERRARI 500 TRC N.4 G.P.SVEZIA 1958 O.BREMER 1 43 Modellino,Mercedes 300 D Pompe Funebri 1960 1 43 Model RIO,.Renault Juvaquatre Van 1951 Beige NOREV 1 18 NV185260,.

BROOKLIN BRK.136 1947 CHEVROLET STYLEMASTER SEDAN DELIVERY, 1 43, MIB ,.Vintage Matchbox Lesney Moko No. 15 - Prime Mover - orange. Metal wheels - RARE,.YatMing 92127 Sammelmodell Chevrolet Bel Air 1956 Cabriolet Metal M.1 18,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.


Hostaro Opel Kapitan 1956 in Metallic Green on 1 43 in Box,. We agree in part.

MAZ 5337 grey SSM 1175 1 43,.Vintage 'Speed Demon' Die Cast Cars Still Sealed Woolworths 60 Cars,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Trofeu TF1405 FIAT 131 ABARTH OLIO FIAT N.5 WINNER TDC 1977 B.DARNICHE-MAHE' 1 4,.Mercury Park Lane Hard Top Anno di Costruzione 1959 Bianco gold 1 ,.Schuco 2350 BMW 3.0 CSL YELLOW 1 43,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Norev 1 43 Scale 517704 - 2014 Renault Megane RS Trophy - Pear White,.McLAREN 675LT SPIDER 2015 YELLOW 537154430 Minichamps 1 43 New in a box ,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Honda Civic EF-3 Si 1987 white Triple 9 1 18 OVP NEU,; PEPE VW Volkswagen Beetle Policia in White in Box,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Spark 1 43 Porsche 356B T5 Karmann Hardtop Coupe 1961 RESIN CAR S4921,.2015 Hot Wheels Fast & Furious Complete Set 2018 F & F Complete Set ++++ NISSAN,MERCEDES BENZ G650 Landaulet weiss white G-Modell 4x4 SUV Pro R Schuco 1 43,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.MAJORETTE MD IN FRANCE n. 239 - PEUGEOT 504 1 64 RARE LILLA RARE ORIGINAL '69,.

Citroën Tube HY Police SOLIDO - SO 1850024 - Scale 1 18,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Hot Wheels Ford Focus Wings West w Flames Die-Cast Car 1 18 Scale NEW B5340,.@. 1 43 RIO SL075 AUTOCARRO FIAT 18BL 18 BL ANNIVERSARY CENTENARY MIB RARE,.RENAULT R.S.01 INTERCEPTOR 2016 Jean Ragnotti Norev Collectors 1 18 Die Cast New,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, DIAPET YONEZAWA 11-0231 NISHI NIPPON BUS JAPAN MINT IN BOX DIECAST MIB,; Dodge Charger Daytona 1969 black, Modellauto 1 18 Greenlight Collectibles,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, 1 18 Norev Simca Aronde Monthiery Speciale 1962 grey NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

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Quartzo 1 43 1961 Ferrari Dino 156 Italian GP,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Spark 1 43 Scale SF064 - Ford Fiesta RS WRC th Rallye De France 2013,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Lamborghini Miura Bertone P400 1966 orange 1 43 Model RIO4583 RIO,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG GT3, 24H Spa 2015 , Sparkmodels,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Matchbox Regular Wheel 2B Dumper GPW 1957,.TOLEMAN HART 1984 SCALE RACING CAR KIT 1 43,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Premium Classics Mercedes-Benz LP608 Porsche-Renndienst 12502,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.TYRRELL 006 GP ITALIA 1973 TAMEO KITS SERIE WCT SCALA 1 43,.

VW Polo V (Typ 6C), 2014, white, VW-Dealer (Schuco) 1 43, OVP,.1 24 diecast Police Ford Explorer Suv Cherry Hill New Jersey CHPD Diecast Police,.VINTAGE 1970s boxed MATCHBOX Superfast cars tractor inc No's 40 39 25 42 diecast,.BMW M3 E30 ND MACAU GP 1987 D. QUESTER SPARK LIM. SA033 1 43,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.1962 Volkswagen Microbus Combi Type 2 T1 Crema-whiteo 1 18 Yat Ming 92327,.

Rio RI4450 CITROEN DS 19 107th MONTE CARLO 1962 MAUREL-COURBE 1 43 Modellino,.NZG 536 MB Actros Koffersattelzug 1 50,.1 43 Mercedes-Benz Slr Mclaren Roadster Minicar,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, POLYTOYS PENNY 1 66 ISO RIVOLTA COUPE GT blueE UNPLAYED NEAR MINT IN BOX,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Spark 1 43 Lotus 69 n.18 Winner Pau GP 1971 Reine Wisell S2147,.Tekno 70942 Scania S-Series 4x2 Highline Sleeper Cab RHD Plain White 1 50 Scale,.DINKY TOYS MECCANO FRANCE N°566 Car de police Citroën-Currus electrifié,.Dinky Toys 36a Armstrong Siddeley saloon,.MATTEL DEMOLITION MAN FAST BLAST 442,.

Trofeu 1 43 Scale 517 - Ford Escort RS 1600 - R.Clark 1st RAC 1972, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.ALPINE RENAULT BERLINETTE A110 N°18 rallye MONTE CARLO 1973 1 18,.Porsche 904 GTS Le Mans 1964 H. Muller - C. Sage Spark S3441 1 43,. The PartridgeBest Model BT9701 PORSCHE 550 RS N.118 2nd T.FLORIO 1959 MAHLE-STRAHLE-LINGE 1 4,.VINTAGE SUN STAR JAGUAR XK140 DROP HEAD COUPE SPORTS CAR TOP DOWN MINT IN BOX,.Spark Models 1 43 Scale S1586 - BMW M 1 Le Mans 1982,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Porsche 997 GT3 GTA Ypres 2015 DUMAS 1 43 Spark SB104, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Mercedes Benz Gla-Class Gla45 Amg 2016 Light bluee Met SPARK 1 43 S4912 Model,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Spark 1 43 - Mercedes SLS AMG 2010 blue métallisé,.Matchbox SF Nr.18B Hondarora verchromte Vorderradgabel top in Box,PartridgeLR 0 RARE PAIRE D'AIGUILLAGES DANS SA BOITE D'ORIGINE TRAIN ELECTRIQUE 3027 3028,.CHEVROLET CORVETTE COUPÉ 1982 silver 1 18 WELLY,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Siku 344 Lamborghini Espada 400 GT, Rennfeuerwehr, firehunter, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Norev 187570 1 18 PORSCHE 911 (997 II) GT3 RS SPORTS CUP 2011 RING POLICE J,; Wiking Unverglast Rollachser - Opel Blitz WM Service Kastenwagen - sehr gut ,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Yonezawa Toys Diapet Nissan Auster Multi-Coupe 1600 CS E L in Red on 1 40 in Box, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Porsche Panamera 4S 2016 Saphir bluee Met HERPA 1 43 WAP0207210G Model, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgePlayStation Gran Turismo Sortiment Set 13 Modellautos Retro PS 1 64 Hot Wheels,.

Somerville Models 1 43 Scale 107 - Fordson 5CWT Van - Design For A Butcher,.DINKY TOYS 581 HORSEBOX BRITISH RAILWAYS IN GOOD CONDITION WITH BOX, Clarke's negligent act.Purple Passion, Hot Wheels, White, GHOSTBUSTERs, Limited Edition, 1 of 25 ,.Matchbox Regular Wheel 38a Karrier Refuse Collector GPW    mit OVP,.IMBRIMA INBRIMA MAJORETTE Nº255 TRACTOR HANOMA B154,.

Spark Model SA121 DALLARA MERCEDES F3 P.PIQUET 2016 N.22 MACAU GP 1 43 Modellino,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Neo 1 43 - Opel Kadett City orange,Spark 1 43 Scale S3004 - F1 HRT F1-10 Monaco GP 2010,. In Noska,DV4857 MINICHAMPS OPEL REKORD C 1966 Ref 430046101 1 43 NB,.Porsche 997 Gt3 R Hybrid 2010 1 43 Spark S2088 Model,.OPEL BLITZ S 3t Distler SCHUCO 03063 1 43,.Spark Porsche 911 Carrera 2 Cup No40 Le mans 1993 S2070, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Mercedes-Benz Actros Sattelschlepper red 40 MHz - Komplettset mit Batterien - ..,.Corgi Classic British Sports Car Collection Of 8 Cars boxed+ Collection Plinth,.Fortschritt ZT 303 - NVA Traktor Militär Begleitwagen DDR 1 32 Schuco 450775000,.POLISTIL 1 25 - FX2 MARCH FORD 721 STP - RONNIE PETERSON,. Id., p 923.

Russian Vintage Model Car ZIL-4331 with Trailer,1 43,Metal.Heavy USSR,70s,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Rio 4321 FIAT BALILLA AMBULANZA ITALIANA 1935,Porsche 911 turbo Cabriolet 1987 - 1 18 - Norev,.Jada 97168 - 1 24 Scale Model Car Fast & Furious - Brian's Toyota Supra,.2017 -SUPER RARE -Star Wars -Solo Resistance Xwing & Speeder Bike - ⭐️MINT⭐️,.Renault Alpine A60 Celebration 2015 bluee Spark 1 43 S4947 Model,.CITROEN SAXO 3 Portes blue MINIROUTE 27 1 43,.Tracteur Scania S730 V8 Ivory White ELIGOR - EL 116203 - Echelle 1 43,.ERTL 1 18 Diecast American Muscle - 1970 Challenger and 1959 Impala,. The parties Spark - 1 43 - Dallara F3 Macau GP 2014 - Max Verstappen,.

1 18 Lancia Delta HF Integrale 16V año 1989 Triple-9 1800172 Dark Grey,.Corgi Diecast - Set Of 6 Thornycroft Model Vans - The Queen's 40th Anniversary,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Tatra 147 DC-5 Kipplaster blue yellow, Modellauto 1 43 Premium ClassiXXs,; 1 43 Minichamps BMW 2000A 1962 silver 437 023000, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Minicar 1 43 Subaru Impreza Casio,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Old Fire Brigade Model Car Sheet Metal - 40 cm,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)2004 Audi R8 Team VELOQX 5th LE MANS 1 18 Spark 1804,.Rio RI4390 ITALA 35 40 HP N.3 WINNER 1^ TARGA FLORIO 1906 A.CAGNO 1 43 Modellino,.MODELLINO AUDI A4 SIEMENS T. KRISTENSEN DTM 2007 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Autodrome 1 43 Scale Unbuilt Kit - AD1A Mercedes Benz 180SL 1975,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.BURAGO 1 18 3353 SHELBY SERIES 1 1999 RED,.Herpa 309844 Scania CS 20 Hochdach Eurocombi Ekdahl Arctic Griffin 1 87,.1 18 Bmw Serie 6er Cabrio Kyosho,.Replicars 1 43 Scale Diecast - REP CWS 06 Cold War Series Mercedes 180,.REISSUE DINKY TOYS ATLAS FORD PLATEAU BRASSEUR REF 25 H GREEN IN BOX,. The ScottsdaleMercury Park Lane Hard Top Baujahr 1959 white gold 1 18 SunStar,Dinky Toys Maserati 2000 Sport Réf 22A Excellent état.,.Citroen C-Elysee N.37 Winner R1 Race Of silverina 2015 Lopez 1 43 Spark S4524 Mo,. Id.,Rare Aston Martin Vantage Good wood Green Ltd 1 43 scale MIB by Minichamps,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Hot Wheels 15th Annual 2001 Collectors's Convention Limited 1 of 2000 67 GTO,; CHEVROLET Corvette Z06 R GT3 GT Masters Roller Keilwitz 2011 Minichamps Res 1 43,Fire Brigade Models 1 50 Scale - FBM4 Dodge G Fire & Rescue Service engine,.Fiat 500 yellow Champagne con Tetto Apribile - Solido 1 18 - COMPRO FUMETTI SHOP,. The ScottsdaleCitroen Ds19 1959 Green Printemps Champagne NOREV 1 18 NV181480 Model,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, IXO 1 43 SMEAL 105 AERIAL LADDER AMERICAN US FIRE ENGINE HUNTERSVILLE USA TRF012,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; IXO 1 43 MITSUBISHI LANCER EVO VI Aust From japan,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, PANASONIC TOYOTA TF103 2003 FORMEL 1 F1 PANIS 1 18 MINICHAMPS 100030020 RARE,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Corvette C6 R Le Mans 2007 1 43 Model S0179 SPARK MODEL,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, FERRARI 250 CALIFORNIA red SCURO 1 43 ART.325 art model,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, GAMA Mini 1 43 OPEL SENATOR MIT CAMPING ANHANGER NO 1174 MINT BOXED, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Minichamps 436139061 1 43 BENTLEY CONTINENTAL GTC SPEED YEAR 2012 RED, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Corgi 23501. Leyland 6 Wheel Tipper - Cadbury's Cocoa. MIB.,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeAUTOWORLD AW230 1 18 2016 CHEVROLET CAMARO SS GARNET RED,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, CIJ Renault 4CV vintage diecast toy made in France 1 43 scale rare,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheMaisuto Maisto 1 24 2015 Corvette Corvette Z06 model Car die-cast car American,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.LANCIA ECV 2 1988 WHITE 1 43 BIZARRE BZ410,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,OAK Pescarolo Judd Le Mans 2011 1 18 Spark 18S063,BURAGO 1 18 3009 MERCEDES BENZ SSK 1928 2 TONE BROWN,.SPARK BENTLEY R Type 1954 S4891 1 43,.Hamann Guardian Yellow Carbon 2011 1 43 Neo Scale Neo45695 Model,. The HuygheDINKY TOYS ATLAS CAMION FOURGON PEUGEOT J7 POMPIERS PARIS REF 570 P IN BOX,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheFORD Taunus P2 Kombi Neo scale models 1 43 NEO44550,.

Dinky Army Water Carrier - Green - A B,.UNIVERSAL-HOBBIES 4232 New Holland T6.140 with front loader ;1 32,.

Yonezawa Diapet Toyota Crown Super Saloon JAL in Grey White,.Red Bull RB6 2010 S.Vettel W.Champion 2010 1 20 kit di montaggio 20067 Tamiya,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Dinky Dublo No 063 is the model of the Commer van Excellent and boxed,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeVOLKSWAGEN Porsche B32 VW T3 1984 bluee blue metallic Diecast KK 1 500 NEW 1 18,.1 18 Hot Wheels Ferrari F1-2000 King of Rain Schumacher NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELC,.

For example, in Partridge,1 18 HOT WHEELS FERRARI 458 CHALLENGE RED bd,. In Jorgensen, supra,TEKNO 1 43 CAMION BENNE FORD D 800 AVEC SA BOITE,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Minichamps 1 43 Scale 436 139001 - Bentley Arnage R - Metallic bluee,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Ferrari 512 Bb 1976 Giorgio Armani bluee 1 43 Model BEST MODELS,. That is the same situation in this case.Code 3 Classics 1 64 Scale Model 12368 Virginia Beach Fire Dept Command Vehicle,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.1968 Jerry Titus Shelby GT-350 by ACME Greenlight GL-12988 - Limited 702 pcs ,. Detroit Edison, supra.

NEO MODELS Pegaso Z-102 Berlinetta 1 43 45590 1 43 1 43,.2003 Toyota Cgoldlla Matrix XR Diecast Model bluee Road Signature 1 18 HTF,.Neo Plymouth Fury Hardtop - hellblue weiss - 1958 - 1 43,.

Porsche 911 Turbo (997 Ii) 2009 Grey Top Gear Minichamps 1 43 519436930 Model,.