Kode 9 GULF GULF GULF – Ken Okuyama Cars Design 1 43 SPARK SJ034 d55fff

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Kode 9 GULF GULF GULF – Ken Okuyama Cars Design 1 43 SPARK SJ034 d55fff
Citroen 2cv Dolly 1985 Meije White & Cormoran Grey 1 18 Model NOREV,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Tenariv Kit à Monter 1 43 - WM Peugeot Le Mans 1986,.SCHNÄPPCHEN WOCHEN ALTE WIKING MODELLE TOP-ZUSTAND ANSEHEN WH462,.1 18 Autoworld Ertl 1971 Baldwin Motion Chevrolet Vega,.Minichamps Formel 1 McLaren Mercedes MP 4 16 Mika Hakkinen 2001 1 18 OVP,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.FERRARI 330 P4 WINNER DAYTONA 1967 FDS 1 43 MONTAGE PRO,.BMW 2002 Turbo 1973-74 - Minichamps 1 43 in Box 34583,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Saloon Car - Dinky Toys 35a England 36833,.Volkswagen 1303 1972 Red NOREV - NO 188520 - Echelle 1 18 NEWS JUILLET 2018,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Best Model BT9541 ABARTH SP 2000 N.462 WINNER SESTRIERE 1970 A.MERZARIO 1 43 Mod,.Mercedes AMG S 65 2016 Spark S4916 1 43,.1969 BALDWIN MOTION CAMARO 454 YELLOW 1 18 ERTL ONLY 2500 HOBBY EDITION SERIES., Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

MARK43 PM4313R 1 43 Nissan Fairlady Z T Barref Turbo S130 Wine Red Metallic,.Schuco 1230 Renault 6CV Model 1911 Western Germany Excellent Original With Box,.Triple 9 Honda Civic EF9 JTC 1991 PIAA Sug 1 18 1800102,.Minicar Kyosho 1 43 Nissan Gt-R Tokyo Smart Driver,.

Spark SCCG19 Courage C60 JX Judd Le Mans 2003,.REVELL KIT UNBUILT H1280 - JAGUAR E TYPE - RED 1 25 - GOOD WITH BOX,.MINICHAMPS - AUDI TT ROADSTER - TANGO RED - 1 18 SCALE MODEL - DEALER EDITION,.Renault R5 Supercinque Gt Turbo 1986 Light bluee Met NOREV 1 18 NV185207 Miniatur,.TSM Jaguar F-Type SVR AWD - Caldera Red - 1 43,.

Lot of 23 NOS 2001-2006 Hot Wheels First Editions & Other Series Cars NIP,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Matchbox VW lot promised to one buyer,.Trofeu TF0113 FORD SIERRA N.25 ACCIDENT RAC RALLY 1989 CUNICO-HARRYMAN 1 43 Mode,.James Bond, SPECTRE Aston Martin DB5 and DB10 corgi car model set,1 43 UNIQUE RIO DSM 1968 LAMBORGHINI P400 MIURA ROADSTER ONE-OFF,.HOT WHEELS TREASURE HUNT (1) NEW FOR 2018 - '16 CADILLAC ATS-V R (MOMC),.

ALFA ROMEO SZ TROPHY 1991 SPARK S0616 1 43,.Best Model BT9711 JAGUAR E TYPE COUPE' N.104 RETIRED R.PINDER-C.POLLARD 1 43 Mod,.CHEVROLET Corvette Le Mans 1970 Bourdon Aubri Esso Mammouth Spark Resin 1 43,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

SOLIDO citroen MICHELIN 1 18,.

Peugeot 908 Hdi-Fap No. 9 2009 Le Mans Gewinner Harz 1 43 - Spark,. We agree in part.

Vintage Meri Kits Ferrari 512 Lemans 78 Model Race Car Display Box ....Rare ,.Maserati 5000 GT Allemano 1960 White 45657 Neo 1 43 New in a box OVP,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Premium Classixx PREM13353 VW LT28 BRANDWEER 1 43,.Chevrolet Camaro Z 28 1978 black, Modellauto 1 18 Greenlight Collectibles,.VW T1 Kasten Bulli Mobiloil Service 1 43 SCHUCO RARE ,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Jada 1972 Pontiac Trans Am 1 24 scale nib CC edition 2010 2065 of 7500 made,.VOLGA GAZ 24-02 USSR CCCP CONVERSION 1 43 Without a box,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, MASSEY FERGUSON KENWORTH T880 SLEEPER CAB W LOWBOY TRAILER 1 64 SPECCAST 30556,; Norev GT by Citroen 2008 - Electric bluee - 1 18,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

MINICHAMPS 431028741 BMW Z8 2001 green METALIZZATO Modellino,.Ford Focus RS WRC Acropolis 2003 Duval Prevot Sunstar 3902 1 18, MINICHAMPS FORD CAPRI RS 2600 RS2600 1972-73 WHITE MINT BOXED,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.BMW M3-1987-- IXO ALTAYA 1 18° FASCICULE 43 plus dispo chez altaya,.

Hot Wheels Ford Focus 1 18 bluee Tuning (MCNB),.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Norev 1 43 Scale 800404 - 1966 Honda S800 - Red,.NEO SCALE MODEL 1 43 Maserati 5000 Gt Allemano 1960 White Art. 46657,.1975 Hot Wheels Dune Daddy (Redline) (Green) (Hong Kong),. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Chevrolet El Camino - red 1959 NEO 44850 1 43,; Corgi Scania R & W Floor Trailer- Williams Transport,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, PORSCHE 911 Carrera Coupe green met G Modell 1976 schmal Resin Pro R Schuco 1 43,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

1 43 TSM124384 Acura NSX Cabriolet, Purple 2012 Avengers Cars, Resin HONDA NSX,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Premium ClassiXXs Tatra 111 C - weiss red - Benzina - Tankwagen - 1 43,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

RMM 1 87 HO - Berliet GAK Plateau Covered Firefighters France,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

CORGI Eddie Stobart - CC13401 - MODERN - MAN TGA Curtainside - MB,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Altes Blechspielzeug Motorrad, MF 115,.Ebro 1 43 COSTIN NATHAN 44906London racingcar show1969 finished product,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.KK SCALE MODELS - 1 18 - ALFA-ROMEO ALFASUD 1.3 - 1972 - 180021R,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.KK-SCALE 1 18 FERRARI 365 GT4 2+2 1972 green METALLIZZATO MODELLINO,.

Art Model AM0390 FERRARI 860 MONZA N.2 2nd GP VENEZUELA CARACAS J.M.FANGIO 1 43,.Minichamps 1 43 - Alfa Romeo 8C 2900 B Lungo bluee,.1 32 Weise Toys Model Unimog MB Trac 1300 Turbo tractor Beige Diecast Toy,.2006 DODGE CHALLENGER CONCEPT orange 1 18 MIT LED-BELEUCHTUNG(XENON) MAISTO,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.VINTAGE RARE GREEK WIND-UP B.M.W RALLY KNIGHT OF ROADS BY ANCO TOYS MIB,.

CADILLAC ELDORADO BIARRITZ pink 1 18,.1 18 Hotwheels Cadillac Ambulance Ghostbusters ECTO-1 BCJ75 White,.1 18 Triple 9 Collection Toyota Land Cruiser red cream-red beig Nr. T9-1800153,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, TARMAC WORKS 1 64 BMW HONG KONG 50 ANNIVERSARY,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Minichamps 1 18 Ford Escort Mk1, RS 1600, bluee, Fast & Furious, 100688102,.Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast - 33266 Chevrolet Corvette Congreenible Red,.Ford Crown Victoria Unmarked Plain White Police Car With Lights,Sounds 1 18Model,.Minichamps 1 43 - Mercedes E Class 1994 W124 Cabriolet pinkwood,.KK-Scale 1 18 Ferrari 275 GTB4 NART Spyder 1967 rood nieuw in doos,.

Schuco 1004 MIRAKO PATENT Bus red red Vintage US Zone Germany alt, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.MINICHAMPS Double Set Red Bull Racing 1 43 412100506,.KATO TOYOTA SUPRA blueE ART. 72-502 DIE- CAST NEW,. The PartridgeBROOKLIN BRK 34a 1954 NASH AMBASSADOR TWO TONE LE MANS COUPE 1 43,.Grand Prix Models 1 43 Scale 1010 - Unboxed 1952 Bentley Continental - Met Brown,.1 43 Minichamps Mercedes Clk Coupe Dtm 2002,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, RENAULT 5 MAXI TURBO 1985 SOLIDO 1 18 PEARL WEISS, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Blown Charger Racing Team Set Hot Wheels Redline Premium Restoration Yellow,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Motorkits 1 43 Scale Built Model Kit - Fod Y Van - Atco - Unboxed,.Kode 9 GULF – Ken Okuyama Cars Design 1 43 SPARK SJ034,PartridgeTatra T148 Pritsche Militär (Army),.MASSEY FERGUSON KENWORTH T880 SLEEPER CAB W LOWBOY TRAILER 1 64 SPECCAST 30556,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Hot Wheels 1 18 Scale diecast - 25OCT2017O Ferrari Superamerica Red Model Car, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Corgi Scania R & W Floor Trailer- Williams Transport,; Dinky Commer Breakdown lorry - Brown Green - A NB,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, TARMAC WORKS 1 64 BMW HONG KONG 50 ANNIVERSARY, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Hot Wheels 1 18 Scale diecast - 25OCT2017O Ferrari Superamerica Red Model Car, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeDinky Commer Breakdown lorry - Brown Green - A NB,.

Sauber Mercedes C9 Winner 400km Suzuka 1989 18 Norev 183441 neu & OVP,.Best Model BT9390 ALFA ROMEO 33.2 N.180 RETIRED TARGA FLORIO 1968 GOSSELIN-TROSC, Clarke's negligent act.Dinky Toys 180 - Rover 3500 - mint in box,.Diecast Car Model BMW All New 7 Series 750 Li 2017 1 18 (White) + GIFT ,.1 18 Greenlight Chevrolet Z 28 Yenko Turbo Z 1981 darkbluee-metallic,.

Schuco 02389 DKW Schnelllaster Büssing mit Anhänger Baujahr 1962 orange 1 43,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Sauber Mercedes C9 Winner 400km Suzuka 1989 18 Norev 183441 neu & OVP,Diecast Car Model for All New Q5L Q5 L SUV 1 18 (Red) + GIFT ,. In Noska,1 64 diecast FIRST GEAR - DCP KENWORTH K-100,.Citroen 2cv Dolly 1985 Meije White & Cormoran Grey 1 18 Model NOREV,.Tenariv Kit à Monter 1 43 - WM Peugeot Le Mans 1986,.SCHNÄPPCHEN WOCHEN ALTE WIKING MODELLE TOP-ZUSTAND ANSEHEN WH462, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.1 18 Autoworld Ertl 1971 Baldwin Motion Chevrolet Vega,.Minichamps Formel 1 McLaren Mercedes MP 4 16 Mika Hakkinen 2001 1 18 OVP,.FERRARI 330 P4 WINNER DAYTONA 1967 FDS 1 43 MONTAGE PRO,.BMW 2002 Turbo 1973-74 - Minichamps 1 43 in Box 34583,. Id., p 923.

Saloon Car - Dinky Toys 35a England 36833,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Best Model BT9390 ALFA ROMEO 33.2 N.180 RETIRED TARGA FLORIO 1968 GOSSELIN-TROSC,Volkswagen 1303 1972 Red NOREV - NO 188520 - Echelle 1 18 NEWS JUILLET 2018,.Best Model BT9541 ABARTH SP 2000 N.462 WINNER SESTRIERE 1970 A.MERZARIO 1 43 Mod,.Mercedes AMG S 65 2016 Spark S4916 1 43,.1969 BALDWIN MOTION CAMARO 454 YELLOW 1 18 ERTL ONLY 2500 HOBBY EDITION SERIES.,.MARK43 PM4313R 1 43 Nissan Fairlady Z T Barref Turbo S130 Wine Red Metallic,.Schuco 1230 Renault 6CV Model 1911 Western Germany Excellent Original With Box,.Triple 9 Honda Civic EF9 JTC 1991 PIAA Sug 1 18 1800102,. The parties Minicar Kyosho 1 43 Nissan Gt-R Tokyo Smart Driver,.

Spark SCCG19 Courage C60 JX Judd Le Mans 2003,.REVELL KIT UNBUILT H1280 - JAGUAR E TYPE - RED 1 25 - GOOD WITH BOX,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Dinky Toys 180 - Rover 3500 - mint in box,; MINICHAMPS - AUDI TT ROADSTER - TANGO RED - 1 18 SCALE MODEL - DEALER EDITION, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Renault R5 Supercinque Gt Turbo 1986 Light bluee Met NOREV 1 18 NV185207 Miniatur,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, TSM Jaguar F-Type SVR AWD - Caldera Red - 1 43,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Lot of 23 NOS 2001-2006 Hot Wheels First Editions & Other Series Cars NIP,.Matchbox VW lot promised to one buyer,.Trofeu TF0113 FORD SIERRA N.25 ACCIDENT RAC RALLY 1989 CUNICO-HARRYMAN 1 43 Mode,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,James Bond, SPECTRE Aston Martin DB5 and DB10 corgi car model set,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.1 43 UNIQUE RIO DSM 1968 LAMBORGHINI P400 MIURA ROADSTER ONE-OFF,.HOT WHEELS TREASURE HUNT (1) NEW FOR 2018 - '16 CADILLAC ATS-V R (MOMC),.ALFA ROMEO SZ TROPHY 1991 SPARK S0616 1 43,.Best Model BT9711 JAGUAR E TYPE COUPE' N.104 RETIRED R.PINDER-C.POLLARD 1 43 Mod,.CHEVROLET Corvette Le Mans 1970 Bourdon Aubri Esso Mammouth Spark Resin 1 43,. The ScottsdaleSOLIDO citroen MICHELIN 1 18,Peugeot 908 Hdi-Fap No. 9 2009 Le Mans Gewinner Harz 1 43 - Spark,.Vintage Meri Kits Ferrari 512 Lemans 78 Model Race Car Display Box ....Rare ,. Id.,Maserati 5000 GT Allemano 1960 White 45657 Neo 1 43 New in a box OVP,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Premium Classixx PREM13353 VW LT28 BRANDWEER 1 43,; Diecast Car Model BMW All New 7 Series 750 Li 2017 1 18 (White) + GIFT ,Chevrolet Camaro Z 28 1978 black, Modellauto 1 18 Greenlight Collectibles,.VW T1 Kasten Bulli Mobiloil Service 1 43 SCHUCO RARE ,. The ScottsdaleJada 1972 Pontiac Trans Am 1 24 scale nib CC edition 2010 2065 of 7500 made,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, VOLGA GAZ 24-02 USSR CCCP CONVERSION 1 43 Without a box,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 1 18 Greenlight Chevrolet Z 28 Yenko Turbo Z 1981 darkbluee-metallic,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Schuco 02389 DKW Schnelllaster Büssing mit Anhänger Baujahr 1962 orange 1 43,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Norev GT by Citroen 2008 - Electric bluee - 1 18,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, MINICHAMPS 431028741 BMW Z8 2001 green METALIZZATO Modellino,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Ford Focus RS WRC Acropolis 2003 Duval Prevot Sunstar 3902 1 18, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, MINICHAMPS FORD CAPRI RS 2600 RS2600 1972-73 WHITE MINT BOXED, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, BMW M3-1987-- IXO ALTAYA 1 18° FASCICULE 43 plus dispo chez altaya,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeHot Wheels Ford Focus 1 18 bluee Tuning (MCNB),." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Norev 1 43 Scale 800404 - 1966 Honda S800 - Red,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheNEO SCALE MODEL 1 43 Maserati 5000 Gt Allemano 1960 White Art. 46657,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.1975 Hot Wheels Dune Daddy (Redline) (Green) (Hong Kong),independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Chevrolet El Camino - red 1959 NEO 44850 1 43,PORSCHE 911 Carrera Coupe green met G Modell 1976 schmal Resin Pro R Schuco 1 43,.1 43 TSM124384 Acura NSX Cabriolet, Purple 2012 Avengers Cars, Resin HONDA NSX,.Premium ClassiXXs Tatra 111 C - weiss red - Benzina - Tankwagen - 1 43,. The HuygheRMM 1 87 HO - Berliet GAK Plateau Covered Firefighters France,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheCORGI Eddie Stobart - CC13401 - MODERN - MAN TGA Curtainside - MB,.

Altes Blechspielzeug Motorrad, MF 115,.Ebro 1 43 COSTIN NATHAN 44906London racingcar show1969 finished product,.

KK SCALE MODELS - 1 18 - ALFA-ROMEO ALFASUD 1.3 - 1972 - 180021R,.KK-SCALE 1 18 FERRARI 365 GT4 2+2 1972 green METALLIZZATO MODELLINO,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Art Model AM0390 FERRARI 860 MONZA N.2 2nd GP VENEZUELA CARACAS J.M.FANGIO 1 43,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeMinichamps 1 43 - Alfa Romeo 8C 2900 B Lungo bluee,.1 32 Weise Toys Model Unimog MB Trac 1300 Turbo tractor Beige Diecast Toy,.

For example, in Partridge,2006 DODGE CHALLENGER CONCEPT orange 1 18 MIT LED-BELEUCHTUNG(XENON) MAISTO,. In Jorgensen, supra,VINTAGE RARE GREEK WIND-UP B.M.W RALLY KNIGHT OF ROADS BY ANCO TOYS MIB,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.CADILLAC ELDORADO BIARRITZ pink 1 18,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,1 18 Hotwheels Cadillac Ambulance Ghostbusters ECTO-1 BCJ75 White,. That is the same situation in this case.1 18 Triple 9 Collection Toyota Land Cruiser red cream-red beig Nr. T9-1800153,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Minichamps 1 18 Ford Escort Mk1, RS 1600, bluee, Fast & Furious, 100688102,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast - 33266 Chevrolet Corvette Congreenible Red,.Ford Crown Victoria Unmarked Plain White Police Car With Lights,Sounds 1 18Model,.Minichamps 1 43 - Mercedes E Class 1994 W124 Cabriolet pinkwood,.

KK-Scale 1 18 Ferrari 275 GTB4 NART Spyder 1967 rood nieuw in doos,.