Minichamps 1 1 1 43 Scale Model Car 430 820027 - F1 Ferrari 126 C2 1982 3309db

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Minichamps 1 1 1 43 Scale Model Car 430 820027 - F1 Ferrari 126 C2 1982 3309db
Norev NV155429 CITROEN C 4 N.1 GB RALLY 2009 LOEB 1 43,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Trofeu TF1609 AUDI QUATTRO N.3 WINNER R.A.C.1983 S.BLOMQVIST-B.CEDERBERG 1 43 M,.Minichamps 400700014 1 43 LOTUS FORD 72 GRAHAM HILL MEXICAN GP 1970,.Emek 83899 Man Tgs LX with Rolling Garbage Press 1 25,.2013 Pagani Huayra RHD - 1 43 scale - Spark - NEW,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.VOITURE MINIATURE BMW Z4 N° 66 24H DE SPA 2012 SPARK 1 43 ETAT NEUF,.Schuco 1 32 Fortschritt ZT 323 Tractor 450780400,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Herpa PC Iveco SZ Edition 1 Italien OV,.VINTAGE 60 LEGO 1 87 CAMION MERCEDES TRANSPORT yellow SUPERBE,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Norev 1 43 Scale Model Car 785016 - 1985 Lancia Delta S4 - Red,.21 Hot Wheels Matchbox vehicle 1970s collection & 1980 Official Collector Case,.Welly 11002MB-M Mercedes Benz SLS AMG C197, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Western Models (Kit) Bentley 4½ litre Mulliner 1 43 (JS),.Mx572, Cursor Modell Mercedes Benz 200- 300E 200D-300D Taxi 1 35 BOX 1084,.Wiking 077831 Oehler Zweiachs- Ballentransportwagen ZDK , 1 32 NEU OVP,.EBBRO 44472 1 43 Honda City Turbo R Suzuka T.Boutsen4 White Red 1982,.

NOREV 1 18 MERCEDES 300 - 1955 WHITE GREY - 183578,.Maisto Special Edition 1 18 Scale Diecast 31629 - Lexus SC 430 - Red 3+,.Corgi OM46614B New Routemaster NBFL New bus for london Go-ahead london 453,.Honda CR-Z Mugen Sports & Eco Program 1 43 Model RIO414111 RIO,.PEUGEOT 207 S2000 Rallye Portugal Stohl Minor 2008 vodafone Sunstar 1 18,.

1958 Plymouth Fury CHRISTINE Rusted Dirty Version 1 18 By Auto World AWSS119,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Hot Wheels 2016 Red Line Club RLC Neo-Classics Volkswagen VW Drag Bus 'd 7500,.MG RV8 Spider RHD 1993 Prune Red Metallic 1 43 NEO 44271,.NOREV - 1 18 - CITROEN C4 CACTUS - 2014 - 181651,Dacia Duster Vltt Sdis 28 Sapeurs Pompiers 2010 Red Yellow ALARME 1 43 AL-007,.Mercedes SLR McLaren TUNING Antera Felgen silver OVP N 18,.

Volkswagen Microbus Sliding Sunroof Edition 1962 - 1 18 - Road Signature,.Audi V8 Evolution Belgian Procar 1993 - 1 43 - Minichamps,.DRAGON 1 400 - 55133 BOEING 747-4D7 - THAI,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.


Spark Model SG314 MERCEDES GT3 N.1 5th NURBURGR.2017 ENGEL-CHRISTOD.-BUURMAN-ME,. We agree in part.

Minichamps Le Mans 24 Hours Endurance 2005 Audi R8,.Franklin Mint 1933 Duesenberg SJ Twenty Grand Collectibles Models B11PW73 w Box,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Danbury Mint 1931 Mercedes-Benz SSKL 1 24 scale diecast model,.PORSCHE 911 Turbo 3.3 Rallye DRM Saarland Winner Hero 1 300 RAR Edit Spark 1 43,.Porsche Cayenne Turbo S E2 II 2015 Umbrametallic 1 18 Minichamps WAP Dealer,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Kyosho original 1 43 Lexus RC 350 F Sport heat bluee CL finished product,.1 18 Norev Citroen SM 1971 gold metallic NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Neo Maserati Quattroporte IV - metallic-dunkel-red - 1994 - 1 43,; Mac Due MCG18045 ROVER 3500 V8 METROPOLITAN POLICE (GB) 1 18 Modellino,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

BMW M3 E30 SPORT EVOLUTION black 1 18 serie 3er,.Matchbox Superfast Lesney - Series J7 - Alfa Carabo Japan Rare F S,Renault 16 1969 Beige Grey Metallic 1 18 - 185133 NOREV,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Espewe ESCALA H0 1 87 Ikarus 55 AUTOCAR IKARUS 66 DE 1960 años, RARO,.

RIO 4208 CITROEN DS Cabrio 1961 - Rossa,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Polar Lights Big John Mazmanian Ghost 'Cuda NHRA Funny Car 1 25 Scale Model Kit,.Volkswagen VW Microbus 1962 orange W White Roof 1 18 Model YAT MING,.Mercedes-Benz Actros Mp4 Kit REVELL 1 24 RV07439,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, METAL KIT (built) EAGLE T2G 1966 No 10 - DARK blueE F1 1 43 - NICE CONDITION,; ALFA ROMEO 6C 2500 FRECCIA D'gold 1947 RED Minichamps 403120484,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Maisto 1 18 Diecast - B66962123 Mercedes Benz C-Klasse Sportcoupe New DEALER B,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Minichamps 1 1 1 43 Scale Model Car 430 820027 - F1 Ferrari 126 C2 1982 3309dbMinichamps 1 1 1 43 Scale Model Car 430 820027 - F1 Ferrari 126 C2 1982 3309dbMinichamps 1 1 1 43 Scale Model Car 430 820027 - F1 Ferrari 126 C2 1982 3309db

Ferrari 250 Spider California Competizione Red 1 43 Model 0115 ART-MODEL,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Dodge Charger R T DIRTY MARY CRAZY LARRY Auto World 1 18 OVP NEU,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

SSM LKW 1 43 KAMAZ-53212 Cont-LKW Russische Post,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Giocher FM01BIS FIAT MAREA POLIZIA BERLINA LAMP.LUNG Modellino,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.1 32 Weise Toys Deutz D 13006 Special tractor Green 2015 Diecast Toy,.FIRST GEAR 1 50 SCALE CASE IH STEIGER 485HD DUAL-WHEELED TRACTOR BN 50-3191,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.DINKY 416 FORD TRANSIT MOTORWAY VAN MINT ORIGINAL ON PLINTH WITH DAMAGED COVER,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Porsche 908 2 - No.67 Le Mans 1972 in 1 43 Scale by Spark,.

Premium ClassiXXs Tatra 128 KUNG - oliv - 1951 - 1 43,.Minichamps 1 43 - Alfa Romeo 8C 2900 B Lungo bluee,.Fiat 238 Ambulanza Croce white Milano 1 43 Model RIO,.UT - PORSCHE 911 GT1 - G-FORCE - WARSTEINER - AWESOME - DISPLAYED - L@@K,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Spark 1 43 Scale S3062 - F1 Scuderia Tgold red STR8,.


The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Ebbro 1 43 Ebbro Vemac 350R from Japan,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Schuco Piccolo 4er-Set 2000 Vedes Isetta Fiat 500 Gogo Messerschmitt (65014),.SPARK Model 1 43 Alfa Romeo 156 GTA ETCC 2003 F. Giovanardi Art. S0464,.Porsche 911 997 Turbo H Nürnburgring 2008 Hankook MINICHAMPS MODEL CAR,.Anson 30383 Prestige Edition 1932 Cadillac Sport Phaeton, 1 18 New In Box,.Neo Models Humber Super Snipe Saloon in Dark Red 1965 46335 1 43 NEW,.

HRT F1 YAMAMOTO BELGIUM GP 2010 SPARK S3011 1 43, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.MEBETOYS A-117 A 117 A117 ALFA ROMEO ALFASUD HOLIDAY VACANZE NEAR MINT RARE,.Dinky Dublo 072 Bedford Articulated Lorry - Excellent In Original Box,. The PartridgeFERRARI FXX-K N. 75 2015 1 18 BBURAGO SIGNATURE BU16907R,.Ford Hardtop 20M - Gama 943 Germany 1 45 34631,.De Lorean DMC-12 Coupe 1981 gold, Modellauto 1 18 Sun Star,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, AUTOWORLD AMM1091 CULTURE EDITION 1969 DODGE CHARGER DAYTONA 1 18 DIECAST WHITE, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Vintage TKK Japan Tin US Army Jeep Friction Motor up front,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.UH 1 18 Scale Land Rover Defender 110 Station Wagon UK Police Diecast model car,.NEO SCALE MODELS NEO46415 AUDI S1 2014 YELLOW 1 43,Partridge1 18 Citroen C3-XR Diecast Model,.Schuco 1 43 Porsche 356,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Minichamps 1 43 Chrysler Viper GTS-R Le Mans 24 from Japan, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, CHEVROLET Caprice Wagon 1991 1 43 BoS 43080,; 2002 Kyosho Minicar Club 09101R Smar Cabrio Set 1 18 Diecast Car NIB,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, 304I 1960'S Asahi ATC Model Pet 20 Toyopet Crown Deluxe 1 43 Repaint, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Dinky Toys F n° 811 caravane avec glaces en boite, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeVINTAGE DIECAST--JAGUAR XK120 CONV--REMOTE CONTROL--PLASTIC--VERY RARE,.

LANCIA ECV 2 1988 WHITE 1 43 BIZARRE BZ410,.Humber Super Snipe 1965 Salon Dark Red 1 43 Neoscale NEO46335 Model, Clarke's negligent act.VW Käfer Bahnpolizei 1 43 SCHUCO Rare ,.1 43 RL86K Jaguar E-type lightweight Samir Klat low drag coupe KIT BY SMTS,.Ford Fiesta WRC No.3 Winner Rally Great Britain 2017 -E.Evans S5174 Spark 1 43,.

1997 Action 1 24th Diecast Nascar Jeff Gordon Jurassic Park,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, CITROEN 2CV PROPHYLTEX Lutte Contre Le SIDA NOREV 1 43,1 18 Porsche 911 GT2 Street 1997 , original brake discs - UT -3L050,. In Noska,Mini Champs 1 43 Porsche 911 930 Turbo 1977,.1950's Dinky military AUSTIN CHAMP Army Jeep diecast very good to excellent,.Schuco 07794 Case International 633 mit Kabine, red 1 32 NEU + OVP,.1 18 Artisan Collection The A-Team 1967 Chevrolet Impala Sedan, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.SW0608 MAN TGX XL, Tiefladesattelzug mit Baggerbett black Bau (48),.NOREV - 1 18 - CITROEN DS 19 - 1956 - 181481,.1 18 Die Cast American Muscle 1968 Chevelle SS396,.VW Volkswagen 1303 Beetle Cabriolet 1972-80 - Minichamps 1 43 in Box 34147,. Id., p 923.

Jada 1 24 Scale Radio Control Car 2.4GHz RC 97602 - Brian's Toyota Supra,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, DTE 1 20 W GERMANY NZG CONRAD 248 BOMAG BW90S ROAD ROLLER NIOB,1962 Volkswagen Microbus Combi Type 2 T1 blue-whiteo 1 18 Yat Ming 92327,.GreenLight 12859 1 18 Scale 1987 Pontiac GTA, sizedega 500 Pace Car Diecast,.Jaguar Xkr Roadster Green 007 James Bond Die Another Day 1 43 Model MINICHAMPS,.1955 Ford Crown Vic,.New - Fire Engine Metal - Collectable,.RARE JADA TOYS DUB CITY BIGTIME MUSCLE 1 24 1969 CAMARO YELLOW RACE READY,.Pontiac Gto Coupe 1964 Yorktown bluee Met SUNSTAR 1 18 SS1826,. The parties Minichamps VW T1 Tuborg 1 43 OVP,.

BURAGO 1 18 3039 FERRARI 348 TB 1989 blueE,.Dinky Toys vintage rare Dino Ferrari,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Delage D8 120 Letourneur 1938 bluee 1 43 Spark S2707 Modellino,; Corgi 221 Chevrolet Impala New York Taxi Cab 1 43, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]


Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, KIT EBBRO 1 20 DA COSTRUIRE IN PLASTICA TYRELL 002 1971 BRITISH GP ART 008,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)VINTAGE 1960s CORGI 803 THE BEATLES YELLOW SUBMARINE VEHICLE RARE,.Norev 183559 2011 Mercedes Benz B180 1 18 Model Car Red,.Peugeot 908 HDI FAP Team Oreca Matmut , 24H LeMans 2011 , Sparkmodels,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Action Racing 2001 Chevrolet Corvette C5-R Dale Earnhardt Yellow 1 18 Scale,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Ford Grand Torino Coupe (Red) 1972,.MB0590 Terex 3307 Muldenkipper, Max Bögl (856),.Porsche 356a 1500 Gs Carrera Gt 1957 Metallic Green 1 18 Model 1343 SUN STAR,.PORSCHE CAYENNE TURBO, WHITE WELLY 1 18 DIECAST CAR COLLECTOR'S MODEL , NEW,.MATCHBOX SUPERKINGS K-43 MERCEDES BENZ HOLZTRANSPORTER OVP 1979,. The ScottsdaleGenuine MINI Congreenible 2016 Miniature Die Cast Model Car Toy White 80432405582,Hot Wheels 1 43 - Coffret 3 F1 Ferrari 2002 - 2002 F2000 F2001 F2002,.Citroen 2CV 6 Club 1979 yellow 1. Generation 1949-1990 1 18 Norev Modell Auto mi..,. Id.,RENAULT MEGANE VAMPIRE Norev blue 1 18,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, ERTL 33456 - 1954 CHEVY CORVETTE NEW YORK GIANTS - 1 18,; Porsche 911 Carrera RSR Turbo Brands Hatch in 1 43 Scale by TSM,1960 DC COMIC BATMOBILE AND BATMARINE,.Mint Mini-Champs 1 43 Mini Car Lamborghini Diablo World Limited 6,336,. The ScottsdalePremium ClassiXXs KrAZ 260 - oliv - NVA - 1 43,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, CORGI 54307 GREYHOUND NEW YORK WORLDS FAIR GM FISHBOWL 1 50 SCALE,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; TAM20061 by TAMIYA LOTUS TYPE 79 KIT DI MONTAGGIO - 1 20,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 18 KK Alfa Romeo red red Limited Edition OVP,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Mercedes Cls 63 Amg Shootin Brake 2014 bluee 1 43 Spark S1081,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, NEO SCALE MODELS NEO46601 MERCEDES 500 SEC KOENIG SPECIALS RED 1 43,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Minichamps 1 43 Mercedes AMG SLS GT3 '45 Years Driving Academy' 2012 410133200, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Corgi 54706 E-One Side Mount Fire Tender Washington D.C. Ltd Ed No. 0003 of 3100, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, .SUPERB MATCHBOX MODELS OF YESTERYEAR “YSH2 1886 LONDON OMNIBUS” + ORIGINAL BOX.,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the Partridge1 43 Spark Ford Fiesta RS WRC Rally Monte Carlo 2018 Evans S5952,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Hot Wheels Redline 2 Speedometer UNUSED,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheRedline Hotwheels Purple 1969 Ford Coupe oc6265,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.MINICHAMPS 1 43 Peugeot 306 Cab 1998 green Green Intérieur Beige,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Neo Ferrari 375 MM Scaglietti Coupe - silver - 1954 - 1 43,Premium ClassiXXs 1 43 KrAZ 255V SZM NVA- olive,.Porsche 911 (997 II) GT2 RS black limitiert auf 500 Minichamps 1 43 neu & OVP,.Vtg 1960's Tonka Toys USA Pink Surrey JEEP w Canopy parts repair,. The HuygheVolkswagen VW T1 Samba Bus 1959 Red Creme 1 18 Model KK SCALE,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheLada Niva 5000 Beige 1 18 Ist Ixo Modell Auto mit oder ohne individiuellem Wun..,.

NEO MODELS MITSUBISHI Sappgold Coupe bluee Metallic 1 43 43441,.Spark 1 43 Sunbeam Alpine Monte Carlo 1960 S4058,.

2016 Bentley Bentayga 1 43 Scale Model BL1319,.Mac Due MCG18036 PEUGEOT 504 BREAK GENDARMERIE 1 18 Modellino,. Nonetheless, on the facts of WIKING Demag Mobilkran red gesupert Rettungswagen Scale 1 87,.

Next, it is important to clarify that Partridge1 400 U.S.A.F. B747-81 AIR FORCE ONE 38000 GJAFO1666,.SPARK - LOTUS XI 14TH LE MANS 1957 43 SCALE S4399,.

For example, in Partridge,11x vintage APS POLITOYS Pennytoy Plastic Tank - TIALY 40 50er Jahre - RARO,. In Jorgensen, supra,1 43 Minichamps Horch 855 Spezial-Roadster dunkelblue 1938,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Porsche 911 964 Purple Techno Classica 2018 Limited Edition Spark 1 43 BRAND NEW,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Porsche 911 991 Carrera Gts Cabriolet 2017 SPARK 1 43 S7622 Model,. That is the same situation in this case.DINKY SUPERTOYS DARK blueE O GAUGE GOODS YARD CRANE ORIGINAL CLEAN VINTAGE RETRO,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Rare BOS 1 43 Cadillac De Ville Congreenible bluee resin model car New,. Detroit Edison, supra.

1 18 Norev Renault 12 Gordini 1971 blue 185210,.Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG GT3 no.62 24 Hours of Spa 2013,.1 18 Norev Ford Sierra RS Cosworth 1986 grey metallic 182770,.

Herpa Scania CS 20 HD V8 Müller Platinum (CH) 1 87,.