1 18 Maisto G Rides Bugz Volkswagen Käfer 1951 1951 1951 türkis RARITÄT § bf82e3

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
1 18 Maisto G Rides Bugz  Volkswagen Käfer 1951 1951 1951 türkis RARITÄT § bf82e3
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals 1941 PLYMOUTH COUPE YAT MING SHYNE STREET RODZ PURPLE NEW SEALED.MINT,CLASSICIC,.Contessa Hino 1 43 Minicar,.NEW DIECAST NOREV 1 18 2011 MERCEDES-BENZ C-CLASS DTM AMG M.SCHUMACHER,.Renaissance 1 43 Porsche 911 GT1 1997 Le Mans Handmade Model Car Kit,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Minichamps DP 1 12 Kawasaki 900 Z1 Super 4 1973 Candy Green yellow,.RAI'S 1 43 Nissan Teana (L33) 2016 Police Car Diecast Model H7431606,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Minichamps McLaren Mercedes MP4 15 2000 1 43 Mika Hakkinen (FIN) (JS),.Spark 1 43 - Porsche 917 PA Spyder 1969 Test Car,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.1 43 SPARK TVR 450 SEAC, 1986 IN RED,.Porsche 911 Cup 3.8 - 1 43 - Schuco,.Porsche 911 991 Targa 4 Gts 2014 Dark Red Schuco 1 43 WAP0201450F Model, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

872P Herpa Scania 09 TL Sattelzug Markus Hafner,Feichter Hof Nr.915977 in OVP,.MATCHBOX LESNEY COMMER ICE CREAM CANTEEN N° 47,.Morgan Aero 8 GT3 (2007) Resin Model Car S0373,.New LOT of 20 Matchbox Rare VHTF Flatbed Vista Cruiser Audi Avant Stepside Chevy,.

JADA 1 24 W B METALS JDM TUNERS 2009 NISSAN GT-R R35 BEN SOPRA 4 X COLOR SET,.Fiat 238 Ambulanza Croce Gialla Ancona Rio 1 43 Rio4216 Modellino Diecast,.COFFRET COLLECTOR SOUVENIR D'ESPAGNE HORS SÉRIE 2013 SP DINKY TOYS ATLAS,.Maserati Indy (black) 1970 1 43,.CITROEN 2CV BREIZH 1 18 Bretagne,.

BMW 635 CSi , 24H Spa 1985 , Sparkmodels,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Bentley Continental Supersport 2009 Top Gear with The 1 43 MINICHAMPS 519431390,.SSM LKW 1 43 KRAZ-255B1 Tanklöschfahrzeug Feuerwehr,.Alfa Romeo Torpedo 24Hp Open 1910 First Predotype Merosi RIO 1 43 RIO4567 Miniat,Mercedes 300 SLR Coupe Uhlenhaut 1955 1 43 MINICHAMPS 432553200,.Citroen Cx 25 Trd Turbo 2 Break 1986 Gun Grey Metallic 1 43 Model KESS MODEL,.

SCHUCO Mercedes-Benz LP 608 Porsche 450352100 1 43,.Burago 1 18 Scale diecast - 3025 Dodge Viper RT 10 1992 Red,.McLaren MP4-12C Loeb Racing, Navarra GT FIA 2013 , Sparkmodels,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.


NOREV - 1 18 - CITROEN GT BY CITROEN - 2008 - 181613,. We agree in part.

Matchbox Special Limited Edition No.11 Car Transporter,.Minichamps 1 43 1973 Porsche 911 Carrera RSR Martini Dijon Mueller 1 of 3024,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Ferrari 500 TRC Winner Targa Florio 1958 Tramontana Cammarata 1 43 0231,.1 43 SPARK FORD FIESTA WRC 2018 MONTE CARLO TEST CAR RED BULL OGIER,.Somerville Models 1 43 Scale 107 - Fordson 5CWT Van - London Toy Museum - bluee,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; 1999 Ertl American Muscle Collector's Edition '1967 Chevrolet Chevelle SS L-78',.Spark 1 43 Scale Resin Model Car S2132 - Jaguar D - Le Mans 1955,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Panhard 24 Ct 1964 Turquoise, Model Car 1 18 Norev,; Matchbox Lesney No.5a London Bus In Type 'B1' Series MOKO Box (PAPER LABELS),; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

BORGWARD B4500 TANKWAGEN SHELL red - yellow 1 43 MINICHAMPS 439017070 NEU,.EMEK 82096 MAN TGS LX mit Kofferauflieger 1 25,SOL1800304 - Voiture Dyane 6 CITROEN 1967 orange éditée à 1500 unités - 1 18,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.WSI 04-1179 1 50 Volkswagen Transporter Escort Car,.


A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Daf 2300 met Container Opzet Laadbak - Lion Car Code 3 Model - 1 50 35280,.Spark Model S5421 PORSCHE 906 LH N.55 5th 24 H DAYTONA 1967 D.SPOERRY-R.STEINEMA,.1967 CITROEN ID 19 BREAK MONTE CARLO blueE 1 18 DIECAST CAR MODEL BY NOREV 181591,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Spark S4997 - Porsche 91 2.7 Carrera Baujahr 1974 white-black 1 43 NEU,; Redline Hotwheels Antifreeze 1969 Lola GT70 oc15188,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, P011 - Brumm Ferrari 126C2 GP - San Marino 1982 - Villeneuve - 1 43,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

1 18 Maisto G Rides Bugz  Volkswagen Käfer 1951 1951 1951 türkis RARITÄT § bf82e31 18 Maisto G Rides Bugz  Volkswagen Käfer 1951 1951 1951 türkis RARITÄT § bf82e31 18 Maisto G Rides Bugz  Volkswagen Käfer 1951 1951 1951 türkis RARITÄT § bf82e31 18 Maisto G Rides Bugz  Volkswagen Käfer 1951 1951 1951 türkis RARITÄT § bf82e31 18 Maisto G Rides Bugz  Volkswagen Käfer 1951 1951 1951 türkis RARITÄT § bf82e31 18 Maisto G Rides Bugz  Volkswagen Käfer 1951 1951 1951 türkis RARITÄT § bf82e3

Ertl 1 18 scale Diecast 7489 1967 Chevrolet Corvette L-71 red,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Ixo 1 43 Scale - LMM029 BENTLEY SPEED 8 LE MANS 2001,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Vintage 1973 Corgi Toys No. 461 Whizz Wheels Vigilant Range Rover Police,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Schuco 1666 ORDNER '03 CD+VW BUS PRISTCHE Modellino,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Tandem Car Trailer Gulf Oil in 1 43 Scale by GMP,.NOREV CITROEN DS3 WRC WORLD CHAMPION RALLYE DE FRANCE 2012 RedBull LOEB ELENA,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Spark Models 1 43 Scale S2041 - Porsche 911 Carrera 3.2 Speedster Clubsport,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.MAJORETTE KOOL KROMES FERRARI F40 (F.40) 1 64 DIECAST (LOOSE) gold CHROME,.

Hot Wheels HWX5497 FERRARI 458 ITALIA GT2 N.51 13th LM 2011 FISICHELLA-BRUNI-VIL,.1 18 Norev VW Beetle 1303 Congreenible 1972 orange,.2003 Corvette Burgundy with tools & accessories 1 18 Ertl American Muscle 33174,.AL410101 ALMOST REAL 1 43 Land Rover Range Rover 1970 Tuscan bluee model cars,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Audi 100 Coupé S 1970 - weiss - 1 18 KK-Scale SALE,.

EFE 1 76 Scale Bus Set 14 - 110549 Dartford 1963 AEC Renown & AEC RT,.1 87 Herpa Scania R HL Rungen-SZ Felbermayr mit Gittermastteilen 303873,.1 18 Triple 9 Collection Toyota Land Cruiser red cream-red beig Nr. T9-1800153,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, 1 18 Ertl ´32 Ford Street Rod American Muscle - OVP - Selten ,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Franklin Mint 1936 Bugatti Type 57SC ATALANTE 1 24 Diecast Red B11RP48 W Box,.1 50 Scale Diecast Masters International Day Cab Tandem Tractor HX520 Cab Only,.Porsche 934 5 1000km Nurburgring 1977 , spark models,.Norev 185301 Renault Alpine A110 1600S Baujahr 1971 Gendarmarie 1 18 NEU,.Herpa Scania CS 20 HD V8 Müller Cristallo (CH) 1 87,.

Ebbro EB44034 PORSCHE 911 RSR N.8 6th NURBURGRING 1974 MULLER-VAN LENNEP 1 43 Mo, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.BROOKLIN MODELS BRK 25 PONTIAC BONNEVILLE 1958 - IDIANAPOLIS PACE CAR 1 43 -NMIB,.Occasion BMW 850i bordeaux 1 43,. The Partridge1970 Porsche 917 K 9H Kyalami Siffert Ahrens 1 18 Norev,.Modelauto Shell Tankwagen 1953 White 3000 First Gear 1 34 - OVP,.Porsche 911 Turbo (997 Ii) 2009 Grey Top Gear Minichamps 1 43 519436930 Model,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Mercedes-Benz CLK cabrio 1 18 kyosho dealer, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Mercedes Benz Sls Coupe 6.3 Amg (C197) 2010 Red Met Welly 1 18 WE11002R Model,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Spark 1 43 Rondeau M 379 C n.151 Le Mans 1988 S2271,.QSP Model Collection DAF 33 Bestel 1 43 Grey,PartridgeSpark Citroen C3 WRC Citroën Total Abu Dhabi 1 43 S5960,.Herpa 1 76 Scale Model 10304 - Drumwell Citybus - Hong Kong Bus,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, RIO 4112 CITROEN DS 19 Gendarmerie 1965, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Toyota MR2 Gr.B White 1986 (Premium X 1 43 PR0031),; KRAZ 214 Mosgortrans SSM1322 1 43,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Mercedes W110 230 S Universal 1967 sw vehicle miniature WB207 Whitebox 1 43, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, P&T model DC1022 Hong Kong Kowloon motor bus Kmb Leyland Olympian 12M ECW Body, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeBBURAGO 0130 RENAULT 4 WEGENWACHT ANWB - OCRE 1 24 - GOOD CONDITION,.

Superior Mini Cooper Mini Cooper bluee Minicar toy hobby toy toy car Japan F S,.NOREV 1 18 1991 Renault Clio 16S Racing Diecast Model Car Red (185233), Clarke's negligent act.Batmobile film Batman 1989 1 43,.AUTOWORLD AWSS102 1 18 1958 PLYMOUTH FURY CHRISTINE NIGHTTIME VERSION W LIGHTS,.1 18 La Mini Miniera Bugatti EB110 Monte Carlo bluee NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.

Ferrari LaFerrari Coupe Matt black Ab 2013 Signature 1 18 Bburago Modell Aut..,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, BENTLEY by DSG dinky copies type2,Hot Wheel Limited Detroit Muscle 6 Cars Set,. In Noska,368G Novoexport CCCP Saratov Moskvitch 412 Médecin Soviet 1 43,.Renault 30 Tx 1981 Bronce brown Metálico, Coche Modelo 1 18 Norev,.Spark Model Porsche 9088 G. Mitter 1 43 S3482,.1 18 Model Car Group Barkas B1000 Halbbus Volkspolizei 1970, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.CORGI 1 43 SCALE EX70626 - PINDER JEAN RICHARD PEUGEOT D3A - SERVICE PUBLICITE,.Russian Made 1 43 Scale diecast - R1 Lada VAZ 2105 Red USSR Car,.1 43 Schuco Borgward B 2500 Sanella Kastenwagen 03451,.1996 ERTL VINTAGE NFL BOBBLEHEAD DIE CAST CAR LOT EAGLES COWBOYS 49ERS NEW NOS,. Id., p 923.


In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, AUDI V8 Quattro Limousine 1988 weiss whit D11 4C Minichamps PMA NEU RAR 1 43,MODELLINO PORSCHE 911 GT2 997 2007 white TOP GEAR IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.AUTOWORLD AMM1136 1 18 1969 DODGE SUPER BEE GREEN HARDTOP HEMMINGS MOTOR NEWS,.2003 Toyota Cgoldlla Matrix XR Diecast Model Red Road Signature 1 18,.bluee Kenworth T660 Cab with Anhydrous Tanker by Die-Cast Promotions 1 64th Scale,.Minichamps (PMA) 1 43 Nr. 437 123500 Maserati Quattroporte III Royale OVP,.Norev 1 18 BMW M 535i Metallic bluee Diecast Model Car bluee 183267,.Anbrico White Metal Kit - B6 Super Lion Showman's Compound Road Locomotive,. The parties Vintage 1970's Mighty Tonka - Heavy Duty Loader - Original,.


Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Spark 1 43 Scale S3788 - Citroen DS3 WRC rd Monte Carlo 2014,; BROOKLIN BRK 7 CHRYSLER AIRFLOW 1934 4 DOOR SEDAN 1 43, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Anson 1 18 Scale Diecast - 30325-w Porsche 911 GT1 Le Mans 1996,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 76SET57 Oxford Diecast OO Gauge 10 Piece Land Rover Military Set,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Wiking H0 Opel Kapitän ´59 (MC585),.Chevrolet Corvair Coupe 1963 black, Modellauto 1 18 Sun Star,.Giocher PA01C FIAT PANDA STRADALE CARABINIERI Modellino,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Corgi Toys 229 Chevrolet Corvair mid bluee with original box,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.BMW M2 Coupe 2016 White, Model Car 1 43 Minichamps,.1 18 Norev Peugeot 205 GTI 1.9 1988 black 184854,.PMS 80-15 Wiking 1 87 Auf Deutschlands Straßen BP Mercedes Opel VW Box 509267,.F1 Minicar 1 43 Prost Gp 1999 Olivier Panis,.BRM P160E th silverina GP 1974 Jean-Pierre Beltoise Spark S1149 1 43,. The ScottsdaleMATCHBOX Collectors Club 1992 BRASS PLATED MB38 Model A Ford Van Mint Boxed,Lamborghini Miura S 1969 gold 1 43 Model 436103000 MINICHAMPS,.Spark Model S43SE71 PORSCHE 917 N.3 WINNER 12 H SEBRING 1971 V.ELFORD-G.LARROUSS,. Id.,1 18 ANSON FERRARI 328 GTS DIECAST METAL MODEL CAR 30308 -RACE CAR RED,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Williams FW05 South African GP 1976 Michel Leclere Spark S4046 1 43,; Pegaso Z-102 B Touring 1956 Metallic Grey 1 43 Neoscale NEO43790 Model,DeAgostini DINKY TOYS OPEL KAPITAN blueE 177,.CORGI 420 FORD THAMES AIRBORNE CARAVAN mint condition boxed,. The Scottsdale1 43 Ford Escort Wrc 1997 Sainz,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Mercedes Sls Amg E-Cell 2010 Yellow 1 43 Spark S1058 Model,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Lledo Burago Special RARE Ford Escort RS Cosworth - FERODO BRAKES (unavailable),. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, RENAULT COLORALE ASSISTANCE GARAGE RENAULT 1 18,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Puma GT Coupe 1968 VW Do Brasil Red 1 43 NEO 46155,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, LESNEY VINTAGE STEAMROLLER NO. H DIE CAST RARE MINT,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, TSM Jaguar F-Type SVR AWD - Glacier White - 1 43, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, NZG 1 50 New Holland W170B Radlader, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, BMW M535i 1980 gold metallic 1 18 Norev,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeSPARK Eagle Mk3 Bobby Unser 1 43 S4257,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Limited Rare 2004 Cararama Pepsi Peugeot Minicar Yellow,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in Huyghe2012 2013 BENTLEY CONTINENTAL SUPERSPORTS ISR WHITE 1 18 CAR BY BBURAGO 11035,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.MARKLIN FORD TAUNUS 15M 4 RARE 1 43 DIE CAST MODEL MINT,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,MATTEL HOT WHEELS MARVEL Bundle Collection,Edsel Citation Congreenible 1958 Light Green Met.1 43 Spark S2961 Modellino,.SPARK 1 43 S1322 ABARTH FIAT 700S N52 LM 1962,.Spark 1 43 Scale S3329 - Citroen DS3 WRC Monte Carlo 2012,. The HuygheBurago 1 18 Scale Diecast - 3024 Chevrolet Corvette 1957 Red Model Car,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheVitesse 04422 CITROEN XSARA WRC GARDEMEISTER 1 8,.

MATCHBOX SUPERFAST No.17 LONDONER BUS 'SANTA CLAUS LAND' MIB,.Neo Models Porsche 928 H50 Concept Car in Dark Red 1987 47130 1 43 NEW,.

Lot of 8 1 43 scale cars - Rare - Maserati, Ford, Seat, Citroen, Alfa, Skoda,.Pites Trofeu 1 43 Subaru Impreza 555 T.Ponce S.García R. El Corte Inglés 1997.,. Nonetheless, on the facts of American Muscle 1958 Chevy Impala American Graffiti 1 18 Scale Model 58 Car,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeTRIPLE 9 NISSAN QASHQAI 2014 in WHITE 1 43 MODEL CAR,.Honda S2000 congreenible RED 1 18 by MAISTO loose display piece nice,.

For example, in Partridge,Porsche 911 GT3 R n.912 2nd Macau GT World Cup 2016 1 43 Scale by Spark,. In Jorgensen, supra,Vintage Realistic Toy Co. Greyhound Bus, Original Paint, Cast Metal, Dual Wheels,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Lancia Beta Montecarlo Gr.5 Test Version Varano 1979 R.Patrese BEST 1 43 BE9738,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Greenlight 1 24 Scale Diecast 84033 Dharma Van 1971 Volkswagen Type 2 TV's Lost,. That is the same situation in this case.Dinky Toys 24 H 24H Mercedes 190 SL empty near mint complete original box,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Abrex 143T-006O Multicar Fumo Kipper orange Maßstab 1 43 (235245) NEU °,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Auto Art Gateway 60139 MERCEDES BENZ CLK DTM 2001 1 43 n.24 Modellino,.Spark Models 1 43 Scale S1586 - BMW M 1 Le Mans 1982,.Western Models 1 43 1978 Brabham BT46 Niki Lauda F1 Grand Prix,.

AC 378 Gt Zagato 2012 Red 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,.