Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals DINKY 192 RANGE ROVER - NR MINT in original BOX,.1967 Volkswagen Beetle Kafer Stuttgart Germany Police Car 1 18 Diecast Model Car,.Redline Hotwheels Antifreeze 1969 Twinmill oc15634,.Dinky Toys 195 Jaguar 3.4 Litre made in England 1 43 scale Excellent Condition,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.Schuco 7377 AUDI TT RS RED MISANO 1 43,.Spark Model S4503 CITROEN DS3 N.3 10th MONTE CARLO 2015 K.MEEKE-P.NAGLE 1 43 Mod,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Talbot Lago T26 Gs N.8 Retired Le Mans 1951 Chaboud-Vincent 1 43 Bizarre BZ431,.1 43 Porsche 911 GT3 RS, Lim. 500, Minichamps,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.SPARK PORSCHE 936 (908 80) Le Mans 1981 Whittington - Joest S5502 1 43,.1 18 Sun Star Pontiac GTO 1964 Pinehurst Green green Nr. 1827 in OVP,.SCANIA S`17 CS20 HD 520 V8 KÜHLKOFFERSATTELZUG MÜLLER ERMENSEE DIAMOND (CH), Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
Minichamps 1 43 Scale 410 120209 - Lotus F1 Team Lotus Renault E20,.Camion Berliet GLB5 R plateau green clair Rétro 87 SAI 4933 - Echelle 1 87,.BIKINI GIRLS SERIES II 6PC FIGURE SET 1 18 AMERICAN DIORAMA 38171,72,73,74,75,76,.Matchbox RW 51B Tipping Trailer greye Reifen mit Fässern top in Box,.
Kyosho 1 64 Scale Austin Healey 100 6,.Jada 1 24 Scale 98399 - Transformers Metal Car 2016 Chevy Camaro - Bumblebee,.Spark 1 43 Lotus 3-Eleven Road 2017 S4897,.MATCHBOX LESNEY No 59A VINTAGE FORD THAMES VAN DARK KELLY GREEN VERY RARE NMINT,.Studebaker Hawk 1958, blue bluee 1 18 Yat Ming Leather Series,.
MATCHBOX LESNEY SUPERFAST VINTAGE blueE PORSCHE 928 No.59 VNM IN VNM L BOX 1981-2,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 430103005 - 1966 Lamborghini Miura - Yellow,.Yellow Lamborghini Gallardo Superleggera Diecast Model Sport Car Maisto 1 18,.Minichamps Porsche Cayman S 1488 1 43 Scale Box Mini Car Display Diecast CA3198,VOLKSWAGEN COCCINELLE 1303 green métallisé 1 18 VW,.Ebbro MMP EBRRO 1 43 Lotus ELAN Type 26 S2 Yellow Finished Product 44164,.
Porsche 911 Coupe van Diapet Yonezawa Toys 248 Japan 1 40 in Box 26660,.Hikosebun Kernel 1 43 Nissan Stagea Sakai Osaka Fire Department command Japan,.Dub City Big Baulers GMC Yukon Denali 1 18 Die Cast,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
TTC (Tgoldnto) New Look Fishbowl Bus 1 87 Rapido 701058 Standard Scheme,.
Best Model BT9561 FIAT 1500 6 CILINDRI PRESENTAZIONE SALONE TORINO 1935 blueE 1 4,. We agree in part.
SPARK PORSCHE 911 R NEU OVP LIMITED 1 43,.Best Model 1 43 Scale 2008 - 1957 Alfa Romeo Giulietta SS Nuremberg Toy Fair '08,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Renault Alpine A60 Celebration 2015 bluee Spark 1 43 S4947 Model,.KK-SCALE 1 18 BMW 318i E21 1975 green MODELLINO,.Jaguar E-type Roadster 1970 1 43 • 1 43 MATRIX MX11001-042,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Lotus Europa Twin Cam 1971 Red 1 43 Spark S2215 Model,.VW Beetle 1303 Red 1973 1 18 Norev 188520 Beetle Volkswagen,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Spark Model S43MC17 MERCEDES GT3 N.48 WINNER FIA GT WORLD CUP MACAU 2017 E.MORTA,; SIku Super 3747 03902 Stadtbus MAN Lions City DIE POST, 1 50, OVP,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
Brand 330 Cedric Patrol Car,.Minichamps - Hill & Villeneuve - Williams - FW18 & 19 - 1996-97 - 1 43 - Set 5,Herpa 309110 H0 LKW Liebherr Mobilkran LTM 1045 1 Scholpp Kinderkran,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Neo 1 43 audi tts roadster metallic red neo46410 resin,.
WOW EXTREMELY RARE BMW 2002 cabriolet E10 1971 bluee mt 1 43 Minichamps-E6 E9 E24,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.VW 1303 Cabrio 1972 orange 1 18 Norev,.1 50 Caterpillar PM822 Cold Planer Diecast Engineering Vehicles Model Collection,.LATUDE PANHARD DYNA JUNIOR - GREEN METALLIC 1 43 - GOOD CONDITION - 1,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Ebbro 1 43 Formula Nippon Team Le Mans 2000 H. Noda from Japan,; Lone Star Militaire Armée 1 43 - Bren Gun Carrier,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Mercedes Benz SLS AMG GT3 S1024 1 43 Sparkmodel,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
Ertl 1 18 Scale - 7378 1966 Ferrari 275 GTB 4 Yellow Diecast model car,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Nissan R88C No.23 Le Mans 1988-K.Hoshino T.Wada A.Suzuki S5080 Spark 1 43 New,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
DINKY TOYS 120 JAGUAR E TYPE E-TYPE ORIGINAL EMPTY BOX NEAR MINT CONDITION,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
Alfa Romeo Spider 4 1990 - red - 1 18 KK-Scale NEW,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Opel Calibra 2.0i 16V 1990 Red 1 43 Minichamps-OPC GT RS RSR,.Vintage Dinky Dublo 069 - Massey Harris Ferguson Tractor - bluee - Boxed,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Vitaphone Racing Special 2-Car Set 1 43 Maserati MC12 GT1 Winner & 2nd Spa 2008,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.1977 Renault Alpine A310 yellow 1 18 Norev 185147,.
Norev Citroën DS3 1 18 Red White (AK),.MODELLINO AUDI R8 TEAM CHAMPION 2ND PLACE 12H SEBRING 2005 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.REVELL OPEL KADETT B RALLYE 1900 - 1 18,.AOSHIMA; movie Mecha series No.6 1 24 Knight Rider Knight 2000 KITT From Japan,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.HotWheels Super Treasure Hunt '70 Ford Escort RS1600 And The Regular Escort,.
PORSCHE RS SPIDER NOREV 1 18 DHL GLOBAL MAIL,.NEO SCALE MODEL 1 43 Aston Martin DB4 GT Bertone Jet 1961 Grey Met. Art. 44575,.1978 FORD MUSTANG II COBRA II 1 18 SCALE RED DIECAST CAR BY GREENLIGHT,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Schuco Replica Kommando Auto 2000 Art. Nr. 01062 Car Western Germany Box Key,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Cadillac Fleetwood Series 60 Special 1941 Dark Red, Model Car 1 18 ,.Siku 1911 Feuerwehr Binz-Rettungswagen (Mercedes 406) OVP - 2564-182,.Franklin Mint 1 43 Scale B11PW43 - 1939 Mercedes Benz - Maroon,.Art Model AM0192 FERRARI 750 MONZA N.3 WINNER BEVERLY HILLS 1955 P.HILL 1 43 Mod,.AUTOWORLD AMM1146 1 18 1971 PLYMOUTH SATELLITE SEBRING PLUS MCACN PURPLE,.
HOT WHEELS COLLECTORS KIT 2006 MIB, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Dinky Sunbeam Alpine (Competition) - Pink - B NB,.Spark 1 43 Scale S3314 - VW Polo WRC Champion French Rally 2013,. The PartridgeWOW EXTREMELY RARE Porsche 968 3.0L Cabriolet 1994 Red 1 43 Minichamps-924 944,.Pontiac Gto Coupe 1964 Pinehurst Green Met Sunstar 1 18 SS1827 Model,.NEO MODELS 44741 FORD GRAND TORINO COUPE SPORT - YELLOW 1 43 - EXCELLENT IN BOX,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, PORSCHE 997 GT3 KREMER RACING NURBURGRING 2013 SPARK SG093 1 43, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.1 43 Tartu TA 6 Bus AVD Models 4018AVD Russische Soviet Bausatz Kit Russian OVP,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Volkswagen T3 Multivan Minibus bluee Star 1993 KK SCALE 1 18 KKDC180202,.Kit 1 43 FERRARI 400 JANKEL-LE MARQUIS 1978 TRON P317,PartridgeNEO BMW 320I Gr2 E21 2012 1 43 45224,.32 pc Hot Wheels Die Cast 1967 Dodge Charger Car Lot 1995 - 2004 Mattel NOC,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, PORSCHE-911 CARRERA RSR PORSCHE CLUB ROMAND N 66 24h LM 1977 S2095 Spark 1 43, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Yonezawa Toys Diapet Toyota Cgoldlla II 1500 SR 3-Doors in Red on 1 40 in Box,; Welly 1 18 Scale Diecast - 18024W Porsche 911 GT3 Yellow,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, NEO 1 43 Scale Resin Model NEO44185 - Rolls Royce Corniche - Red, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Minichamps 410130102 1 43 RED BULL RACING RB9 FINAL GP BRAZIL 2013 RED BULL WEBB, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeCorgi 1 50 Scale Diecast - 75201 ERF Curtainside Eddie Stobart Ltd + Case,.
Herpa 158411 Steinle MAN TGX XXL goldhofer Jagdpanzer Ferdinand Elefant (Mo4511),.MADE REPLICA KIT SPOT-ON TRIANG 107 1 42 JAGUAR XK SS METAL CAR VINTAGE, Clarke's negligent act.1 18 Maisto Pro Rodz Chevrolet Camaro Z 28 purplemetallic - RARITÄT§,.RARE Greyhound Scenicruiser Express Friction Tin Toy Bus NO.6916 Made In Japan,.MATCHBOX SUPERFAST 38A HONDA MOTORCYLCE WITH TRAILER OVP,.
Corgi 221 Chevrolet Impala New York Taxi Cab 1 43,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Schuco Mercedes L322 & Ford FK 1000 Gaffel Kolsch Beer Delivery SHU05817,2014 Ferrari California T Open Top whiteo 1 18 Bburago 16007,. In Noska,Spark 1 43 Sunbeam Alpine n.33 Le Mans 1963 S4765,.Triple 9 T9-1800172 LANCIA DELTA HF INTEGRALE 16V 1989 GREY 1 18 Modellino,.RC AUTO 1 16 NIKKO TITLE OFF-ROAD 0382157,.VANGUARDS ( CORGI ) VAUXHALL VICTOR gold OVP 1 43 Limited Edition., necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.McLAREN 675LT SPIDER 2015 YELLOW 537154430 Minichamps 1 43 New in a box ,.Mercedes Benz C-Class C63S Amg 2016 bluee Met SPARK 1 43 S4913 Miniature,.(U) Haji JAPAN TINPLATE FORD STATION WAGON AMBULANCE ORIGINAL BOX ONLY 2705,.PMS 80-15 Wiking 1 87 Auf Deutschlands Straßen BP Mercedes Opel VW Box 509267,. Id., p 923.
Peugeot 504 Coupe 1973 dunkelbrown metallic. 1 18 Norev 184822 neu & OVP,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, KIT A MONTER MINICIRQUE - TRACTEUR RENAULT 2,5T PINDER - REF ACP87 - 1 50,NOREV - 1 18 - PEUGEOT 309 GTI 16 - 1991 - 184881,.Mercedes Benz 320 Cabriolet D Scala 1 43 Spark,.DINKY - 437 - MUIR HILL 2 WL LOADER - MINT & BOXED (1) - 1962 TO 1970 VINTAGE,.Siku Control 6782 - 2-KREISEL Centre Swath Rake, Scale 1 3 2, Nip,.1 64 Kyosho Fiat Panda,.Lotus 19 - green 1960 1 43 Spark S0260,.Johnny Lightning 1 64 Scale Ghostbusters And Christine Dioramas 2018 Release Set,. The parties IXO 18CMC001 TOYOTA CELICA GT FOUR ST165 diecast model road car red 1990 1 18th,.
Hot Wheels Elite STAR WARS THE FORCE AWAKENS Episode 7 Resistance X-Wing Fighter,.Occasion PEUGEOT 206 XT PREMIUM berline bordeaux 1 43,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Minichamps 1 18 - F1 Sauber Ford C14 Frentzen,; CORGI CC25910 Routemaster Route 11 Liverpool Street Station, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
Norev 1 18 Citroen Concept GT Diecast Model Car White 181610,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, DE AGOSTINI II^ G.M. Dornier Do 335A-1 Pfeil 1 72 N°24 ε,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Schuco Modell Traktor Fendt 211 Vario, green 1 32 - 450781500,.007 James Bond Set 2002 Die Another Day Limited Edition SET 1 43 402041202,.Chrysler 300M Met.-Beige 2002 Neo Scale 1 43 Neo44985 Model,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Minichamps 1 43 Ford GT race-car Mad-Croc Team Fischer Racing FIA GT3 EM Brn,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Peugeot 404 Coupé de 1967 Apink White NOREV - NO 184831 - Echelle 1 18,.Rio RI4184 ALFA ROMEO GIULIETTA TI GDF 1959 1 43 Modellino,.Porsche 911 Turbo S 3.6 1998 bluee Anniversary Model 1 43 Minichamps 436069270,.CITROEN HY L ASACIENNE SERIE LIMITEE CIJ PAR NOREV NEUVE EN BOITE,.1 18 Norev Chenard & Walker 1500kg Type CHV 1946 green NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,. The ScottsdalePORSCHE 911 TARGA 2013 INDISCH red 1 43 MINICHAMPS 410062440 NEU,AMX-10RCR SEPAR French Tank Destroyer TIGER MODEL 1 35 PLASTIC KIT,.DV8102 MINICHAMPS 1 43 MERCEDES BENZ L3500 SCHENKER 1950 439350028 Ed Lim,. Id.,Dinky Toys 192 Range Rover very near mint in very near mint box all original,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, SPARK 1 43 - S0248 LOLA B05 40 AER TEAM QUIFEL-ASM LE MANS 2007,; Panhard 24 BT Red Dark White 1964 Car Miniature 1 43 Collection Withebox,BUB 1 87 Scale 06934 10 Jahre BUB Dixi Granit Bussing KB5 Diecast Model car set,.Joal Miniaturas Renault R10 made in Spain 1 43 scale Near Mint rare version,. The ScottsdaleQuartzo 1 18 Scale 18292 Team Lotus Type 72E R. Peterson 1st 1973 Italian GP,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, TW Collection 1 43 Scale White Metal Kit 58 - Lancia D50 G.P. 1955 -,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Spark Model S4871 VANWALL VW57 STUART LEWIS-EVANS 1958 N.6 3rd BELGIAN GP 1 43 M,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Mercedes Lp608 Porsche Motorsport 1 43 Premium Classixxs PREM12510 Model,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Schuco Set Goggomobil (03475) - 1 43,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, New 1 43 Spark Car Model Alfa Romeo 147 GTA Cup N2 T.Cgoldnel S0481,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, REVELL 1990 FORD MUSTANG 5.0 1 25 PLASTIC MODEL SEALED SKILL 5 PRO STREET, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, VINTAGE MARX TOYS DELUXE PRESSED STEEL MOBILE SEARCHLIGHT, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Mint Nissan Motor Official 1 43 Model Car Murano,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgePorsche 911 (930) Turbo 3.3 1977 oliv green, Modellauto 1 18 Norev,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Subaru Impreza WRC Monte Carlo '05 1 24 ( Tamiya ),; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheMercedes Tourisme 1909 Yellow 1 43 Model RIO4392 RIO,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.SUNSTAR - 1 18 - PORSCHE 356A 1500 GS - CARRERA GT - 1329,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,MD Models1 43 Scale Resin Model - Citroen DS21 Monte Carlo 1966,MVI Resin 1 43 K 58 Toyota Land Cruiser Remorque Pompier,.Kyosho original 1 43 Lexus RC 350 F Sport heat bluee CL finished product,.IXO PR0275 - 1 43 MINI COOPER S YACHTSMAN 2002 DIECAST MODEL,. The Huyghe1 18 American Muscle Dodge SuperBee 1969 - OVP (K71),. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheDiecast Car Model Almost Real Mercedes-AMG GT R 2017 1 43 (Red) + GIFT ,.
Ford Mustang FR500C 2005 Grand-Am Cup Championship 1 18 Autoart,.1 18 Minichamps Citroen 2CV 1976 orange 150 111504,.
1 64 Kyosho Toyota SPORTS 800 No.20 Diecast Model Car,.HOT WHEELS 1 43 Scale Diecast X5517 FERRARI F1-89 N.MANSELL HUNGARY GP 1989,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Renault Dauphine 1958 NOREV 1 18 NV185169 Model,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeSpark Model S5421 PORSCHE 906 LH N.55 5th 24 H DAYTONA 1967 D.SPOERRY-R.STEINEMA,.Lamborghini Countach LP400 Anno di Costruzione 1974-1978 black 1 18 Kyosho,.
For example, in Partridge,Ferrari 250 Gtl Coupe 1964 Personal Car Jamiroquai bluee BEST-MODEL 1 43 BE9725 M,. In Jorgensen, supra,AUTOTRANSPORTER SAVIEM avec Lohr construction de SOLIDO 1 43 good condition,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Williams FW12C nd US GP 1989 Riccardo Patrese S4321 Spark 1 43 New in a box ,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,2017 Sdcc Exklusive Mattel Hot Wheels Dc Justice League Batman Batmobile,. That is the same situation in this case.Mikansue 1 43 Scale Built Model Car Kit 22 - Adler Racing Car White Unboxed,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.X 1 18 MAISTO CHEVROLET CORVETTE METALLIC GREY NEAR MINT CONDITION,. Detroit Edison, supra.
Corgi 1 50 Scale CC12223 - Scania Dropside Crane Trailer - A.E. Hawkins,.ART MODEL AM0364 FERRARI 250 GT CALIFORNIA 1962 GREEN METALLIC 1 43,.LOLA T100 ALEX SOLER-ROIG GP PAU F2 1968 1 43 SPARK SF125,.
KK-Scale KKDC180181 Alfa Romeo Spider 4 1990 red,.