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Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
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Eligor 112450 DAF XF95 Space Cab Tautliner Grampian Maclennans 1 43 Search Impex,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals 1 18 Anson Lamborghini Miura Yellow - Rarity §,.Corgi 1 50 scale 16501 Scammell Highwayman ballast + trailer & caravan Carters,.2016, 2017,2018 HOT AUGUST NIGHTS RENO EXCLUSIVE 1 OF 777 EXCLUSIVE AUTOGRAPHED,.Bburago B18-11042Y 1 18 Lamborghini Urus Grey,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.PORSCHE 911 993 Speedster red red Roadster Cabrio Resin Pro R Schuco 1 43,.MODELLINO PORSCHE 904 GTS 1964 blue IN PLASTICA MINICHAMPS,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Ferrari fxx k red maßstab 1 18 von Bburago,.Minichamps F1 Lotus Renault E21 Showcar 2013 K. Raikkonen 1 43 410130007,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Vitesse Models 1 43 Scale Diecast 29112 - MGTC - Cream,.SPARK ENSIGN N176 British GP 1976 Chris Amon S3952 1 43,.1 18 KYOSHO MORRIS MINI COOPER DIECAST MODEL IN RED, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Steyer Puch Pinzgauer 710M Autohife Zurich 1 43 Neoscale NEO44593 Miniature,.PORSCHE 911 997 GT3R DONATIVI MONZA 2015 KIT 1 43,.Vintage Hot Wheels Whip Creamer Hot Pink Redline US Base,.Ferrari 333 SP Winner 12H Sebring 1997 Minichamps red 1 43,.

NEO MODELS 45815 CHRYSLER 300B 1956 - OFF-WHITE 1 43 - EXCELLENT IN BOX,.544F Vintage Dinky 25O Studebaker M16 Laitier Nestlé Roues Zamak,.MATCHBOX MOKO LESNEY MODEL No.46 MORRIS MINOR green,.Matchbox A Moko Lesney No 35 Horse Box GMW perfect mint in box SUPERB,.1986 Wartburg 353S yellow 1 18 MC Group 18077,.

Corgi Toys 1 43 red Austin Healey Sports Car,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.CORGI Eddie Stobart - MODERN - SCANIA Box Trailer - MB,.1 43 Ixo Fiesta Wrc 2012 9,.Corgi 1 43 Scale VA11700 - Ford Sierra Cosworth RS - Colin McRae,Rare Aston Martin Vantage Good wood Green Ltd 1 43 scale MIB by Minichamps,.CHRYSLER 300E CONgreenIBLE 1959 - HANDMADE BROOKLIN BRK 41,.

Porsche 908 02 Spyder n.266 Winner Targa Florio 1969 in 1 43 Scale by Spark,.Spark Model Rondeau M 379 C 43 S2268,.CAMION SIMCA CARGO FOURGON ISOTHERME ET REMORQUE PINDER EX72917 CORGI 1 50,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

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Paul's Model Art Karmann Ghia Classic Line 1 24th Scale Red Diecast,. We agree in part.

BEANSTALK 10011 ASTON MARTIN VANQUISH- V12 1 18 - 007 JAMES BOND NM BOX,.Spark Citroen C3 WRC Citroën Total Abu Dhabi 1 43 S5960,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Corgi Diecast 327 - Chevrolet Caprice Taxi - Yellow,.Mclaren Mp4-12C Spider 2013 White True Scale Miniatures 1 43 Tsm134335 Model,.1 43 Modeline Ford Fiesta,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; VW Käfer 1303 1972 green metallic Modellauto 1 18 Norev,.FIRST GEAR 1 64 SCALE KOMATSU PC210LC-11 EXCAVATOR DIECAST BN 60-0326,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Neo Ford Escort MkII RS Gr.2 Mampe ETCC - Heyer Hahne - 1977 - 1 43,; Siku 1047 Opel Kadett SR Postens BUD Werbemodell Schweden im ORK,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

KK-Scale VW Bus T3 - weiss - White Star - 1993 - 1 18,.Citroën 2CV Dolly 1985 Meije White & Cormoran Grey NOREV - NO 181494 - Ech 1 18,Neo 1 43 - Opel Ascona B 2.0 SR greene,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Hot Wheels Treasure Hunt 2002 Complete Set,.

Volkswagen Beetle 1303 1972 Green Metallic 1 18 -188523 NOREV,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Ferrari 375 MM Senigallia 1953 1 43 Marzotto Model 0241 ART-MODEL,.Jaguar Xkr Roadster Green 007 James Bond Die Another Day 1 43 Model MINICHAMPS,.Hot Wheels Early Times ‘34 Ford Midnight Otto Super Smooth Lot Of 8 CC0221,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Ferrari 333 Presentation 1994 Spark Model 1 43, New in Box, Ships From USA,; Minichamps 410025227 BMW M4 (F82) GTS black metallic Maßstab 1 43 NEU °,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, SPARK SA085 Audi R8 LMS n°1 Cup Champion 2015 Alex Yoong 1 43,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

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AUDI 80 GT 1972 MIAMI blue 1 43 MINICHAMPS 400015002 NEU,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Mercedes-Benz lo3500 ( Green Beige ),


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

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This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

MCLAREN F1 GTR LARK NIELSEN BRABHAM JGTC 1996 EBBRO HPI 44687 DECALS 1 43,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Hot Wheels BATMAN TV Series 1966 BATCYCLE & SIDECAR robin 1 12 scale large model,.Best Model 9441 ALFA ROMEO TZ2 TARGA FLORIO 66 1 43,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Dinky Toys no. 522 Big Bedford Lorry,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.DeAgostini Ford Vedette 49 green color - DINKY TOYS,.

Record 1 43 Ferrari Mondial 8 Cabriolet Resin Handmade Model Car Kit,.MINICHAMPS Opel Rekord P1 Caravan im Maßstab 1 43 - OVP,.Porsche 997 GT3 R , 24H Francorchamps 2014 , Sparkmodels,.PORSCHE 911 RS 30 TH ANNIVERSARY SET MINICHAMPS.,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.RENAULT 5 SUPERCINQ GT TURBO RALLY TOUR CORSE 1989 OREILLE NOREV 1 18,.

1 18 VW Gran Lavida 2018 Die Cast Model,.Code 3 corgi tekno stobart rail hook loader drawbar combo (l@@k),.CORGI 1 50 SCALE COLLECTION HERITAGE EX70909 SAVIEM JL20 GRANDE ECHELLE POMPIERS,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Herpa 83SSM3022 SSM T 100 Raupenschlepper Scale 1 43 NEU OVP,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Metosul Mercedes Benz 200 Taxi 1 43 scale made in Portugal NMIB,.Franklyn Mint 1 24 Volkswagen Karmann Ghia wie Neu , Nos , Mintnoboxed,.1 18 Hot Wheels Ferrari F2001 Schumacher 52th GP Sieg NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.MATCHBOX SUPERKINGS MODEL No K-20 CARGO HAULER & LOADER,.1 18 KYOSHO MERCEDES CLK 240 SONDERMODELL LEDER goldMET.,.

DCP 1 64 SCALE 379 PETERBILT SMALL BUNK TURQUOISE WITH WHITE SEMINOLE STRIPE, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Wiking Claas Schwader Liner 2600 - 1 32,.Studebaker wolden hawk 1 18,. The PartridgeJaguar Mk V Mark 5 1950 blue silver, Modellauto 1 43 Neo Scale Models,.Dinky merryweather marquis fire tender no 285,.MATCHBOX TP-108 TRACTOR FORD & TRAILER W gold WHEELS ROUE OR MIB NEUF BOITE,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, 1 87 Herpa MB Actros Streamspace Riga Mainz Flachbett-SZ m. 2 Gittermastteilen ., although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Corgi The New Avengers - Gambit's Jaguar XJ6 & Gambit Figure 57405,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Lansdowne Models LDM17 1956 Willerby Vogue Caravan Boxed ,.1 43 Bentley Flying Spur W12 (Damson) Kyosho 05561D,PartridgeBrand 330 Cedric Patrol Car,.RENAULT Alpine A110 Rallye Portugal TAP 1972 Darniche Scala43 Trofeu 1 43,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Porsche 935, Winner Giro D`Italia 1979, Sparkmodels, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, MINICHAMPS MASERATI MISTRAL 1963 NEU OVP 1 43,; Norev 950000 1 43 2006 Dodge Charger R T Diecast Model Car,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Schuco Modellauto Neu Hanomag L28 GOGGO 1 43 - 450293800, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, SPARK 1 43 S1335 ABARTH 700 SPYDER LM 1961 RED P FRESCOBALDI , R CAMMAredA, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeVintage Tekno Denmark 910 Mercedes LP322 Lastbil 1963-69 nice condition,.

MATCHBOX 1-75 MOKO LESNEY Nr. 12 B LAND ROVER SERIES II 1959 58mm + 1 Spielzeug,.Norev 1 18 1976 Simca 1000 Rally 2 Maya Yellow Diecast Model Car Yellow 185708, Clarke's negligent act.Redline hotwheels Light bluee 1973 Jet Threat oc13652,.Ixo Models 1 43 Scale CN30 - Volswagen Passat - Polizei Conversion,.Spark 1 43 Porsche 911 RGT n.25 2015 SG225,.

Mercedes E-Klasse 250 T (S123) blue 1 18 - KK-Scale 180091,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Maisto 1 18 Scale Ferrari SF-70H 2017 Season,French Dinky Toys 29D Autobus Parisien Somua Panhard Very Near Mint - no Box,. In Noska,MATCHBOX COLLECTIBLES PLATINUM EDITION 92125 - 1930 FORD MODEL A - TEXACO OIL,.Spark SB 1 43 - LOTUS 19 N°6 Nassau 1962 Winner,.Ertl American Muscle Firebird Pontiac Trans AM 1973 1 18 ohne Vp. ,.HOT WHEELS RED LINER BRABHAM REPCO F1 1969 + metal badge, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Ferrari 308 Gtb America 1976 Red BEST 1 43 BE9721 Model,.CORGI TOYS Massey-Ferguson 165 Trattore con pala buone condizioni,.Matchbox Lesney MB 26 Foden Cement Mixer Lorry,.Siku Super 3119 MAN mit Kofferauflieger, GRAND PRIX, ca. 1 55,. Id., p 923.

PEUGEOT 404 Pinder 1 18,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Fiat 1500 Deutsche Afrika Korps Service 1941 Yellow Military RIO 1 43 RIO4551 Mo,MJ7 Matchbox - 1981 ROW 1-75 - MB38 Ford Model 'A' - James Neale - Case Lot (36),.Porsche 956 Test F1 Tag Engine 1986 White Spark 1 43 S3410 Model,.1 64 DCP Massey-Furguson - Kenworth T880 Sleeper Cab with Fontain Renegade Lowbo,.Icons Wix Filters - 1965 SHELBY COBRA 427 S C - guardsman bluee - 1 24 rare,.Minichamps 400713412 1 43 MERCEDES 300 SEL 6.8 AMG BEHRMANN JABOUILLE DOLHEM 12H,.NEW Vintage Corgi 1120 DENNIS FIRE ENGINE,.Renault R5 GT Turbo, 1 18 - NOREV,. The parties Mattel 1 18 Ferrari F2007 Raikkonen Cherry Red 2007,.


Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, SPARK Cadillac Type 61 Coupe 1950 SPA-S2920,; New Minichamps DP 1 12 Kawasaki 900 Z1 Super 4 1973 (Green Yellow), (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Faie Swift Runner Diecast Cars Lot of 8 Hong Kong Camaro Mustang Trans Am more,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, CHEVY CORVETTE 1953 Ertl American Muscle BIANCO 1 18,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Delahaye Type 145 V-12 (bluee) 1937,.Porsche 911 964 Purple Techno Classica 2018 Limited Edition Spark 1 43 BRAND NEW,.MODELLINO MERCEDES BENZ C-CLASS ORIGINAL TEILE B. SCHNEIDER DTM 2007 IN METALLO,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,( Gokr ) 1 18 Gateway Lexus Rx 300,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.MODELLINO MERCEDES BENZ SLR McLAREN silver OPACO IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.Citroen 2CV 1980 yellow Mimosa Yellow 1 43 Minichamps,.Huki Mercedes Benz 190SL Blech 50 60er Jahre Top,.1 10 Schuco Victoria Avanti red mit Fahrerfigur NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.Ebbro 45153 Toyota Prius Frosty Green Mica 1 43 scale,. The ScottsdaleVenturi America (2013) Resin Model Car S2248,MARKLIN GERMANY 1814 GLAS BMW 3000V8 COUPE COLOUR RED SCALE 1 43,.Auto Art Gateway 60039 MERCEDES BENK CLK DTM 2000 1 43 n.24,. Id.,Mini-Champs 1 43 Mercedes-Benz 190E 2.3-16,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Hot Wheels VW Bus Mattel Web Page Promo Excellent Condition Bronze 1 64,; Rio 4315 FIAT BALILLA FILM LUCE 1938 1 43,Wiking 238 1 unverglast Ford BV Aral Tankwagen LKW 1 87 TOP 1606-04-51,.BMW F82 M4 M Performance Sakhir orange metallic ZM055 1 18,. The ScottsdaleWINROSS 1 64 CROWLEY FOODS TRACTOR AND TRAILER ,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Miniroute 1 43 Scale Resin Model Car 46 - Peugeot 402 Andreau - bluee,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; CLAAS Direct Disc 520 with Cutting Unit Trolley,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Herpa 309844 Scania CS 20 Hochdach Eurocombi Ekdahl Arctic Griffin 1 87 H0 NEU,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Wiking Magirus S 7500 Pritschenhängerzug Tepinkn OVP (N5753),; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Microworld AS026 BUGATTI T59 COPPA VANDERBILT 36 1 43,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Schuco 07783 Güldner G75 A Traktor ohne Dach Baujahr 1965 in red 1 32 NEU, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Alpine Renault A110 1600S 1971 White with red stripping NOREV - NO 185303 1 18, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Hot Wheels HWW1776 FERRARI 430 GT3 N.57 WINNER ITALIAN GT3 2009 1 43,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the Partridge1 18 Minichamps Audi TT Coupe 1998 red,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Onyx 1995 Williams Renault FW17 David Coulthard F1 Race Car 1 18 Scale Diecast 6,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheTriple 9 - Honda S800 yellow - 1 18 - T9-1800191,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Corgi Toys 202 Austin Cambridge Saloon 1 43 Oldtimer,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,New Burago Porsche Cayenne Turbo 1 24 White from Japan,1 43 PEUGEOT 403 MINIVERHICLES INSENDIES RESIN AMBULANCIA RARE ,.BROOKLIN MODELS BRK 34 NASH AMBASSADOR 1954 - 1 43 - NMIB,.HERPA 518895 Antonov AN-225 Mriya & Buran Orbiter Maßstab 1 500,. The HuygheSchuco Modell Traktor Deutz Fahr 9340 TTV 1 32 - 450776900,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheMATRIX - 1 43 - JAGUAR XK140 GHIA COUPE - 1955 - MX41001-012,.

Mira 1 18 Scale diecast 26OCT2017B Ferrari 348 Red Model Car,.Tekno DAF 95 380 Ati Concept Sattelzug 1 50 Org. in OVP VNM PROMO,.

BRM P160E th silverina GP 1974 Jean-Pierre Beltoise Spark S1149 1 43,.Best Model 9438 FERRARI 312P LE MANS 1970 1 43 Modellino,. Nonetheless, on the facts of New Ebbro 44203 Lotus Europa S2 Red (Resin) 1 43 scale,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeMississauga Transit New Look Fishbowl Bus 1 87 Rapido 701094 Standard,.VINTAGE ERTL ALLIED VAN LINES 18 WHEELER PRESSED STEEL,.

For example, in Partridge,Vintage ERTL Dodge Utility Work Van Diecast CENTEL Central Telephone Company,. In Jorgensen, supra,Willie 1 18 BMW X6 Red finished product,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.SHYNE RODZ COLLECTION ''1937 FORD'' 30048''NEW,SEALED,MINT,CLASSIC ADD COLLECTIO,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,1 18 Autoworld Ertl 1971 Baldwin Motion Chevrolet Vega,. That is the same situation in this case.UNIVERSAL HOBBIES UH4921 1 32 NEW HOLLAND T6.175,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.1 50 Siku LKW mit Windkraftanlage Nr. 3935 OVP,. Detroit Edison, supra.

MINICHAMPS 437150332 Maßstab 1 43, DUESENBERG SJN (SUPERCHARGED) NEU in OVP ,.Spark 1 43 Porsche Cayenne - World Expedition 2018,.Jada 1 24 Scale Radio Control Car 2.4GHz RC 97602 - Brian's Toyota Supra,.

Vitesse 1 43 Mitsubishi Evo 9 Die Cast Model 29218R,.