Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Planex 1 43 Lotus 79 French GP 1979 finished product Japan,.Trofeu TF0113 FORD SIERRA N.25 ACCIDENT RAC RALLY 1989 CUNICO-HARRYMAN 1 43 Mode,.Hot Wheels Redline Mclaren M6A US Brown Excellent to Near Mint,.Ford 17 M (P2) Turnier 1958 Yellow White 1 43 NeoScale NEO44551 Model,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.Ferrari 275 GTB 4 NART Spyder 1967 yellow Speichenräder KK Scale 1 18 Neu,.Best Model 9403 PORSCHE 908 3 WATKINS GLEN '72 1 43 Modellino,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.EBBRO 1 24 KIT IN PLASTICA FURGONE CITROEN H LA CAMIONNETTE STAR ART 25007 4800,.Auto World 1 18 AW247 1968 Ford Mustang S S Cobra Jet Hubert Platt Paul Harvey,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Mercedes 540K Autobahnkurier 1938 - black - 1 18 KK-Scale,.Skid Vitesse Peugeot 306 maxi total 1000km de la reunion 1 43 SKM99057,.1 64 Johnny Lightning - Toyota Land Cruiser - White - Chase, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
Mercedes-Benz C-Class DTM G. Paffett 2011 - 1 18 - Norev,.EARLY DINKY TANKER ESSO VG BOXED NICE EXAMPLE,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale 400 052432 - BMW 320i WTCC 2005 - M.Hennerici,.1935 AUBURN 851 Speedster ERTL Collectibles 1 18 scale die cast,.
1968 Mattel Hot Wheels Red Classic '31 Ford Woody Redline,.MAISTO 1 18 31078 BMW 645 Ci - DARK GREY,.Triumph Vitesse Mk2 1969 Red NEO45688 1 43,.CORGI 1 43 EX70512 - RENAULT 1000KG AVEC TOIT REHAUSS - MICHELIN,.CORGI TOYS OLDSMOBILE SOLO FÜR U.N.C.L.E CODE3 UNIKAT,.
Premium KrAZ 255V NVA olive green 1 43 47039,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.NO NY SALES Vintage Corgi Austin Morris Mini Cooper Magnifique NM W box beautY,.YELLOW 2006 DODGE CHALLENGER R T HIGHWAY 61 DCP 1 18 SCALE DIECAST METAL CAR,.Citroen DS 23 Pallas elfenbein, 1 18, NOREV,Revell 1 18 Scale Diecast - 8833 '69 Chevrolet Corvette Cabriolet Red,.Ebbro MMP EBRRO 1 43 Lotus ELAN Type 26 S2 Yellow Finished Product 44164,.
HOT WHEELS 1 18 B3243 BMW 645CI GREY gold,.Toyota TS010 () 1992 SWC -- HPI 43,.Signature Models 43701B MERCEDES BENZ 770K LIMOUSINE 1 43,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
Mercedes-Benz 220 8 Strich-Acht Limousine Beige Taxi W114 1967-1976 1 18 Mode..,.
1 18 2015 Mercedes AMG GT Metallic Red NOREV 183496,. We agree in part.
CORGI CC82215 ITALIAN JOB FILM MOVIE RED MINI COOPER DIECAST MODEL CLASSIC CAR,.1973 Matra Simca MS 670 B, No.10, Le Mans Model Car in 1 43 Scale by Spark,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.BMW M3 COUPE 2000 DAKARyellow 1 43 MINICHAMPS 431020021 NEU,.1 18 Minichamps VW Karmann Ghia Coupe 1970 blueemetallic Ltd. 504,.(VG) matchbox lesney superfast PLYMOUTH POLICE CAR - 10 LOT OF 6,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Ferrari Mondial 8 60 Jahre 1947-2007 red 1 18 HotWheels Elite,.RENAULT ALPINE A110 1600S 1971 bluee - blue Norev 185300 Die Cast 1 18 New Nuovo,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Deltawing DWC-13 , 24H Daytona 2014 , Spark models,; Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale Model Car BRK11 - 1956 Lincoln Continental MkII,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
MATCHBOX SUPERKINGS MODEL K-127 PETERBILT GETTY TANKER VN MIB,.Motorcycle Patrol AA van Dinky Toys 44b England 4502,Ferrari 275 Gtb 4 Nart Spider 1967 Alloy Rims KK-SCALE 1 18 KKDC180232,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Die Cast Model 1 24 F60 AMERICA 2014 Ferrari Collection No.42 New from Japan,.
V 1 64 HOTWHEELS RACER FERRARI F512 M F 512 M RALLY PURPLE MINT ON CARD RARE,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Ferrari 250 Testa Rossa 1958 - Shell,.ALFA ROMEO T33 3 N°2 TARGA FLORIO 1971 TSM MODEL TSM154310 1 43 2ème,.BBurago (3011) Diamonds 1 18 Ferrari 250 GTO 1962 Red Die-cast Model Car Boxed,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, PARPA-97094 - Voiture berline BMW X4 color black - 1 18,; 1 18 Shell Special Model - Ferrari 1972 312 P & Racing Fuel Pump - Rarity §,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, AUTO WORLD 1 18 AMERICAN MUSCLE 1969 PLYMOUTH GTX CONgreenIBLE DIE-CAST AMM1102,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
Renault R5 Supercinque Gt Turbo 1986 Light bluee Met NOREV 1 18 NV185207,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Original boxed and condition DINKY TOYS 25X BREAKDOWN LORRY,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
Dinky toys no. 147 Cadillac 62 metallic green,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
1949 Jaguar Xk-120 Roadster Danbury Mint Diecast car,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.ZAZ 965 Yalta 1967 DIP Models resin 196506 1 43,.SOL1800304 - Voiture Dyane 6 CITROEN 1967 orange éditée à 1500 unités - 1 18,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Bburago Ferrari 488 GTB The Schumacher 1 18 18-76102,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.1970 BURGANDY Ford Falcon XW Fairmont Wagon & 1967 Viscount Caravan 1 64 DieCast,.
Tiny Mini Cooper Hong Kong Police Members Only Novelty,.Polistil Jeep CJ5 golden Eagle 1 25 Scale Diecast Collectible Vintage Rare Car,.S5458 SPARK 1 43 Honda Civic EF3 Group A 1988,.Jielge Kit Assembled 1 43 - Alpine Renault A106 Rally Mounted Carlo 1960 no.166,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.FRANKLIN MINT 1999 CHEVY CORVETTE..1 24..RARE C5 COUPE..NOS..DOCS..UNDISPLAYED,.
CHEVROLET CAMARO CHAPARRAL N°2 TRANS-AM 1970 SPARK S2603 1 43,.HOT WHEELS RLC 2010 Ford Mustang GT Real Riders Acrylic Display Case RARE,.Schuco 1 43 Wiesmann MF5, brown 450888300,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, NV187593 by NOREV PORSCHE 911 1994 1 18,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.RARE blueE DIECAST METAL 1 18 BUGATTI 110 MODEL BY BBURAGO NICE ,.Maisto M38135 1 18 Scale the Audi R8 Die-cast Model (colours May Vary) - R8,.Johnny Lightning Holiday WHITE LIGHTNING lot of 6 IMPALA BEETLE NASH C-300 More,.PORSCHE 911 TURBO 3.3 (930) 1977 1 18 NOREV (OLIVE),.SCHUCO PRO MERCEDES BENZ S CLASS - PEARL WHITE 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 36 35,.
Renault Supercinq Gt Turbo 1985 silver 1 18 Modelo 185209 NOREV, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Minicar Novelty Nissan Leaf Special Order Item,.Fiat 238 Ambulanza Croce white Milano 1 43 Model RIO,. The PartridgeKYOSHO 1 43 03162MM NISSAN FAIRLADY 240ZG MAROON,.Minichamps 1 43 Porsche 911 Targa black (1995) OVP,.FANTASTIC HOT WHEELS 2019 LOMBARD NATIONALS VOLKSWAGEN DRAG BUS 5000,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, CORGI JAMES BOND 007 JOB LOT - Diecast Cars Vehicles - Boxed - Aston Martin etc, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Neo Models Damiler Motor Carriage Kutschenwagen 1886 43045 1 43 NEW,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Tonka Polistil Porsche 911 Metallic bluee 1 16 Diecast Collectible Model Car,.FORD Fiesta RS WRC Rallye 2016 Mexico Ostberg M-Sport EcoB IXO Altaya 1 18,PartridgeMazda 787 B no. 18 LEMANS 1991,.VITESSE KAGER 1 43 VW COMBI BAMBERG RAUCHBIER NEUF EN BOITE,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Scottoy 27PL AUTOBOTTE VIBERTI 'PETROLEA' RED Modellino, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 1 64 Greenlight - Special Edition 1970 DODGE CHARGER R T Factory Print Error,; Wiking Magirus S 7500 Pritschenhängerzug Tepinkn OVP (N5753),; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, GUILOY 67525 FERRARI GTO 1964 - RED 1 18 - EXCELLENT IN Exellent Box, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Minichamps Mercedes Benz SLS AMG GT3 Basse 1 43 437123238, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeGreenlight 12932 1 18 PONTIAC FIREBIRD TTA 1989 WHITE,.
Vintage The Lost World Jurassic Park Matchbox Site B Fuel Depot 1996 Car Set NEW,.NEW 1 43 Autoart Mc Laren P1 volcano yellow 56011, Clarke's negligent act.MB ACTROS LH PLANENHÄNGERZUG 2achs 3-achs SPEDITION MENN KREUZTAL TOP RARITÄT,.Spark Model S5176 CITROEN C3 WRC N.7 2nd RALLY GERMANY 2017 A.MIKKELSEN-A.JAGER,.1 43 Diecast Scale Models IXO FOXTOYS Volga ZIL 111 Antonin Novotny 1958,.
Ixo model TRU020 DAF 2600 FRANS MAAS 1965 1 43 Modellino,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Spark Model S5674 HILL GH1 VERN SCHUPPAN 1975 N.22 RETIRED SWEDEN GP 1 43 Modell,MOTORKITS MG M-TYPE EXTREMELY RARE - 1 43 - IN BOX - GOOD CONDITION,. In Noska,CORGi cc15302 J M MURDOCH &sons ltd SCANIA 111,.Puma GTV 033.S Alfa Romeo engine 1985 Whte 1 43 KESS KE43016001,.1 18 Minichamps, Ligier Honda JS41, O. Panis,.Model Car Group 1 18 Rover 3500 V8 1974 Police Car., necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Schuco Krupp Schultheiss Beer Delivery w Twin-Axle Trailer SHU05763,.KK-SCALE 1 18 FERRARI 275 GTS PININFARINA SPYDER 1964 AZZURRA MODELLINO,.SUNSTAR QUARTZO 1 18 LOTUS 72E RONNIE PETERSON 1973 ITALIAN GRAND PRIX WINNER,.Die-cast model Hong Kong Police EU Vehicle 1 43 TINY Sprinter ATC43074 AM6736,. Id., p 923.
BMW M ROADSTER 1996 CONgreenIBLE BBURAGO 1 18 gold COLLECTION- MADE IN ITALY,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Vintage Lesney Cement Mixer - Green with Red Wheels - Rare,Spark 1 43 Scale SG144 - Mini JCW ADAC 24h Nurburgring 2014,.Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG GT3 24H Nurburgring 2015 , Spark models,.Corgi Classics 35303 SELNEC Bedford Val Set Ltd Edition No 0001 of 3600,.Herpa 173735 PC Renault Plan - Trailer lütkemeyer 1 87 BOXED,.2016-2019 HOT WHEELS NISSAN SKYLINE DREAM SET II - 1 1 Special Set 17 Cars ,.Diecast vehicles 1 18 rolls royce,.Volkswagen VW Bulli T1 Samba Baujahr 1962 dunkelred black KK-Scale 1 18 Neu,. The parties Hot Wheels 13th Annual Collectors Nationals 67 Shelby GT500 1106 1500,.
Minichamps F1 Lotus Renault Shocar 2012 R. Grosjean 1 43 410120080,.AUTO WORLD 1 18 Die Cast 1937 PEPSI Lincoln Zephyr Coupe AW205 FREE SHIPPING,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Corgi Toys 152 BRM F1 Racing Car,; Porsche 356A 1500 GS Carrera GT Coupe Hell blue 1955-1959 1 18 Sun Star Modell.., (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
BMW M4 COUPE YELLOW BMW DEALER PARAGON 1 18,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Ford Sierra RS Cosworth 1986 White 1 18 - 182771 NOREV,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Welly GTA 1 18 Land Rover Range Rover Evoque orange GTA11003,.Solido Renault 5 Maxi Turbo 1986 1 18 Chatriot Perin Tour de Corse 1986,.Diecast Masters 1 50 Trailer Head 71004 Int'l HX520 Day Cab Tandem Tractor bluee,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Porsche 911 GT3 RSR Gordon Team 1000 KM Spa 2005 Minichamps Nr 400056473,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.FORD Fiesta New WRC 2017 Rallye Tänak MS-RT Winner Castrol Spark 1 43,.Jouef Evolution 1 18 - Ferrari 330 P4 red,.Ebro 1 43 Honda S600 Coupe WHITE finished product,.NEO Opel Commodore B 1973 1 43 43686,.SPARK 1 43 - SCLA04 LOLA T98 10 REPSOL LE MANS 1999,. The ScottsdaleEBBRO 44641 1 43 Makuransa T-III resin White,Lion Car 1 50 Scale Nr.338 Mercedes Artic & Trailer - Greenline Carriers - Boxed,.Schuco 1 43 006393 Mercedes-Benz Unimog Anhänger Deutsche Bundespost OVP(JS2207),. Id.,Aoshima Bunka Kyozai 1 24'll move selling series No.03 festival Wow Japan,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, UT MODELS 1 18 - BMW M3 GTR STREET - WHITE - NICE CONDITION.,; (36) Hot Wheels JDM Lot New No Duplicates Free Ship HW 2,MATRA BAGHEERA S blue MINIROUTE 08 1 43 résine,.PONTIAC GTO blue 2004 1 18,. The ScottsdaleBrooklin 1 43 Scale BRK31 009 - 1953 Pontiac Sedan Delivery 1 Of 750,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Minichamps 1 43 Scale 430 060120 - 2001 Porsche 911 GT2 - Red,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; MNC400098946 - Voiture de rallye FORD Focus RS WRC rallye Monza de 2009 équipage,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, CORGI 1 50 COLLECTION HERITAGE 74103 CITROEN TYPE 55 FOURGON CHAMBOURCY,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Best Model BT9701 PORSCHE 550 RS N.118 2nd T.FLORIO 1959 MAHLE-STRAHLE-LINGE 1 4,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, HOT WHEELS 2002 TREASURE HUNT SET LOOSE COMPLETE,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, 1 20 SIGNATURE MODELS DONG FENG goldEN DRAGON SEDAN RED yd, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK27 003 - 1957 Eldorado Brougham PCTS Special 1 Of 750, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, MINICHAMPS - PORSCHE 956K JDAVID WINNERS 1000KM BRANDS HATCH 1983 1 43,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeRoad Signature 1969 Pontiac Firebird Trans AM 1 18 Scale Diecast Car Yatming,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Best Model BT9554 ABARTH 2000 S N.418 TRIESTE OPICINA 1969 F.PILONE 1 43 Modelli,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheSpark 1 43 Scale S4502 - Volkswagen Polo R WRC nd Monte Carlo 2015,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Hotwheels 1 43 Scale Model Car P9928 - Ferrari GTO - Red,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,Spark 1 43 Venturi 600 LM n.39 Le Mans 1994 S2282,DINKY TOYS REMORQUE BACHEE Réf 70 Excellent Etat BOITE D'ORIGINE,.1 18 Norev Renault A110-50 Predotype 2012 blueemetallic orange,.Schuco 03109 camion Pompiers Mercedes-Benz Unimog 401 Stadtwerke Köln 1 43 mint,. The HuygheBMW ISETTA E100 RED WHITE 1 18 REVELL DEALER CLASSIC COLLECTION 80439420691,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheFerrari 250 Monza Spider Pininfarina Street Version 1954 JOLLY MODEL 1 43 JL6076,.
Minichamps - Robert Kubica - Sauber BMW - F1.06 -1 43 -2006 - Brazil GP - Rare,.FF 1 43 EXEM EX R1010 ASA 1000 COUPE STRADALE 1961 blueE MINT BOXED RARE SELTEN,.
Fiat Ritmo Abarth 130 Tc 1984 grey Quarzo (639) 1 43 Kess Ks43010011 Model,.Herpa 83SSM3022 SSM T 100 Raupenschlepper Scale 1 43 NEU OVP,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Datsun 510 Pln Racing 1976 Paul Newman 1 43 Tsm104318 Model,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeRevell 07651 LONDON BUS KIT 1 24 Modellino,.Mercedes-AMG C63 MERCEDES-AMG DTM Team Art no.2 (Gary Paffett) DTM 2016,.
For example, in Partridge,Vintage Nylint Napa Auto Parts Semi & Trailer`Pressed Steel & Plastic`27 3 4 ,. In Jorgensen, supra,DEALER GM OPEL MANTA - blueE METALLIC 1 43 - GOOD CONDITION,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.TSM Model 1 43 Scale TSM144343 - 2012 Mini Countryman All4 Racing,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Spark Model S4871 VANWALL VW57 STUART LEWIS-EVANS 1958 N.6 3rd BELGIAN GP 1 43 M,. That is the same situation in this case.Burago Ferrari 456GT Die Cast 3036 1 18 New Boxed,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Bburago Ferrari 250 LM 1 18 groen (B) (lim edition 1000 pcs),. Detroit Edison, supra.
Maserati Quattroporte 4.9 1983 bluee Sera Met Kess Model 1 43 KS43014013 Model,.My Hero Accademia One's Justice - Switch Japan,.1 43 PEUGEOT 403 MINIVERHICLES INSENDIES RESIN AMBULANCIA RARE ,.
Saab 900 Cabriolet Open 1987 Grey Met NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO43569,.