Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Spark Model S5259 BRABHAM BT44 J.WATSON 1974 N.28 5th ITALIAN GP 1 43 Modellino,.Premium ClassiXXs KrAZ 260 - oliv - NVA - 1 43,.MINI COUNTRYMAN WRC PARIS AUTO SHOW PRESENTATION TRUESCALE TSM114349 1 43,.BMW 502 Bestatter - 1 43 - Schuco,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.Rio RI4388 ALFA ROMEO P3 N.2 MONTECARLO 1933 R.CARACCIOLA 1 43 Modellino,.SOLIDO 1 18 9054 CITROEN XSARA TOUR DE CORSE 2004,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Israel RESCUE AMBULANCE Jewish MAGEN DAVID ADOM MDA First AID Diecast TOY CAR,.Ebro 1 43 Honda FIT 3 HYBRID Premium White Pearl finished product,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.TSM Model 1 43 Rolls Royce Ghost 2009 Grey very nice, collectors item,.Volga M24 1967-1992 Volkspolizei 1 18 Model MODELCARGROUP,.Volkswagen 1303 1972 Green metallic NOREV - NO 188523 - Echelle 1 18, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
Porsche 911 (997) GT3 Cup A. Kohl - 1 43 - Schuco,.Americana 1 43 Scale White Metal Kit - 13 Chevrolet Styleline 1950,.LESNEY Matchbox 1-75 COLLECTION 16 CARS lot 2,.Revell 08444 VW Microbus Concept Car, Diecast in 1 18, NEU & OVP,.
Peugeot 504 Coupe 1969 White, Model Car 1 18 Norev,.LOT OF FOUR NEW COLLECTOR CARS, CITGO, SHEPHERD, RUNABOUT WITH FREE SHIPPING,.Schuco SH2476 MERCEDES 300 SLS N.30 P.O'SHEA SCCA CHAMPIONSHIP 1957 1 43 Modelli,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Ford Galaxy 2.0 16V 1995 Purple m 1 43 Minichamps-GT RS VR6,.Red 1969 Chevy Camaro RS Cragar American Muscle 1 18 Scale Die Cast,.
Minichamps 410142424 BMW M4 Team RMG M.Martin DTM 2014 - 1 43 NEW ORIGINAL,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.RARE, DY-28 Triumph Motorshow 1992 - creme, Dinky, Code 2, w.Box,.Bmw 502 Congreenible Autenrieth Brown 1 43 Neoscale NEO46385 Model,.Dinky Toys 771 International Road Signs made in England EX-NMIB,True Scale 1 43 Alfa Brabham BT46 Monaco GP John Watson 144303,.Norev 187770 Fiat 500 L blueE Scale 1 18 Model Car New °,.
Porsche MACAN S - Minichamps 1 43 - WAP0206000J - Nip,.Rover Vitesse Champion Dtm 1986 K. Thim 1 43 Model 400861322 MINICHAMPS,.Spark Model S5087 PORSCHE CARRERA RSR N.68 DNF LM 1974 H.HEYER-E.KREMER-P.KELLER,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
Venturi 260 Spc 1989 bluee SPARK 1 43 S2244 Model,.
Fujimi 1 43 Ferrari 599 SA Aperta red Corsa 2011 TSM11FJ005,. We agree in part.
2017 TAKUMA SATO INDIANAPOLIS 500 CHAMPION ANDRETTI 1 18 BY GREENLIGHT 11020,.MODELLINO FORD C MAX GRANDE 2010 NERA IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Peugeot 106 1 43 kit COMPLETAMENTE IN METALLO,.McLaren Mercedes MP4-98T '2 Seater' 2000 Mika Hakkinen MINICHAMPS 530981878 1 18,.Milestone Models The Gladiator Showmans Engine,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Toyopet Skb Kiyoken Van blue yellow 1 43 Model EBBRO,.RARE BROOKLIN FORD FAIRLANE 2 DOOR VICTORIA 1956 green CLAIR REF 23 IN BOX,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Mercedes Benz C-Class C63S Amg 2016 bluee Met SPARK 1 43 S4913 Model,; Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK31X 1953 Pontiac Sedan Delivery Van Modelex 1990 Green,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
Veba Heating Oil Raab Kärcher Setra Bus Stettnisch 5014 Adgreenising H0 1 87 Å,.2018 M2 COCA COLA 1958 CHEVROLET APACHE STEPSIDE CHASE LIMITED 500 PCS 1 24,Hot Wheels BRUCE MEYER GALLERY (4) Car Set,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.MERCEDES BENZ 190 SL 1955 blue NOREV 1 18 183400,.
Vintage Dinky 428 - Trailer Large - Grey,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Dinky toys no. 536 Peugot 404,.Matchbox Moko No 40 short wheelbase Bedford S Tipper VNMB,.Herpa Set Scania 143 & Iveco „Auf Achse Edition 5 – Folge 33-37“ Nr 157155 H512,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, First Gear DCP 33812 Peterbilt w Chemical tank - Great West,; MODELLINO ALFA ROMEO 33 TT 12 MERZARIO MASS WINNERS COPPA FLORIO 1975 IN METALLO,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Unbranded Model 1 24 Scale Diecast 24APRD Jaguar XK120 Cream,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 402 040018 - F1 Jordan EJ14 N.Heidfeld,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Lamborghini Miura P400 Bertone 1966 orange RIO 1 43 RIO4583 Miniature,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
A Franklin mint scale model car of a 1948 MG TC,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
DINKY TOYS 1 43 ENGLAND LINCOLN CONTINENTAL,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.D.B.G.M. Baukran 421 made in germany . EXTREMELY RARE,.RAF 2203 diecast car model 1 43 made in USSR 1988 Novoexport Soviet Russian,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.GDR DDR MSB set of 2 PKW Cabriolet 1954 - 1965 tin plate 1 43 in minor condition,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Antiguo 1 43 Pilen M-276 AMC Javelin 390 SST de Starsky & Hutch. Made in Spain.,.
Ferrari 488 Gtb red 1 18 Bburago Signature,.Corgi Imp Police Panda Car, Good condition and excellent Original Box.,.DIAPET YONEZAWA 11-0231 NISHI NIPPON BUS JAPAN MINT IN BOX DIECAST MIB,.Best Model BT9434 PORSCHE ABARTH N.49 9th 12 H SEBRING 1962 STRAHLE-BARTH 1 43 M,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.MODELLINO PORSCHE PANAMERA 4 2011 blueE METALLIC IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.
NOVOEXPORT ZIL-115 zwarte limousine MIB,.NOREV184716 - PEUGEOT 302 Darl'Mat Coupé (1937) blacke et yellow - 1 101,.Ferrari 500 F2 n° 16 Kit monté sur base Quartzo 1 43 Magnifique,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, CMNL UKBUS8004 Dennis Enviro 200 Dart Travel London C1 Victoria MIMB,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.1 43 Minichamps BMW M3 2013 DTM B. Spengler 410132201,.Rio RI4587 FIAT 1100 103 POLIZIA 1954 1 43 Modellino,.1965 SHELBY MUSTANG GT 350 R WHITE W SIGNATURE 1 18 SHELBY COLLECTIBLES SC168-1,.Schuco 1 43 Mercedes-Maybach G650, blue 450900400,.Corgi 1 50 Cc15403 Stobart Seddon Atkinson And Curtainside Trailer Mint,.
Miniroute 1 43 Scale Resin Model Car 46 - Peugeot 402 Andreau - bluee, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.AUTOWORLD AMM993 1 18 1967 FORD SHELBY MUSTANG GT500 GT 500 DIECAST LIGHT GREEN,.Alfa Romeo Alfa 6 2.5I V6 Quadrifoglio gold 1983 1 43 Kess Model Ks43000150 Model,. The PartridgeAlpine Renault A110 1600S 1971 White 1 18 - 185303 NOREV,.GMP Duke Nalon Bowes Seal Fast Offy Midget 1 18 Scale Race Car T39,.ROAD SIGNATURE 1 18 - 42168 1968 SHELBY GT-500 KR MET GREY DIECAST MODEL CAR,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Action 1 24 Scale Diecast WIN Miller Genuine Draft Ford F-150 Crew Cab + Case, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.AMX-10RCR SEPAR French Tank Destroyer TIGER MODEL 1 35 PLASTIC KIT,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Ebbro 1 43 TOYOTA PRIUS apr GT SUPER GT300 2015 Rd.1 OKAYAMA Winner 45295,.Minichamps 430033501,Mercedes E-Class Saloon 1993, nautical bluee m.,1 43,NEU&OVP,PartridgeMarks 1 160 Mercedes 3500 TLF 15 Feuerwehr OVP,.Altes SIKU V Serie V 204 OPEL-KADETT Siku Modellauto,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Mitsubishi Lancer provence miniatures montato, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Jada Toys Heat 1 24 2006 Dodge Magnum R T Police Muscle car New Boxed,; 1980`s Hot Wheels Made in France Renault 5 Le Car - Red,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Modell 1 18 Volkswagen VW T3 Bus bluee Star 1990 blue metallic Norev 188540, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, KK-Scale KKDC180152 VW T1 Samba, 1959, bluee creme, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeCitroen Cx 25 Trd Turbo 2 Break 1986 Gun Grey Metallic 1 43 Model KESS MODEL,.
Highway 61 1 43 Scale 1969 Ford Mustang Boss 302 Metallic bluee Resin model car,.Motorcycle Patrol AA van Dinky Toys 44b England 4502, Clarke's negligent act.1969 Peugeot 504 Coupe weiss 1 18 Norev 184825,.Handmade 91 car display shelf for Racing Champions. Holds 91+- loose cars.,.Trofeu 1 43 Scale 524 - Ford Escort RS 1600 BP Monte Carlo 1972,.
1 18 Bugatti EB 110 (Red) Burago 18-12023,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, MODELLINO PORSCHE 904 GTS 1964 blue IN PLASTICA MINICHAMPS,Fast and the Furious 1995 Mitsubishi Eclipse series 1 by Racing Champions RCERTL,. In Noska,1972 Hot Wheels Zowees lot of 7 cars, Including 2 variations- EX,.Lot CIJ Norev 4CV Police Renault Citroën 2CV Calberson Quiralu Porsche neuf 1 43,.Burago 1 18 Scale 18-11041 - Lamborghini Huracan LP 610-4 - Polizia,.Ertl 1 18 Scale - 7378 1966 Ferrari 275 GTB 4 Yellow Diecast model car, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Road Signature 1 18 Scale 92208 1957 Ford Ranchero Pink White Diecast model car,.Top Model 1 43 Scale Resin TMC080 - Gordini T15S - Le Mans 1950,.Spark 1 43 Lotus Exige S Club Racer orange 2016 S4900,.Alpine Renault A110 1600s 1971 bluee 1 18 Model 185300 NOREV,. Id., p 923.
AVONCAST 1 43 SCALE WHITE METAL AC19 GILBERT & BARKER NATIONAL BENZOLE PUMP,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, 1 20 SIGNATURE MODELS DONG FENG goldEN DRAGON SEDAN RED yd,Alfa Romeo 1750 Torpedo Miliz.Naz.1933 Rio 1 43 Rio4221 Model Diecast,.Jada 1 24 Scale 99574 - Brian's Ford F-150 SVT Lightning - Fast & Furious,.WIKING 112 PKW OPEL ADMIRAL W280,.BURAGO 1 18 3353 SHELBY SERIES 1 1999 RED,.Dinky Toys Market Gardeners Lorry Type 4 1940's Post War Dinky Toys 25f Lorry,.PORSCHE 911 Carrera RSR 2.8 F Modell white weiss green 1973 Minichamps RAR 1 43,.CHEVROLET Caprice Wagon 1991 1 43 BoS 43080,. The parties PORSCHE 924 CARRERA GT 1981 red MINICHAMPS 1 43,.
CIJ Renault 4CV vintage diecast toy made in France 1 43 scale rare,.Corgi 1 50 Scale Model Fire Engine 54903 - E-One 75ft Ladder Bartlett Illinois,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, MODELLINO VOLKSWAGEN T3 DOKA PRITSCHE 1983 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,; 2003 Corvette Gloss Red 1 18 Ertl American Muscle 33149, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
PONTIAC Grand Am Coupe Neo scale models 1 43 NEO44755,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Corgi 1 76 Scale OM46610B - Wrightbus New Bus For London R11 Fulham,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)1976 Ford Mustang II Mach 1 blue 1 18 Greenlight 12868,.LOUIS MARX WILLY'S JEEP, COLLECTIBLE PRESSED STEEL, IN ORIGINAL CONDITION,.1963 Chevrolet Corvair Coupe Laurel Green 1 18 Sun Star 1483,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Century 1 43 Scale White metal 2701 Mercedes 500 SL 1975 dark bluee,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Diapet 1 30 Scale Diecast SV-17 - Toyota Celsior 4000 - Pearlescent White,.Aston Martin DBRS9 Nurburgring 2008 K. Wendlinger 1 43 Model 400081306,.Dinky Saab 96 - Red - A NB,.Herpa MB Actros Autotransporter HZ beladen mit 6 PKW Modellen 1 87 PC (R1_4_29),.Fiat Panda 30th Anniversary set,. The ScottsdaleBMW 2002 1600 ti Alpina Brno 1969 Huber Treser RARE 1 100 Scala43 1 43,PORSCHE 919 Hybrid HY Le Mans Winner 2015 Hülkenberg Bamber Resin Spark 1 43,.BMW 2002 Turbo 1973-74 - Minichamps 1 43 in Box 34583,. Id.,Ebbro 1 43 Epson Nsx Concept Gt Okayama Super Gt 500 2015 New F S,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, SHELBY Cobra Daytona Ford Coupe Schlesser Grant 1965 Le Mans CMR 1 18,; Kit pour miniature auto CCC Panhard Dynavia salon 1948 réf 135,Spark 1 43 Porsche 911 RGT n.23 2nd RGT Monte Carlo 2015 S4518,.Herpa Actros 10300 Willi Betz Nooteboom Teletrailer Werbemodell,. The ScottsdaleRENAULT CLIO 3 RING ELIGOR FIREFIGHTER 101036 1 43,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, MINICHAMPS MORRIS MINOR CABRIOLET blueE ART. 150137030 NEW DIE-CAST 1 18,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 5x Wiking HO 1 87 SHOVEL DIGGER + UNIMOG TRACTOR LORRY Construction Site Lot NM ,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Volkswagen VW Bus T3 1993 Red 1 18 Model KK SCALE,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Best Model 9518 PORSCHE ABARTH TARGA FLORIO '61 1 43 Modellino,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Renault Juvaquatre Van 1951 Beige NOREV 1 18 NV185260 Model,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, 1 43 Kyosho Mercedes Clk Dtm Amg Cabriolet, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Corgi US50808 Seagrave K Pumper Washington Fire Co. No.1 Ltd Ed. 1561 of 2000, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Sun Star Mercedes-Benz 220 SE 1958 1 18 bluee (JS),; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgePorsche 911 Carrera Targa Usa 1985 Green 1 43 Neoscale NEO43248 Model,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Spark 1 43 Kode 7 Clubman Ken Okuyama Design Red 500 Pcs Art. SJ028,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheWiking 1 32 077325 Traktor Claas Arion 650 mit Frontlader - NEU OVP,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Joal JL40071 MINI RUSPA KOMATSU SK 1026 1 25 Modellino,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,CURSOR - METALLMODELL - MAGIRUS DEUTZ - PRITSCHEN LKW - 1 50 - (7.BM-191),Herpa 310215 H0 Set m. 2 Modellen, 80J. Wandt 1 87,.Lexus LFA no. 88 24h ADAC Nürburgring 2011,.Audi A3 S3 8V 3 Türer red Ab 2012 1 43 Minichamps Modell Auto mit oder ohne in..,. The HuygheHot Wheels Plymouth Demons Funny Car,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheVintage Quiralu Models 1 43 Scale Diecast - Mercedes 300SL - Light bluee + Box,.
1 43 Scale Trax Top Gear Holden HQ Monaro GTS 350 Coupe Cyan bluee TR18D,.Hot Wheels 2001 First Editions Lot Of 34 Cars -- 021,.
1 43 Starter (France) Audi Quattro Rally Monte Carlo 1984 Resin Car,.NEW 1 18 Die Cast American Muscle 1970 Plymouth 440-6 Barrel Cuda Mopar Nats,. Nonetheless, on the facts of 1 18 Triple 9 Toyota country Cruiser FJ40 1967 green white,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeMatchbox Moko Lesney 3 cement mixer perfect orange metal wheels mint in box,.Wiking 1 87 610 30A Magirus-Sirius Rundh. Spritzenwagen Feuerwehr o.VP(EC713),.
For example, in Partridge,Spark Model 1 43 Venturi 400 GT 1994 Yellow Art.S2246,. In Jorgensen, supra,CORGI Eddie Stobart - MODERN - RENAULT Premium Curtainside - MB,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Best Model BT9478 FERRARI 275 LM N.58 RETIRED LM 1964 RINDT-PIPER 1 43 Modellino,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,WSI 1 50 SCALE 3-AXLE CHEREAU REEFER TRAILER MODEL BN 03-1071,. That is the same situation in this case.LANSDOWNE MODELS LDM9 AUSTIN SOMERSET 1953 - GREEN 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 4,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.1 18 1965 Pontiac GTO (Montero Red) Sun Star 1808,. Detroit Edison, supra.
REVELL MONOGRAM 1959 CHEVY IMPALA CONgreen PLASTIC KIT SEALED 1 25 SKILL LEVEL 3,.Fiat 238 Van Assistenza Corse Scuderie Filipinetti 1970 Red Rio 1 43 RIO4526 Mod,.Carrera Digital 124 23837 Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG GT3 Petronas, Nr. 28,.
Matchbox Models Of yesteryear.25 vans.....job lot collection in Straw boxes,.