Spark 1 43 Scale Scale Scale Resin S1535 - 2009 Chevrolet Corvette C6RS Roadster - Yellow 1a19b5

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Spark 1 43 Scale Scale Scale Resin S1535 - 2009 Chevrolet Corvette C6RS Roadster - Yellow 1a19b5
1937 Cord 812 Congreenible 2 car set blueE 1 18 Ertl American Muscle 32880,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Minichamps Renault F1 Team Showcar 2005 F. Alonso on 1 43 in Special Box,.BMW M6 GT3 Walkenhorst 24h Nürburgring 2017 Playstation v. Lagen Spark 1 43,.VANGUARDS 1 43 DIECAST 1983 ROVER SD1 SD 1 3500 V8 VANDEN PLAS AUSTRALIAN SPEC.,.CMR 1 43 Scale SBC027 - Porsche 956B 1000Km Spa 1985 - Bellof Boutsen,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Starter Kit to assemble 1 43 - Porsche 962 Wynn's IMSA 1986,.Corgi 1 76 - Bus Bus Optare Solo Strathtay Nozzles,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Minichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast - C10 BMW M3 E30 DTM Warsteiner Hayne,.VINTAGE MIDGETOY RACE CAR WITH ORIGINAL BOX MIDGETOY ALL METAL SAFE DURABLE,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Volkswagen VW Beetle 1967 Right Hand Drive Lotus White 1 18 Model 13510,.ALPINE RENAULT A310 THERIER TOUR DE CORSE 1974 1 43 SPARK S5478,.FERRARI 512 BB N.73 49th LM 1982 HENN-LANIER-MORIN 1 43 Best Model BT9323, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

1969 Dodge Charger General Lee Birthday Dukes Of Hazzard Auto World 1 18 AWSS110,.WESTERN MODELS 1986 CHEVROLET CORVETTE JIM LINK SPECIAL 1 43 SCALE SERIAL,.Truescale Model 1 43 Aston Martin Vanquish Zagato Red NEW ,.NEO SCALE MODELS NEO45643 MASERATI SEBRING SERIES II METALLIC blueE 1 43,.

LANSDOWNE MODELS LDM13 HILLMAN SUPER MINX 1953 - OFF WHITE 1 43 - EXCELLENT 4,.DANDY BEANO SET (8 Models ) by LLEDO DAYS GONE FREE POSTAGE,.FORD Capri 3.0 S Belga Winner Sieger Spa 24h Spice Pilet 1978 Premium X 1 43,.Spark 1 43 - F1 LOTUS 79 LONG BEACH 1979 ANDRETTI,.Maisto Chevrolet NOVA SS 1970 chevy 1 18 ProRodz Fast drift speed gt r cars dub,.

MATCHBOX ISO GRIFO WITH ORIGINAL BOX MADE IN ENGLAND BY LESNEY 1968,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.VW Beetle 1950 1 18 Welly Nexmodels 18040w Volkswagen Classic,.1 18 Hot Wheels Ferrari F1 PREMIERE 2003 M.Schumacher NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.KK-Scale KKDC180152 VW T1 Samba, 1959, bluee creme,Porsche 934 5 Big Wing (black),.Vintage - LAMBORGHINI JARAMA Bertone - 1 43 Politoys-M25,.

NOREV183543 - MERCEDES-BENZ E500 Class blacke - 1 18,.5 Boxed Matchbox Models Yesteryear Fire Engine Series (1993),.Renault R30 Tx 1981 Brown Met NOREV 1 18 NV185271 Model,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.


1 18 Mercedes Benz E klass, von ANSON,. We agree in part.

1992 Fiat 590 Giannini Model Car in 1 43 Scale by Spark,.Kode 9 Tokyo Motor Show 2015 bluee Spark 1 43 SJ040 Model,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Spark 1 43 Porsche 935 LM 1978 S4163,.Trofeu TF1606 AUDI QUATTRO N.9 WINNER S.REMO 1982 S.BLOMQVIST-B.CEDERBERG 1 43 M,.NOREV 1 18 1955 PEUGEOT D4A POMPIERS WITH LADDERS DIECAST CAR 184707RD,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; AMX-30B2 BRENNUS French Main Battle Tank TIGER MODEL 1 35 PLASTIC KIT,.Minichamps 1 43 F1 Mercedes Amg W06 N. Rosberg Australian Gp 2015 410150006,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, VW Volkswagen T2b open air bus green green 1 43 Premium classixxs,; Saurer D 330 THW blue Tek Hoby 1 87,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Provence Moulding Kit à Monter 1 43 - Mazda 767 Le Mans 1989,.HPI hpi-racing 1 43 Lancia 037 Rally Plain color White 8032,Kyosho 1 43 Nissan Gt-R Tokyo Smart Driver,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.1 24 Special Scale Japanese Cars Collection Vol.59 Honda Prelude 2.0Si 1985,.

Porsche 911 Carrera RSR Mid-Ohio 3 Hours 1977 1 18 187427 Norev,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Best 1 43 Scale 9306 - Ferrari BB LM Le Mans 1979 - Andruet - Dini,.SUN STAR Mercedes Benz 350 SL R107 Softtop Yello 1 18 4568,.Minichamps Lamborghini Miura P400 SV 1971 yellow 1 43 430103650,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, FRANKLIN MINT 1999 CHEVY CORVETTE..1 24..RARE C5 COUPE..NOS..DOCS..UNDISPLAYED,; FIAT SEAT 131 Abarth Rallye Villa Gijon 1981 Spain Cardin Motul 1 250 1 43,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Norev 1 18 2010 Fiat 500 (So Pink) Diecast Car Model 187752,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Spark 1 43 Scale Scale Scale Resin S1535 - 2009 Chevrolet Corvette C6RS Roadster - Yellow 1a19b5Spark 1 43 Scale Scale Scale Resin S1535 - 2009 Chevrolet Corvette C6RS Roadster - Yellow 1a19b5Spark 1 43 Scale Scale Scale Resin S1535 - 2009 Chevrolet Corvette C6RS Roadster - Yellow 1a19b5Spark 1 43 Scale Scale Scale Resin S1535 - 2009 Chevrolet Corvette C6RS Roadster - Yellow 1a19b5

Maisto Pro rodz 1 18 1971 Chevrolet Chevelle 454 Congreenible Classic car,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.



This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Schuco Modellauto Neu BMW 850 Ci Cabriolet,red 1 43 - 450902400,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

ASAHI 1 43 scale Vintage diecast - NO.2 Rolls Royce Camargue dark grey,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.CORGI Eddie Stobart - MODERN - LEYLAND DAF Curtainside - MB,.Corgi 13403 MAN TGA XXL Curtainside Ken Thomas Ltd. Limited Edition 1 50 Scale,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.SSM LKW 1 43 GAZ-66 Feuerwehr Bus,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.A Danbury mint scale model car of a 1949 Jaguar XK120 , boxed,.

Minichamps 400 768406 Ford Escort II RS1800 1976 Clark Pegg winner RAC 1976 1 43,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 431 051290 - VW 1200 Export - Feuerwehr Dortmund,.Somerville Models 1 43 Scale 117 - Ford Anglia Tourer Top Down - Beige,.1 18 Fiat 131 Abarth año 1980 color red Ixo Models CMC003,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Revell 8810 BMW 507 Touring Sport Cabrio 1 18 OVP,.

Neo Alfa Romeo 75 Sportwagon V6 2.5 - metallic-grey - 1986 - 1 43,.Norev 1 43 - Citroen DS ID Break RTL with Cameraman Tour de France 1963,.Jouet Char D’Assaut Joustra TF 56 Avec Sa Clé Très Bon Etat.,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Rio RI4457 VW BEETLE MEDICAL DEUTSCHES 1955 1 43 Modellino,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Ertl American Muscle Authentics 1964 1 2 Mustang Indy Pace car 1 18 MINT.,.FIAT 128 RALLY - 1971 - green green 1 43 RIO4564 Made in ,.1 64 Hot wheels Cool Classic Datsun blueeBird 510 two different cards,.Shelby-Toyota 2000GT 1 43 Del Prado - 23 CP Die Cast Model Car Brand New in Box,.Minichamps 1 18 BMW 635 CSI GP Brno 1984 Brancatelli Kelleners nieuw in doos,.

Spark S4905 1 43 Resin 1937 Mercedes-Benz 320 A Open Congreenible, 2-Tone bluee, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Eagles Race Ford GT 40 24H Leman 1966 1 18,.F1 LOTUS 72 72E Ford Cosworth Peterson JPS France GP 1973 Texaco Spark 1 43,. The PartridgeFord Cortina Mk II Twin Cam Lotus 1969 RHD Corgi Vanguards 1 43 rd.Scale,.Vintage Matchbox Battle Kings K-105 Hover Raider & 3 Infantry Figures,.MINICHAMPS 400082411 Ford Transit 1974 Bus Green 1 43 NEW,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Mercedes Benz Lo 3000 Premium Classixxs 1 43 12650, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Solido CITROËN Dyane 6 Jade Green 421184010 1 18,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Audi R8 LMS no. 21 TEAM HITOTSUYAMA RACING 2011,.DV5279 STARTER LOLA T 98 10 VODACOM REPSOL LE MANS 1999 Ref SL024 1 43 NB,PartridgeCorgi Toys 1 43 AEC ROUTEMASTER goldEN JUBILEE gold PLATED Limited Ed. BUS MIB ,.Schuco 05535 Opel GT J LeMansblue,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, GeminiJets 1 400 757-300 (W) Delta Airlines Reg.N 581 NW Finished Goods, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Fiat 238 Ambulance Tetto Alto Ferrari Fiorano 1972 White RIO 1 43 RIO4555,; Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 430 019420 - 1981 Audi Quattro - Red,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Porsche 911 Turbo S (991 II) - red black - Spark WAP0209050J - 1 43, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Scale model 1 43 Ford Bronco, brown white1970, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying Partridge1 43 Hi Story Model Mazda Bongo 1000 route van White Yellow 1968,.

Us Dreamcar Bronze 1954 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,.Matchbox SF Nr.20A Lamborghini Marzal redmetallic top in Box, Clarke's negligent act.1 43 NEO Model Saab 99 4-Door Red orange 1971,.Simca 5 van Norev 24 France,.(Go) 1 18 GUILOY BMW F1 COMPETITION PredOTYPE,.

Porsche 911 930 Turbo 3.3 Targa 1987 bluee Met NOREV 1 18 NV187663 Model,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Burago 1 18 scale Diecast - 3021 Porsche 356B Coupe 1962 White,PROGETTO K 1 43 SCALE PK351 - FIAT 238 FURGONE CARABINIERI 1965,. In Noska,Spark 1 43 Lotus Elan Sprint FHC 1971 S2228,.Daihatsu Mira Walk Through Van 1986 White Spark 1 43 SJ032 Miniature,.Norev PM0011 RENAULT KANGOO COMPACT CONCEPT 2007,.CORGI Eddie Stobart - CC12607 - SCAMMELL Crusader 4x2 and Artic Tautliner - MB, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Volkswagen Anfibio - Brasil 1961 1 43 RIO 4393,.Mini Champs 1 43 Porsche 911 Gt3 Rs,.Tekno 60591 Meiller Kippauflieger 3-achs 1 50 NEU in OVP,.MINICHAMPS 1 43 - F1 FERRARI 1996 LAUNCH VERSION - M. SCHUMACHER,. Id., p 923.


In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, ERTL 1969 CHEVY NOVA SS LIMTED EDITION 1 18 blueE '69 CHEVROLET 1999 Issue,Motor City Classics 1948 Chrysler Town & Country 1 18 Scale Diecast Model Car,.1 43 Mini Champs Bentley Arnage R bluee Metallic,.Wiking 1 32 077328 Claas Axion 950 mit Zwillingsbereifung - NEU OVP,.1 18 Norev Citroen DS 19 1956 green creme,.SPARK AUDI R8 Winner Le Mans 2000 Kristensen - Pirro - Biela 43LM00 1 43,.Renault 16 TS Corgi 1 43,.Jensen Healey Mkii Spider 1972 Green NeoScale 1 43 NEO44391,. The parties AUTOARTDESIGN TOWER BAR TOWEL HANGER (STAINLESS STEEL),.

1 35 Tamiya M4A3E2 Sherman Jumbo U.S.Assault Tanku Plastic Model From Japan 7V,.Willeme LD 610 T, Papeteries Vosgiennes, 1 43, Norev,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, 1 43 Porsche 911 GT3 RS, Lim. 500, Minichamps,; SPOT ON HUMBER SUPER SNIPE ESTATE REPAINTED RETRO, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

S5153 SPARK 1 43 VW Volkswagen Polo WRC test car 2017,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Hot Wheels ULTIMATE SPIDER-MAN BUNDLE Complete Mattel 2014 NEW SEALED 10 diecast,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)DINKY - 263 - AIRPORT FIRE RESCUE TENDER - MINT & BOXED - 1978 - 1981 VINTAGE,.CIJ - 1 43 - FORD COFFRET POISSY - STUDEBAKER - C80900,.Best 1 43 Martini Lancia Beta Montecarlo - Le Mans 1981 - Patrese Heyer Ghinzani,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Dinky Toys no. 1001 Bahnhof Personal Station Staff Boxed,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Jada 1961 Chevrolet Impala w flames Road Rats 1 24 scale 2003 release HTF,.Spark Model S5968 FORD FIESTA R5 N.14 19th RALLY SWEDEN 2018 H.SOLBERG-C.MENKERU,.Wonderful modelcar ALFA ROMEO 75 V6 2.5 SPORTSWAGON 1986 - grey - 1 43 - lim.ed.,.Peugeot 404 Cabriolet 1967 bluee NOREV 1 18 NV184832 Model,.Corgi Classics No 11910 ERF EC series Crane trailer and scrap car load Harris NM,. The ScottsdaleOpened Minicar Body Only 1 64 Gl 2017 Ford Gt,GREENLIGHT 1 18 SCALE NEW YORK CITY POLICE DEPARTMENT NYPD MODEL BN 19036,.Norev 1 43 - Renault Dauphine red,. Id.,Ebbro EB44154 PORSCHE 935 N.3 FUJI 1978 1 43 Modellino,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 18 Minichamps Mercedes Benz SL Class Cabriolet 2008,; 1960 Chevy Impala Congreenible Promo,MCT 1 18 Scale Plastic - MCT01 Porsche 911 GT2 Red Race Car,.Mercedes Benz L319 Fruba 1957 Light Gr 1 18 183419,. The ScottsdaleBARLUX 73053 FIAT CAMPAGNOLA RAID CAPE TOWN ALGIERS - orange 1 25 - IN BOX,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Fiat 500 F 1965 blue Notte 1 43 Spark S2692 Model,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; CHEVROLET Impala Coupe 1959 Spark 1 43 S2902,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Minichamps minicar BMW320i World limited 2352 cars 1 43,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Ferrari 208 Gtb Turbo 1980 Red BEST 1 43 BE9678 Model,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Honda Civic EF-3 Si 1987 white Triple 9 1 18 OVP NEU,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, 1 18 Road Signature LOTUS ELITE lightbluee - RARITÄT, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, REPLICAR SPYKER C8 DOUBLE 12.S 2003 - BEIGE METALLIC 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 17 16, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, NV187593 by NOREV PORSCHE 911 1994 1 18,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeSpark Model S7024 ORECA 07 - GIBSON N.38 10th LM 2018 H.P.TUNG-S.RICHELMI-G.AUBR,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, 1 43 Minichamps - BMW M3 – M-TEAM ZAKSPEED – MARC HESSEL 430872001,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheFORD Fiesta New WRC 2018 Rallye Monte Carlo Ogier Red Bull MS-RT Spark 1 43,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Maisto 1 18 Scale 1936 M-B 500 K Type Specialroadster Diecast Vehicle,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Norev 1 43 – Set Box Peugeot 206CC con tetti apribili ,Universal-Hobbies 4144 Massey-Harris-Ferguson Work-Bull 1 16,.NOREV 1 43 SCALE 1934 CITROEN 22 CV SALOON DEALER SPECIAL MODEL - MET GREEN,.Fiat 519S Limousine 1929 Rio 1 43 Rio4382 Modellino Diecast,. The HuygheFerrari 512 Bb 1976 Red 1 43 Model BEST MODELS,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheAston Martin DB3 S bluee De Agostini Dinky Toys 104,.

DINKY TOYS SPV Spectrum Pursuit Vehicle MADE IN ENGLAND Metallbauweise,.TA295 MINIMAX SPARK MODEL PORSCHE 919 HYBRID Ref WAP0205010E 1 43 NEUF BOITE,.

1 18 Norev Porsche 911 Turbo 3.3 Targa 1987 blueemetallic,.Starter 1 43 Scale Resin Model Car LM065 - Joest Porsche 1st Le Mans 1997,. Nonetheless, on the facts of DINKY TOYS - MORRIS OXFORD SALOON - YELLOW & GREEN - ORIGINAL,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeSUNSTAR - 1 18 - PORSCHE 356A 1500 GS - CARRERA GT - 1328,.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM27 - 1937 Jensen Dual Cowl Phaeton - Green,.

For example, in Partridge,1 43 MC LAREN FORD M23 JAMES HUNT WORLD CHAMPION F1 1976 REMOVABLE ENGINE COVER,. In Jorgensen, supra,LION CAR DAF 3300 RALLY PARIS-DAKAR 1983 342 COLOUR YELLOW + BOX SCALE 1 50,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.FORMA TOYS CELLA 3D FIAT 170 FIRE ENGINE - RED 1 43 - BAD CONDITION - BARLUX,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Indoor RC First Minute AE86 Initial D Fujiwara tofu shop specifications,. That is the same situation in this case.NISSAN Skyline GTR GT-R R35 35 Coupe 2008 grey grey met 188053 Norev N 18,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.1 18 SAIC Skoda 2017 Kodiaq TSI 380 4×4 gold Dealer Edition,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Corgi Juniors Carded Mini Cooper S 1300 Rare Now.,.Florian Isuzu 1 43 Minicar,.Herpa HP7081 AUDI A3 CABRIO 2013 blueE 1 43 Modellino,.