AC ACE SPIDER SPIDER SPIDER LHD 1955 RED Neoscale 1 43 NEO45006 Model 2be781

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
AC ACE SPIDER SPIDER SPIDER LHD 1955 RED Neoscale 1 43 NEO45006 Model 2be781
Lamborghini P250 Urraco 1972 Brown, Museum Series, Model Car 1 43 Minichamps,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Minichamps Porsche 911 GT3 RS 1 43 bluee,.Uh 5307 Deutz Fahr D6005 4wd+ Front Loader 1 3 2 New Boxed,.. MINICHAMPS FORD TAUNUS 1960 TURQUOISE MINT BOXED,.1 18 Hot Wheels WHIPS C3865 Ferrari 360 Modena blueemetallic - RARITÄT §,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Danbury Mint 1948 Chrysler Town & Country,.Porsche 911 Turbo 3.3 1977 olive green 1 18 Norev,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Yamaha YZR-M1 2002 1 12 Max Biaggi,.DINKY TOYS ASTON MARTIN VOITURE DE COURSE N° 22   SIÈGE ET ROUES redS BEL ÉTAT,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Abarth 1000 SP (1968) Resin Model Car S1331,.HO 1 87 Herpa MAN TGX Tractor w Bulk Silo Tank Trailer - Ingo Wilke,.1 18 Greenlight 1981 Chevrolet Camaro Z28 gold NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Audi R10 TDI, No.2, Winner Le Mans 2008 in 1 43 scale by Spark 43LM08,.CORGI 1 50 SCALE COLLECTION BERGER 72011 BERNARD TYPE 110 FOURGON,.Ferrari 458 SPECIALE RED 1 18 Signature 16903 BBURAGO,.Mercedes Benz 170V Cabrio 1937 NEO45105 1 43,.

Ebbro S101 114 Scale Car,.1 43 minichamps Porsche GT1 FIA GT Championship from 1997,.Lamborghini Aventador J black Autoart 1 43 AA54653 Model,.1 18 Bburago Ferrari 250 GTO Nürburgring KIT BAUSATZ NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.Red 1969 Chevy Camaro RS Cragar American Muscle 1 18 Scale Die Cast,.

Spark Model SA141 MERCEDES AMG GT3 N.50 FIA GT WORLD CUP MACAU 2017 D.JUNCADELLA,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Norscot 55112 Cat 623 Elevator 1 50,.Western Models (Kit) Bugatti 57SC Corsica 1 43 (JS),.Greenlight 1 43 Scale 86431 - 1968 Ford Mustang GT Bullitt - Green Green Tyres,Best Model BT9372 FERRARI 275 GTB 4 N.122 DNS TARGA FLORIO 1967 STARRABBA-ORLAND,.Dinky 429 Trailer. Red. MINT in correct Box. Original 1950's issue.,.

Surber Mercedes SK 88 1948 SZ „Lamberet Constructions Isothermes“ Nr. 4001 SU7,.Mercedes-Benz 560 SEL 1990 Pearl bluew Metallic Norev 1 18,.Lot of 3 1969 Hot Wheels Mercedes Benz 280SL cars Purple 2x Olive,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Lamborghini Islero 1969 Red 1 43 Model MINICHAMPS,.

CORGI Classics 54401 GM 5301 FISHBOWL LIONEL CITY BUS SERVICES New and Rare,. We agree in part.

Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast -18-12072 Lamborghini Miura 1968 orange Model Car,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE BMW E46 325ti Compact 2.5L 24V 2000 Red 1 43 Minichamps-GTR,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.NEO Borgward Hansa 2400 1955 1 43 43452,.Porsche Panamera 4S Diesel 2016 Dark bluee Met HERPA 1 43 WAP0207230G Miniature,.MOTEUR V8 HEMI 6.1L DODGE CHALLENGER SRT8 1 6,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; MINICHAMPS 1 43 BUGATTI TYPE 57C 1939 green,.Hartoy PEM Freightliner National Freight Semi Tractor Trailer 1 64 Die-cast,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, 1964 Lotus Elan 26R Le Mans 1 43 Spark S0266,; 1949 Jaguar Xk-120 Roadster Danbury Mint Diecast car,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Fiat 238 Antincendio Pista Fiorano Anni '70 1 43 Model RIO,.SunStar 1 18 Scale - 3968 1963 Chevrolet Nova Laurel green,Tin Wizard Opel Super 6 cabriolet 1938 in Red on 1 43 in Box,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.WSI 03-1068 1 50 SCALE CURTAINSIDE TRAILER - WHITE - WHITE SERIES,.

Vintage Bburago Lancia Delta S4 1 25 Scale 1 24 Rare Rally Car 1985 86 Stradale,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.VINTAGE SOLIDO ABARTH 1000 FRANCE CAR EXC NM 1 43,.Lamborghini Countach LP400 Anno di Costruzione 1974-1978 black 1 18 Kyosho,.SPARK Porsche 993 RS Club Sport 1995 1 43 S4195,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Diecast Car Model Roewe RX8 1 16 (Brown) + GIFT ,; ERTL AMERICAN MUSCLE HOBBY EDITION 1 2500, 1969 DODGE CgoldNET R T 1 18 SCALE,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, 1 18 Williams FW17 D. Hill 1. 1995 Grand Prix Hungary Quartzo,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

AC ACE SPIDER SPIDER SPIDER LHD 1955 RED Neoscale 1 43 NEO45006 Model 2be781AC ACE SPIDER SPIDER SPIDER LHD 1955 RED Neoscale 1 43 NEO45006 Model 2be781

MCG - 1 18 - OPEL MANTA MATTIG - 1991 - 18095YBR,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

DINKY TOYS JAGUAR XK 120 - REF-157 Meccano Made in ENGLAND,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

DKW Schnelllaster Büssing-Kundendienst mit Anhänger (Büssing-Service with traile,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Schuco 07712 - Fendt 313 Vario mit Frontlader green white 1 32 NEU,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Ferrari 550 Barchetta Pininfarina (red),.KIT 1 43 MINICHAMPS BY DANHAUSEN PORSCHE 936 MARTINI,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Vintage Herbie Goes To Monte Carlo, Slam Bam Sam- Remote Control Car, Boxed,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.World Cup 32023 Deutz 11 Ps Tractor 1 3 2 New Boxed,.

CADILLAC ELDORADO BIARRITZ pink 1 18,.KIT A MONTER MINICIRQUE - RENAULT AHN plateau brasseur- REF MJM203 - 1 50,.SOLIDO 1 43 - 4701 1011 CITROEN 15 CV TRACTION AVANT 1952 C W TIN COLLECTORS BOX,.NEO MITSUBISHI Sappgold Coupe Red Metallic 1 1 43 43443,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Spark 1 43 Scale - S3087 Mercedes F1 W05 Winner Australian GP 2014 Nico Rosberg,.

1 50 Deicast Metal Caterpillar Cat 930K Wheel Loader Vehicles 85266 Collection,.SUN STAR 1 18 SCALE 1956 MERCURY MONTCLAIR POLICE CAR (stunning looking),.Neo 1 43 Adler 2.5L cabriolet cream neo45935,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Talbot Lago 2500 coupe T14 LS 1955 Spark 1 43 S2719,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.FORD GT 2017 blue 1 18 GT40,.VOISIN C27 AEROSPORT 1934 Spark 1 43 S2706,.MODELLINO PORSCHE 911 GT3 R MUEHLNER MOTORSPORT 24H SPA 2011 IN METALLO MINICHAM,.Diecast Car Model Toyota Yaris 1 18 (Red) + GIFT ,.Corgi Juniors No. 22 Formula 1 Grand Prix Racing Car. MINT CARDED. 1970's,.

(D) dinky STUDEBAKER goldEN HAWK - 169, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.VINTAGE 60's DINKY TOYS MINI AA PATROL VAN VGC w BOX,.CORGI 1 50 COLLECTION HERITAGE 70506 RENAULT 1000KG AVEC REMORQUE RENAULT CINEMA,. The PartridgeSIKU 8612 MAN TGA 26.480 XXL met dieplader en Panzertank nieuw in doos,.Chevrolet Camaro Z28 Indianapolis 500 Official Pace Car 1982 - 1 18 - Sun Star,.1 18 Road Signature - 1958 PONTIAC BONNEVILLE red white - RARITÄT ,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, TSM Models 2009 Rolls-Royce Ghost, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Minichamps 1 43 Scale 430 977693 - Ferrari 333 SP Le Mans 1997,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Volkswagen Bulli T1 Samba Fiera Di Norimberga 2019 KK SCALE 1 18 KKDC180153N,.Rio 4266 FIAT 501 TORPEDO 1919-26 GREEN 1 43,PartridgeAUDI QUATTRO 1980 SATURN METALLIC 1 43 MINICHAMPS 430019429 NEU,.MINICHAMPS MERCEDES-BENZ VIANO CARBONblack METALLIC 400032210,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Post Office set Dinky restoration and Atlas combination 6 Pieces, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, '09 MB '68 Citroen DS lot of 25 Cars in the Olive color,; MERDECES-BENZ 300 B (W186 III) 1955 blueE MINICHAMPS 1 43 NEW,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Bruder Ambulance with Driver Mercedes-Benz Sprinter 1 16 Kids Toy Vehicle 02536, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Dinky Toys 363 Zygon Patroller with Cut Out Space Station, Mint, Original Box, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeWiking 1 87 52c MB LPS 1620 - 40 Fuß Container-Sattelzug in OVP(EC3798),.

1 43 Spark Porsche 964 RSR Nurburgring 24h 1993 Rohrl Barth Memminger SG016,.SPARK 1 43 S1320 ABARTH FIAT 700S LE MANS 1962, Clarke's negligent act.BMW 2002 Ti Rallye Jägermeister Stiller Olympia TR Scala43 1 100 pcs 1 43,.NISSAN Datsun 240Z ( FAIRLADY Z S30 ) 1971 orange 1 18 Maisto NEW,.1 18 BBURAGO SIGNATURE SERIES FERRARI CALIFORNIA T RED NEW,.

Spark 1 43 Scale S3350 - Mini John Cooper Works WRC Monte Carlo 2012,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Burago 1 24 Scale Model Car 0120 - Ford Escort XR3 Martini,Piccolo Set 100 Years Schuco,. In Noska,NISSAN LM03C FAIRLADY GR.C COCA COLA WEG JAPAN TRUESCALE TSM104316 1 43,.Mercedes Brabus 700 Biturbo - Red, Schuco 1 43,.Welly 1 18 Scale Diecast 12566W - 1972 Pontiac Trans Am - bluee,.Brumm BM0272CH FERRARI 126 C 2 G.VILLENEUVE 1982 N.27 LONG BEACH GP W PILOTE 1 4, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Zaz 966 1966 orange Modelcargroup 1 18 MCG18103 Model,.4282- Vintage Battery Operated VW VOLKSWAGEN Bug Police Car by Alps Japan,.DINKY TOYS 581 HORSEBOX BRITISH RAILWAYS IN GOOD CONDITION WITH BOX,.Premium ClassiXXs VW T3a Kasten - Bestattungswagen - silver - 1 43,. Id., p 923.

1963 Chevrolet Corvair Coupe Laurel Green 1 18 Sun Star 1483,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Ford P2 Combi - tuqoise 1957 1 43 NEO 44550,Lamborghini Aventador Lp700-4 2012 yellow Orion True Scale 1 43 Tsm11Fj015 Model,.Britains Ford transit Chassis Float 00234b Boxed,.1 50 CORGI 31902 FODEN S21 LORRY & TRAILER WITH ELEPHANTS PEDESTAL & RIDER (U29),.Schuco VW Käfer Typ 38 Limitiert auf 500Stk. Geschenktip Geschenkidee grey OVP,.Spark Model SG273 PORSCHE CARRERA CUP GERMANY CHAMPION 2016 SVEN MULLER 1 43 Mod,.1679 TEKNO ORIGINAL 834 COCHE FORD MUSTANG METAL MODEL CAR BOX 1 43 1 43 DENMAR,.1 18 Norev Peugeot 504 Cabriolet 1969 orange NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,. The parties 1 18 Fiat 131 Abarth Street Version año 1980 IXO 18CMC003 Red,.

Jeep Wrangler 2014 Open Red Vehicle Miniature 31610 Maisto 1 18,.Herpa 309844 Scania CS 20 Hochdach Eurocombi Ekdahl Arctic Griffin 1 87 H0 NEU,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, NOREV187752 FIAT 500 -2010 SO PINK,; Best Model BT9676 FERRARI 250 LM N.170 ACCIDENT T.FLORIO 1966 A.W.SWANSON-R.ENNI, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Lexus Lfa 2010 White Top Gear Minichamps 1 43 519431660 Modellino,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 1 43 RL81K LOTUS 18 21 Stirling Moss Goodwood KIT BY SMTS,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Audi 80 GTE 1972 - green black - 1 18 KK-Scale NEW,.Best Model BT9713 FIAT ABARTH 750 N.81 10th SCCA NAT.CUMBERLAND 1959 DUNCAN BLAC,.Franklin Mint 1953 Cadillac Eldorado 1 24,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Mercedes 1969 Dodge War Horse 1 18 Simulation Modified Alloy Muscle Car Model,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.TSM 1 43 Scale TSM134327 - 1993 McLaren F1 XP-4 Experimental Predotype,.1974 Original Redline HOT WHEELS ICE T MATTEL HONG KONG RARE VERSION TAMPO,.Peugeot 504 Coupe 1973 dunkelbrown metallic. 1 18 Norev 184822 neu & OVP,.Best Model 9430 PORSCHE ABARTH TDF 61 BOUCHET 1 43,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Mercedes W202 C220 1993 Green 1 43 Minichamps-200,300,560,SE,. The ScottsdaleBburago MINI COOPER 1969 1 16 Scale Model Gift Die Cast Sports Race Car GREEN,Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 436 137260 - Aston Martin DB5 - James Bond 007,.1 18 Bburago Signature Series Ferrari California T Hardtop closed,. Id.,DIECAST CAR & DISPLAY CASE 1966 FORD SHELBY GT 350H W SHELBY SC360BK 1 18,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Triumph TR3 S , 24H LeMans 1959 , Spark models,; Porsche 917 30 No.6 sizedega 1975 (Mark Donohue),1 43 Premium Classixxs MB L 3000 Pritsche mit Ladegut 12650,.MODELLINO AUDI R10 BIELA PIRRO WERNER 24H LE MANS 2008 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,. The ScottsdaleHorch 855 Special Roadster 1938 Dark bluee Minichamps 1 43 436014207,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Premium Classixxs 13350 VW LT28 BUS YELLOW 1 43 Modellino,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Hot Wheels 2018 RLC Special Edition Datsun 240Z,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Auto Art Gateway AA54633 LAMBORGHINI GALLARDO LP550-2 BALBONI 2009 WHITE 1 43,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, TRATTORE MIETITREBBIA CM.35 0323002,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, 1 18 WELLY HOLIDAY EDITION 1941 CHEVROLET SPECIAL DELUXE,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, 136 Moskvitch 434 A6 Break tôlé ussr AZLK IZH cccp 1 43 Radon Novoexport URSS, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, 1 43 Porsche 911 GT3 R 997 2010 Intelligent Performance - Dealer Edition, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Spark F1 Mercedes FW07 Hybrid n°6 WC N. Rosberg 2016 1 43 S5025,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the Partridge9 x 1 43 Diecast Citroen model cars,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, (W) corgi FORD CAPRI 3 LITRE GT - 311,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheFB Models 1 43 Scale Resin FB01 - Alfa Romeo 6C 2300 Touring St - Amarante Beige,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Best Model 9535 PORSCHE ABARTH 1000 KM PARIGI 1 43 Modellino,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Greenlight & Johnny lightning Datsun lot of 7. Bre Baja Z, 240Z, 280ZX,FORD Coupé green 1949 echelle 1 18 de MIRA 06903 voiture miniature de collection,.Coffret c 4 en boite 1 43 (f),.IXO SUBARU Impreza WRX STi 2003 - Tune 1 18 18CMC004,. The HuygheTonka Good Original 1973 Road Paver Good Fully Working old Toy 9 3 4 Long,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheMODELLINO PORSCHE 911 CABRIOLET 996 NERA 1998 MINICHAMPS,.

Majorette 1 60 Nr. 213 Mercedes Benz 350 SL Cabrio yellow Nr.2,.PORSCHE 936 76 Le Mans 1976 Barth Joest Martini Racing S4169 Spark 1 43,.

1 18 Norev Porsche 911 GT2 2007 silvermetallic 187594,.BATTLESTAR GALACTICA titanium set of 2,. Nonetheless, on the facts of 2 RED MATCHBOX CASES FULL OF 46 ASSORTED MATCHBOX, HOT WHEEL, ETC VEHICLES,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeLesney Ford Anglia Nr. 7 regular wheels,.CHEVY CORVETTE 1953 Ertl American Muscle BIANCO 1 18,.

For example, in Partridge,Fiat 238 Ambulanza AVIS 1 43 Model RIO,. In Jorgensen, supra,KK-Scale KKDC180164 Ferrari 365 GT4 2+2, 1972, green-metallic,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.New 1 43 Minichamps Car Model Porsche Cayenne S Transsyberia 2008 WAP02001819,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,CITROEN DS3 WHITE BOTTICELLI blueE 2010 NOREV 181540 1 18,. That is the same situation in this case.GUMPERT APOLLO 2005 WHITE SPARK 1 43 SP0667,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.NOREV 1 43 CAMION RENAULT KERAX 8X4 MALAXEUR LAFARGE 2008 518834,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Land Rover Range Rover Sport 2. Generation blue Ab 2013 - Komplettset mit Akku..,.Alfa Romeo Arna Ti 3-Door 1985 White Kess Model 1 43 KE43000040,.1 18 Minichamps VW Karmann Ghia Coupe 1970 orange,.

Tekno 70100 Classic Dual Axis Box Trailer 1 ,.