Premium ClassiXXs VW T3a Kasten - Bestattungswagen Bestattungswagen Bestattungswagen - silver - 1 43 93ab18

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Premium ClassiXXs VW T3a Kasten - Bestattungswagen Bestattungswagen Bestattungswagen - silver - 1 43 93ab18
Porsche 911 Turbo Le Mans 1994 P. Vuillaume - P. Goueslard Spark S4444 1 43,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Hamann Imperator 2011 Met.Matt Grey 1 43 Neo Scale Neo45700 Modellino,.BURAGO 1 18 - COD 3002 MERCEDES BENZ SSKL CARACCIOLA 1931,.Vanguards 1 43 Vauxhall Cavalier Mk3 GSi 2000 16v Baikalblue bluee VA13103A,.Neo Dodge Horton - Ambulance - 1973 - 1 43,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Lotus Europa S Coupe Weiss 75368 1 18 AutoArt Sonderangebot Modell Auto mit od..,.FRANKLIN MINT 1954 CHEVROLET CORVETTE CONgreenIBLE 1 24 SCALE DIE CAST RED w COA,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Mitsubishi Pajero Long V6 3500 24V 1998 Dark Green SUNSTAR 1 18 SS1225 Model,.Diecast Car Model Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution X EVO X LHD 1 18 (bluee) + GIFT ,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.1 43 LAMBORGHINI COUNTACH LP400S 1978 WALTER WOLF MIDNIGHT blueE IXO NEW IN BOX,.SPARK 1 43 S1523 ZYTEK 07S TEAM BARAZI EPSILON LM 2009,.NOREV CITROEN JUMPY - GREY METALLIC 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 22, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

New 2005 Peugeot 407 Coupe bluee 1 18 Diecast Model Car by Norev 184764,.Spark Model S5039 Tgold red STR12 D.KVYAT 2017 N.26 9th AUSTRALIAN GP 1 43 Mode,.DTE 1970 HOT WHEELS REDLINE METALLIC GREEN TNT-BIRD W WHITE INTERIOR,.Classic Metal Works 1 24 DENVER PATROL - COLORADO Ford Police Interceptor,.

Saab 95 1959 bluee White 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,.CHEVROLET IMPALA SEDAN SIX WINDOWS 1959 1 43 Spark S2904,.Rio RI4556 VW MAGGIOLINO WIESBADEN POLICE SPEED CONTROL 1957 1 43 Modellino,.Minichamps 1 43 - Mercedes Classroom E W124 Red,.VINTAGE DIECAST--1961 CHEVY IMPALA SS 2 DR H.T--1 18 SCALE--11 LONG-by SUN STAR,.

Mint Ebro 1 43 Nissan Skyline Gt-R R32,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Spark S2811 - BMW Alpina CSL (E9) in orange 1 43 NEUHEIT ,.1 43 Minichamps Mercedes Benz W196,.Tameo Kit to assemble White Metal 1 43 - F1 Lotus Ford 107 B European GP 1993,Opel Kadett City C Berlina gold 1978 NEO43074 1 43,.RENAULT 18 GTS (R-18 GTS) - GUISVAL - 1 64 - CAMPEON Nº35 - ESPAÑA (SPAIN),.

Renault L'Supercinq Gt Turbo R5 Red 1986 1 18 Norev 185208 Phase,.Dinky Toys 129 Volkswagen VW 1200 Beetle Kafer made in England 1 43 Near Mint,.@@@ Free Shipping 1 76 DMS Citybus D20 CP2781 Yellow Livery,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

NEO - 1 43 - CHEVROLET EL CAMINO - 44852,.

NOREV - 1 18 - PEUGEOT 309 GTI 16 - 1991 - 184881,. We agree in part.

MODELLINO ASTON MARTIN DBRS9 TEAM BMS SCUDERIA ITALIA FIA GT3 RACE SPA 2006 IN M,.A Franklin mint scale model of a 1985 Lamborghini Countach 500s,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.IXO 1 43 Lada Niva mit Dachzelt 1981 - green,.Norev 181610 2008 Citroen Concept GT Salon de Paris 1 18 Model Car White,.Dinky Dublo No 067 Austin Taxi in excellent condition and near mint box.,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; MERCEDES BENZ 300 SEL 6.8 AMG DRM Norisring 1972 Heyer Minichamps 1 43,.SIku Super 3747 03902 Stadtbus MAN Lions City DIE POST, 1 50, OVP,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, WESTERN MODELS 1 43 WP 121 1990 FERRARI 348 TB YELLOW,; Mint Minicar 1 64 1973 Datsun 510,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Bizarre BZ431 1 43 Resin Talbot Lago T26 GS, '51 LeMans, Team Eugene Chaboud,.Herpa 121903 H0 LKW Scania CS 20 Hochdach Kühlkoffer-Sattelzug Heide Logistik,ALFA ROMEO 1500 TARGA FLORIO 1960 FIORDELISI JOLLY MODEL JL6015,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.SSM ZIL-130V1 with Semitrailer ODAZ-794 SSM-7016,.

Minichamps Mercedes-Benz 500 SL (R129) 1 43 OVP,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Auto World 1 18 1968 Oldsmobile 442 W-30 Diecast Model Car Bronze AMM1084,.Porsche 356 A 1500 GS Carrera GT 1957 hellblue, Modellauto 1 18 Sun Star,.Norev 1 43 Scale 517704 - 2014 Renault Megane RS Trophy - Pear White,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Ford Fire Engine 1938 1 24 Model YAT MING,; WIKING 500 ALTER MB 312 MÖBELTRANSPORTER IA168,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Art Model 1 43 Scale ART164 - Ferrari 750 Monza - Lucas-Schell,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 430 750028 - F1 March Ford 751,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Schabak Models 1 43 Scale Diecast - B66005748 Mercedes Benz SL 500 Green,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Mercedes 20-35 PS 1909 Dark Red 1 43 Model RIO4453 RIO,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

MODELLINO AUDI A4 R. CAPELLO DTM 2005 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.IXO VOLKSWAGEN POLO R WRC MIKKELSEN-JAEGER T.DE CORSE 2016 1 18,.LAMBORGHINI GALLARDO spyder blue clair 1 18,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.WESTERN MODELS 1 43 WP 121 1990 FERRARI 348 TB RED,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Mercedes Benz L319 Van Deutsche Post Grey NOREV 1 18 NV183417 Model,.

NEO MODELS Ford Escort MkII RS Gr.2 1 43 45232,.Alfa Romeo 1750 Polizia 1932 1 43 Model RIO,.ERTL 1 16 SCALE PUMA 180 TRACTOR MODEL BN 46286,.MINICHAMPS Porsche 911 Carrera RS 3.0 1974 Red 1 43 Scale 400 063122 Limited,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Ford Escort XR3i Cabrio 1984 silver, Modellauto 1 18 Sun Star,.

Véhicule Allemand STÖEWER Kfz.4 AA - Kit résine PLUS MODEL 1 35 N° 280,.Herpa 303873 Scania R HL tractor with gittermastteilen for LR1600 Felbermayr,.HOT WHEELS 50TH ANNIVERSARY FAVORITES MIX B LOT,No Soft Corners,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Minichamps 1 43 Ford Focus ST 2008 Red 087301,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Siku 1000er Serie Opel Senator A selten red Zustand unbespielt,.Wonderful modelcar GUTBROD SUPERIOR COUPE 1953 - blueegrey - scale 1 43,.SPARK COOPER T81 GP Francia 1966 - Chris Amon S5290 1 43,.KIT A MONTER MINICIRQUE - SEMI HABITATION ALQUIER PINDER - REF ACP90 - 1 50,.Sun Star 3553 Mercedes Benz 220 SE Oldtimer Baujahr 1958 creme, OVP, 1 18, K034,.

Ferrari Enzo WHIPS Hotwheels scale 1 18 Hotwheels NEW in Box RARE , the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Vanguards 1 43 Scale Model Car Diorama BD1002 - Ford Anglia Van - Whitbread,.Starter Models Kit 1 43 Scale Resin sx11 Mercedes Benz 190 Evo2 Rosberg DTM '92,. The PartridgeProvence Moulage 1 43 Scale Resin - KC9 Sauber C9 Mercedes Le Mans 24H 1989,.JADA 1 24 W B METALS JDM TUNERS 1973 DATSUN 510 WIDEBODY SET OF 4 99094-WA1,.BMW Z8 CABRIOLET (E52) 1999 WHITE 431028742 Minichamps 1 43 New in a box RARE ,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Volkswagen Anfibio - Brasil 1961 1 43 RIO 4393, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.1 64 Peterbilt 351 w 40' Trailer, By First Gear West Coast Fast Freight 60-0491,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.MODELLINO MERCEDES BENZ 190E 2.5-16 EVO2 O. MANTHEY DTM 1992 IN METALLO MINICHAM,.Premium ClassiXXs VW T3a Kasten - Bestattungswagen - silver - 1 43,Partridge2012 2013 FERRARI 458 ITALIA SPIDER DARK blueE METALLIC 1 18 BY HOTWHEELS X5529,.WESTERN MODELS 1 43 WP 121 1990 FERRARI 348 TB YELLOW,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1 24 Road Signature - 2001 Cadillac Deville Presidential Limo - Rarity, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, WIKING 500 ALTER MB 312 MÖBELTRANSPORTER IA168,; Aston martin AR1 SPARK 1 43 miniature,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Minichamps 1 43 Ford Focus ST 2008 Red 087301, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 1 24 Road Signature - 2001 Cadillac Deville Presidential Limo - Rarity, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeAston martin AR1 SPARK 1 43 miniature,.

Smart fortwo 2015 white black, Modellauto 1 18 Norev,.Vw Passat B3 Vr6 Variant 1988 Grey Metallic 1 18 Model KK SCALE, Clarke's negligent act.FIAT 500 L 1968 blue NOREV 1 18 bluemet. 187770,.TSM Models 1 43 Alfa Brabham BT46 - South African F1 GP 1978 - Niki Lauda,.Hot Wheels HWP4883 LAMB.MURCIEL.LP 640 2006 GREY 1 43,.

Porsche Panamera Turbo S E-Hybrid Executive 2016 White HERPA 1 43 WAP0207540H,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Smart fortwo 2015 white black, Modellauto 1 18 Norev,Matchbox No 7 Horse drawn Milk float VNMB,. In Noska,VINTAGE JOUSTRA MERCEDES SEV MARCHAL TIN FRICTION CAR MADE IN FRANCE,.Porsche 911 Turbo Le Mans 1994 P. Vuillaume - P. Goueslard Spark S4444 1 43,.Hamann Imperator 2011 Met.Matt Grey 1 43 Neo Scale Neo45700 Modellino,.BURAGO 1 18 - COD 3002 MERCEDES BENZ SSKL CARACCIOLA 1931, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Vanguards 1 43 Vauxhall Cavalier Mk3 GSi 2000 16v Baikalblue bluee VA13103A,.Neo Dodge Horton - Ambulance - 1973 - 1 43,.Lotus Europa S Coupe Weiss 75368 1 18 AutoArt Sonderangebot Modell Auto mit od..,.FRANKLIN MINT 1954 CHEVROLET CORVETTE CONgreenIBLE 1 24 SCALE DIE CAST RED w COA,. Id., p 923.

Mitsubishi Pajero Long V6 3500 24V 1998 Dark Green SUNSTAR 1 18 SS1225 Model,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Vw Passat B3 Vr6 Variant 1988 Grey Metallic 1 18 Model KK SCALE,Diecast Car Model Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution X EVO X LHD 1 18 (bluee) + GIFT ,.1 43 LAMBORGHINI COUNTACH LP400S 1978 WALTER WOLF MIDNIGHT blueE IXO NEW IN BOX,.SPARK 1 43 S1523 ZYTEK 07S TEAM BARAZI EPSILON LM 2009,.NOREV CITROEN JUMPY - GREY METALLIC 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 22,.New 2005 Peugeot 407 Coupe bluee 1 18 Diecast Model Car by Norev 184764,.Spark Model S5039 Tgold red STR12 D.KVYAT 2017 N.26 9th AUSTRALIAN GP 1 43 Mode,.DTE 1970 HOT WHEELS REDLINE METALLIC GREEN TNT-BIRD W WHITE INTERIOR,. The parties Classic Metal Works 1 24 DENVER PATROL - COLORADO Ford Police Interceptor,.

Saab 95 1959 bluee White 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,.CHEVROLET IMPALA SEDAN SIX WINDOWS 1959 1 43 Spark S2904,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, FIAT 500 L 1968 blue NOREV 1 18 bluemet. 187770,; Rio RI4556 VW MAGGIOLINO WIESBADEN POLICE SPEED CONTROL 1957 1 43 Modellino, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Minichamps 1 43 - Mercedes Classroom E W124 Red,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, VINTAGE DIECAST--1961 CHEVY IMPALA SS 2 DR H.T--1 18 SCALE--11 LONG-by SUN STAR,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Mint Ebro 1 43 Nissan Skyline Gt-R R32,.Spark S2811 - BMW Alpina CSL (E9) in orange 1 43 NEUHEIT ,.1 43 Minichamps Mercedes Benz W196,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Tameo Kit to assemble White Metal 1 43 - F1 Lotus Ford 107 B European GP 1993,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Opel Kadett City C Berlina gold 1978 NEO43074 1 43,.RENAULT 18 GTS (R-18 GTS) - GUISVAL - 1 64 - CAMPEON Nº35 - ESPAÑA (SPAIN),.Renault L'Supercinq Gt Turbo R5 Red 1986 1 18 Norev 185208 Phase,.Dinky Toys 129 Volkswagen VW 1200 Beetle Kafer made in England 1 43 Near Mint,.@@@ Free Shipping 1 76 DMS Citybus D20 CP2781 Yellow Livery,. The ScottsdaleNEO - 1 43 - CHEVROLET EL CAMINO - 44852,NOREV - 1 18 - PEUGEOT 309 GTI 16 - 1991 - 184881,.MODELLINO ASTON MARTIN DBRS9 TEAM BMS SCUDERIA ITALIA FIA GT3 RACE SPA 2006 IN M,. Id.,A Franklin mint scale model of a 1985 Lamborghini Countach 500s,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, IXO 1 43 Lada Niva mit Dachzelt 1981 - green,; TSM Models 1 43 Alfa Brabham BT46 - South African F1 GP 1978 - Niki Lauda,Norev 181610 2008 Citroen Concept GT Salon de Paris 1 18 Model Car White,.Dinky Dublo No 067 Austin Taxi in excellent condition and near mint box.,. The ScottsdaleMERCEDES BENZ 300 SEL 6.8 AMG DRM Norisring 1972 Heyer Minichamps 1 43,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, SIku Super 3747 03902 Stadtbus MAN Lions City DIE POST, 1 50, OVP,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Hot Wheels HWP4883 LAMB.MURCIEL.LP 640 2006 GREY 1 43,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Porsche Panamera Turbo S E-Hybrid Executive 2016 White HERPA 1 43 WAP0207540H,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Mint Minicar 1 64 1973 Datsun 510,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Bizarre BZ431 1 43 Resin Talbot Lago T26 GS, '51 LeMans, Team Eugene Chaboud,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Herpa 121903 H0 LKW Scania CS 20 Hochdach Kühlkoffer-Sattelzug Heide Logistik, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, ALFA ROMEO 1500 TARGA FLORIO 1960 FIORDELISI JOLLY MODEL JL6015, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, SSM ZIL-130V1 with Semitrailer ODAZ-794 SSM-7016,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeMinichamps Mercedes-Benz 500 SL (R129) 1 43 OVP,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Auto World 1 18 1968 Oldsmobile 442 W-30 Diecast Model Car Bronze AMM1084,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuyghePorsche 356 A 1500 GS Carrera GT 1957 hellblue, Modellauto 1 18 Sun Star,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Norev 1 43 Scale 517704 - 2014 Renault Megane RS Trophy - Pear White,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Ford Fire Engine 1938 1 24 Model YAT MING,Art Model 1 43 Scale ART164 - Ferrari 750 Monza - Lucas-Schell,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 430 750028 - F1 March Ford 751,.Schabak Models 1 43 Scale Diecast - B66005748 Mercedes Benz SL 500 Green,. The HuygheMercedes 20-35 PS 1909 Dark Red 1 43 Model RIO4453 RIO,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheMODELLINO AUDI A4 R. CAPELLO DTM 2005 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.

IXO VOLKSWAGEN POLO R WRC MIKKELSEN-JAEGER T.DE CORSE 2016 1 18,.LAMBORGHINI GALLARDO spyder blue clair 1 18,.

WESTERN MODELS 1 43 WP 121 1990 FERRARI 348 TB RED,.Mercedes Benz L319 Van Deutsche Post Grey NOREV 1 18 NV183417 Model,. Nonetheless, on the facts of NEO MODELS Ford Escort MkII RS Gr.2 1 43 45232,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeAlfa Romeo 1750 Polizia 1932 1 43 Model RIO,.ERTL 1 16 SCALE PUMA 180 TRACTOR MODEL BN 46286,.

For example, in Partridge,MINICHAMPS Porsche 911 Carrera RS 3.0 1974 Red 1 43 Scale 400 063122 Limited,. In Jorgensen, supra,Ford Escort XR3i Cabrio 1984 silver, Modellauto 1 18 Sun Star,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Véhicule Allemand STÖEWER Kfz.4 AA - Kit résine PLUS MODEL 1 35 N° 280,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Herpa 303873 Scania R HL tractor with gittermastteilen for LR1600 Felbermayr,. That is the same situation in this case.HOT WHEELS 50TH ANNIVERSARY FAVORITES MIX B LOT,No Soft Corners,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Siku 1000er Serie Opel Senator A selten red Zustand unbespielt,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Wonderful modelcar GUTBROD SUPERIOR COUPE 1953 - blueegrey - scale 1 43,.SPARK COOPER T81 GP Francia 1966 - Chris Amon S5290 1 43,.KIT A MONTER MINICIRQUE - SEMI HABITATION ALQUIER PINDER - REF ACP90 - 1 50,.

Sun Star 3553 Mercedes Benz 220 SE Oldtimer Baujahr 1958 creme, OVP, 1 18, K034,.