Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals CORGI CLASSICS MODEL No.17603 SCAMMELL CONSTRUCTOR & TRAILER SIDDLE & COOK MIB,.Franklin Mint 1 24 Scale Diecast - B11XF11 1937 Cord Phaeton Coupe,.MAN Car Transporter With trailer Red and Grey 1970 IXO TTRX007,.Audi Tt Roadster 1999 White Minichamps 1 43 430017238 Model,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.MERCEDES BENZ SL 300 300SL Roadster Cabrio 1986 inca red red R 107 Norev 1 18,.Mebetoys A64 - Porsche 912 sky - Scala 1 43 Die cast,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.CORGI Toys 218 Aston Martin D.B.4 red red Metall Modellauto ca.9,5cm (K21),.Hot Wheels Elite Starwars Episodio V The Empire Strikes Corbata Luchador Cmc92,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Lamborghini Miura P400 Bertone 1966 Yellow RIO 1 43 RIO4585 Model,.Mattel 1 43 1961 Ferrari 156 F1 Hill Italian GP,.NEO MODELS Saab 95 GL Brown 1 43 43767, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
JOUEF EVOLUTION 1994 FORD MUSTANG GT 1 18 BRIGHT YELLOW USA FREE SHIP,.Best Model BT9696 JAGUAR E TYPE SPYDER ELTON JOHN PERSONAL CAR 1 43 Modellino,.MODELLINO PORSCHE 911 GTS 997 II GIALLA 2011 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.Chevrolet Impala El Camino 1959 bluee White 1 43 Spark S2906 Miniature,.
Fiat 238 Ambulanza E.I. Esercito Italiano 1 43 Model RIO,.2 X HAND BUILT MADE SOUTH EASTERN FINECAST AUSTIN 7 + EXAKTA DARRACQ 1 24,.Corgi Daf 105 Diecast Model Lorry Cab Only - C&g Hughes Scot - Daf Cc14121,.Bentley RBentley Rtinental 1955 Red Minichamps 1 43 436139422 Model,.AUTO WORLD 1 18 AMERICAN MUSCLE 1970 FORD TORINO COBRA AMM1039,.
SOLIDO 1 18 JEEP WANGLER RALLYE DU LAC NEUF EN BOITE,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Matchbox Moko No 23 Berkeley Cavalier Caravan AND ORIGINAL BOX VN MINT,.GAMA MINI-MOD 9600 - FIAT ABARTH - 1 46 - NEU in OVP - Modellauto - Model Car,.Dinky toys no. 536 Peugot 404,1995 Ferrari F50 Coupe yellow 1 18 Bburago 16004,.CORGI VANGUARDS HILLMAN AVENGER TIGER WARDANCE LIMITED EDITION 1 43 USED,.
Premium Classixxs 11609 BLITZ 1,75T KASTEN FEUERWEHR 1 43 Modellino,.MERCEDES BENZ SLS AMG DPD MS ADAC GT Masters Stoll Sigacev Minichamps 1 18,.NOREV 1 18 1987 BMW M 535i DIECAST CAR MODEL 183267 blueE,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
Porsche 911 Turbo Cabriolet Anno di Costruzione 1987 Avorio 1 18 Norev,.
MATCHBOX N.69 NEW MODEL HATRA TRACTOR SHOVEL (ORIGINAL BOX 1965 66) SCALE 1 75,. We agree in part.
American Muscle 1969 Dodge Charger R T 1 18 Red,.1 43 Porsche 908 02 n°5 Nurburgring 1971 1 43 • Best BEST9639,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Yonezawa Diapet Honda Prelude 2.0 SI 4Ws in red on 1 40 in Box,.1 18 AUTOart Toyota 86 Limited GT86 (Dark Grey) 78772,.Bus SAVIEM SC1 de 1964 Service School 1 43 NOREV,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Modellino BMW 1600 TI quattroruote collection 1 24 car toys,.PORSCHE 935 Turbo 80 24h Daytona Momo 24h Daytona 80 Moretti Canep Trofeu 1 43,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Minichamps 410025227 BMW M4 (F82) GTS black metallic Maßstab 1 43 NEU °,; Rietze Auto Modelle H0 60119, 60605, 60101 & 696 - 4 caminones,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
007 goldfinger Corigi & Bond 40th Anniversary Limited Edition Certificate Boxed,.BBURAGO FERRARI 126 C4 TURBO & BENNETTON FORD DIE CAST 1 24 NEW,Kit Ferrari 365 GTB 4 Pininfarina 1969 - Tron Models kit 1 43,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.CORGI HERITAGE - Diamond T 980 Remorque - PINDER - MB,.
Cc13709 SCANIA R SERIES WITH CURTAINSIDE TRAILER C.S ELLIS CORGI,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Suzuki Vitara 1.6 Jlx Congreenible 1995 White 1 43 Neoscale NEO44980 Model,.Matrix Citroen SM Opera by Henri Chapron in Maroon 1971 MX10304-012 Ltd 408 1 43,.MINICHAMPS MASERATI INDY 1970 NEU OVP 1 43,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, 1 18 Ertl Auto World Ford Mustang Congreenible 1965 grey red,; UNIVERSAL HOBBIES UH3897 1 18 LAND ROVER DEFENDER 90 TD5 STATION WAGON,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, SCHUCO PORSCHE 911 GARAGE DIORAMA 27031 1 43,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
MODELLINO AUDI R8 WINNERS ALMS PETIT LE MANS 2002 CAPELLO IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Polistil Modellauto 1 18 1 14 Fiat 508 III Coppa D'gold,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
1969 Dodge Charger General Lee Birthday Dukes Of Hazzard Auto World 1 18 AWSS110,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
Rio 4001 ITALA GRAN PRIX 1906 1 43,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.1 50 Scale Diecast Masters Caterpillar 85932 DM CAT 555D Wheel Skidder Vehicles,.1 24 Scale Japanese Cars Collection Vol.46 Toyota 86 (2016) Hachette Die-cast,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Schuco 1 43 Porsche 911 (997) GT3 Cup Lim. 1 500 Modellauto Geschenk Spielzeug,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Dinky Toys (Meccano) Austin Devon With Box Very rare,.
Dinky Toys Renault Floride Réf 543 Excellent état,.Rio RI4370 MERCEDES 190SL 1955 YELLOW 1 43 Modellino,.Mercedes-Benz L319 Früba • 1957 • NEU • Norev • 1 18,.Ebbro 1 43 Xanavi Gt-R Fuji Test Car Super GT500 from Japan,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Alpina Csl (e9) orange 1 43 Model S2811 SPARK MODEL,.
Mercedes Benz T1 208D Transporter 1988 weiss - 1 18 KK-Scale NEW Auktion,.Hot Wheels 2018 Car Culture Japan Historics 2 Mazda RX-3 orange (Lot of 6) NEW,.Sun Star 1 18 Mercedes Benz 220SE Cabrio red OVP,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Mercedes 300 1963 Kennedy - Adenauer 1 43 Model RIO4264P RIO,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Wiking Zürn Direktschneidwerk ProfiCut 700 mit Wagen - 1 32,.1 18 Ertl - 1970 Ford Mustang Grapper,.Spark Model SA115 AUDI R8 LMS N.11 10th MACAU GT WORLD CUP 2016 CHENG CONGFU 1 4,.1980 DIECAST HOT WHEELS STEERING RIGS KENWORTH ARCO OIL TANKER,.Mercedes Tourisme 1909 Yellow 1 43 Model RIO,.
Spark Model S5813 ORECA 07 GIBSON N.26 DNF LM 2017 RUSINOV-THIRIET-LYNN 1 43 Mod, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Ford GT Motor Max Maßstab 1 12 OVP NEU,.Toy Old 1 43 Norev Renault R8 Years 60 Bel Condition,. The PartridgeFerrari 458 Speciale Coupe red mit Streifen Ab 2013 Signature 1 18 Bburago Mod..,.Schuco Ford Taunus Transit MAN Service , yellow blue, 1 43, TOP ,.PREMIUM 18400 - VOLKSWAGEN VW T2B bus ougreen cabriolet green 1 43,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Matchbox Lesney Moko no.47A-2.near mint OVP B-2 good Condition from 1959, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Johnny Lightning Muscle Cars USA 10 Car Set Collector's Edition 1995 MIB,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Guiloy 1 18 Scale Diecast - 67532 Aston Martin DB7 Red,.BARKAS Bus Van B 1000 B1000 Halbbus Simson Kundendienst 1970 NEU MCG 1 18,Partridge1 18 Sealed WELLY PREMIUM COLLECTIBLE 1969 FORD MUSTANG Metal bluee 1 18 DIECAST,.Deagostini Le Grandi Ferrari Collection No.15 With 1 24,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Opel Admiral Hebmuller 1938 Olive Beige 1 43 NeoScale NEO43235, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Sabra 8107 Pontiac GTO made in Israel Gamda Koor Near Mint,; FACTORY ERROR HOT WHEELS GRAND PRIX RACER FERRARI F2008 KIMI RAIKKONEN NEW MOSC ,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Ligier JS P2 Nissan OAK Racing , 24H LeMans 2015 , Spark models, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, OLD RARE ORIGINAL NOREV RENAULT FREGATE ADMIRAL 1956 REF 11-2A GREEN 1 43, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeHot Wheels 1 18 Ferrari 250 TESTAROSSA No. 22 White Brand New,.
CHEVROLET Impala Coupe 1959 blue weiss USA Resin Highend Spark 1 43,.UNIVERSAL HOBBIES UH4120 1 32 BRANTNER Z18051 XXL TIPPING TRAILER, Clarke's negligent act.LOTUS 47 TEST CAR 1967 SPARK S1246 1 43,.Pontiac GTO, metallic-hellgreen, 1 18, Sun Star,.1 18 Minichamps Jordan 197 Peugeot R. Schumacher,.
2015 Ferrari F70 LaFerrari red-red 1 18 Bburago 16001,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1 18 REVELL NAZCA M12 ITALDESIGN MASTER PIECE 1 18,MATRIX - 1 43 - JAGUAR XK140 GHIA COUPE - 1955 - MX41001-012,. In Noska,Spark Model Mercedes-Benz 300 SL 1956 (red) 1 43 S4959,.ERTL AMERICAN GRAFFITI PHARAOHS 1951 MERCURY COUPE 1 18 SCALE DIECAST NIB ,.1 24 ACTION Chase Elliott NAPA 2017 Chevy SS 1 of 3205,.VW Passat Variant 3BG - 1 43 scale - Schuco, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.NEO SCALE MODELS NEO44790 CHEVROLET MONTECARLO 1978 2 TONE blueE MET.1 43,.STREET FREAKS 2018 RELEASE 3 SET B OF 6 CARS 1 64 BY JOHNNY LIGHTNING JLSF009 B,.MERCEDES 220 W115 Binz 1 43 BOS 43500,.Porsche 997 GT3 Cup, Cup PCCA 2014 , Spark models,. Id., p 923.
1 32 John Deere Log Harvester - Die-Cast Vehicle - Siku 4059,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Minichamps 1 43 VOISIN C 27 AEROSPORT COUPE - 1934,1968 Mattel Hot Wheels Red Classic '31 Ford Woody Redline,.Chevrolet Corvette C1 1953 Canopy Closed Metallic bluee 1 43 Neoscale NEO45746,.Norev GT by Citroën Salon de Paris 2008 weiss 1 18 - 181610,.PANHARD CD LELONG HANRIOUD LE MANS 1962 SPARK S4711 1 43,.Citroen Ds21 Berline Ch.1000.000 1969 gold RIO 1 43 RIO4586 Model,.Spark Model S4693 MERCEDES AMG G 500 4x4 (2) 2015 WHITE 1 43,.Bentley 1 43 Bentayga 2016 in Glacier White,. The parties 1 43 Rennaissance Models Dauer Porsche,.
Norev 1 43 Scale 800404 - 1966 Honda S800 - Red,.Premium ClassiXXs 1 43 Mercedes-Benz L319 Werbewagen Zündapp Bella,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, (V) triang spot on HUMBER SUPER SNIPE - 183,; TSM TrueScale 1972 Rolls-Royce Corniche Coupe Metallic bluee 1 43, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
Triple 9 T9-1800175 LANCIA STRATOS N.2 WINNER SANREMO RALLY 1974 S.MUNARI-M.MANN,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Ebro 1 43 JAPAN GP Series NISSAN R383 1970 Japan GP Predotype finished product,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Ixo 1 43 Lothus Ekishiji (2006) Sprint Edition Yellow White New F S,.Ixo 1 43 Scale - LMM029 BENTLEY SPEED 8 LE MANS 2001,.BMW M535i 1980 gold Metallic Model Car 1 18 Norev,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Hot Wheels Revealers Lot of 13 Lamborghini Diablo Ferrari Porsche Nissan NM,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Mercedes-Benz Modellauto 1 43 PKW W222 S-Klasse S65 AMG,.Maisto Mercedes-Benz A-Class 1 18 Coulthard (JvM),.MINICHAMPS 1 43 Peugeot 306 Cabriolet 1998 red Métallique,.BORGWARD B4500 SHELL TANKWAGEN 1 43 MINICHAMPS 439017070 NEU,.Model Ferrari 1 43 Ferrari F1 1977 312 T2 num 12 Reutemann,. The ScottsdaleDinky Toys 106 Austin Atlantic made in England 1 43 scale EXC Condition,Hot Wheels Neo Classics Series 3 RLC '67 Camaro Spectraflame bluee 1877 10500,.Audi Coupe GT 1981 Light golden - Metallic Brown 1 43 NEO 43377 NEW,. Id.,Best Model BT9131 FERRARI 330 GT SPIDER 1966 YELLOW 1 43 Modellino,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 18 HOT WHEELS ELITE FERRARI F430 MODENA CARS RACING EUROPEAN CHAMPION '06,; NOREV 1 43 SCALE 1934 CITROEN 22 CV SALOON DEALER SPECIAL MODEL - MET GREEN,MOKO LESNEY MATCHBOX 1966 C Land Rover Fire Engine BPW Near Mint in Box Wow ,.BUGATTI VEYRON 16.4 GRAND SPORT VITESSE orange RASTAR 43900 NEW 1 18 SCALE,. The ScottsdaleMATCHBOX MOKO LESNEY MODEL No.46 MORRIS MINOR green,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Art Model AM0173 FERRARI 860 MONZA 1956 PROVA RED 1 43 Modellino,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK16 034 - 1935 Dodge Van Motor Fair 1985 1 Of 200 White,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1961 Chevrolet Impala [Sun Star 3407] Türkis, 1 18 Die Cast,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, TSM 1 43 1972 Rolls Royce Corniche Coupe Navy bluee TSM114316,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Maxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940 113601 - 1971 Renault Alpine A110 - Yellow,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Trofeu 1 43 Scale 517 - Ford Escort RS 1600 - R.Clark 1st RAC 1972, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Audi S5 Coupe Model Car 1 43 Misano Red - 5011615431, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, SPARK HILL GH1 th British GP 1975 - Alan Jones S5675 1 43,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeVW VOLKSWAGEN BEETLE HERBIE GOES TO MONTE CARLO ELITE 1 43 HOTWHEELS BLY28,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Herpa 121354 DAF XF 105 Ssc Moving Floor Semi-Trailer Morning Star II -1 87,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in Huyghe(B) MIKANSUE WHITE METAL KIT ASTON MARTIN DB6 VOLANTE - 21 mint sealed in bag,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Minichamps 1 18 - F1 Sauber Ford C14 Frentzen,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,Jada 1 24 1966 Batmobile w Batman and Robin - JA98259,Hot wheels Kmart Day Set Of 4 bluee Honda Civic HTF,.RENAULT ALPINE GT4 2+2 blue PARADCAR 72 1 43,.Corgi MERCEDES BENZ 220SE COUPE - 253,. The HuygheHot Wheels LIBERTY PROMOTIONS COLLECTION BUILDER (VW DRAG BUS),. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheKit monté Métal 1 43 - Peugeot 302 bluee,.
Fire Brigade models 1 72 Scale - FBM7 Road traffic collision set moden B Figures,.1970's JEG COUGHLIN CHEVROLET CAMARO NHRA FUNNY CAR 1 18 BY AUTOWORLD AW1160,.
WIKING Demag Mobilkran red gesupert Rettungswagen Scale 1 87,.Jada Bigtime Muscle 1967 CHEVY NOVA SS 1 24 Diecast Car Dub City Vehicle 90058,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Lesney Ford Anglia Nr. 7 regular wheels,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeVolkswagen Beetle Maggiolino Lufthansa 1957 bluee Yellow Rio 1 43 RIO4502 Model,.Dinky No 140b Rover 75 Saloon - Cream (Original 1950's NEAR MINT),.
For example, in Partridge,SPARK BENTLEY T1 1967 TWO DOOR SALOON 1 43 SCALE S3814,. In Jorgensen, supra,LOT 40695 Minichamps Porsche 911 Coupe 993 red-metallic Modellauto 1 43 in OVP,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.CSM Collector's Model 1 76 Scale - DGR001 Dennis Dragon 11m Bus - Hong Kong R970,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Coffret Citroen C3 & C3 Aircross 2017 Limited 500 pcs (2 Cars) 1 43 Model NOREV,. That is the same situation in this case.Mac Due MCG18086 CITROEN CX 2200 SUPER BREAK SERIES 1 1976 AMARANT RED 1 18 Mode,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.SUNSTAR - 1 18 - PORSCHE 356A 1500 GS - CARRERA GT - 1329,. Detroit Edison, supra.
1 18 MINI COOPER S Norev red Red,.Minichamps Product No. 37 Opel Kadett A,.Nissan Juke grey brown Ab 2010 1 43 J-Collection Modell Auto mit oder ohne ind..,.
WOW EXTREMELY RARE Ford Taunus P3 17m Saloon 1960 Red Cream 1 43 Minichamps-GT,.