Matchbox Series Series Series Lesney Jumbo Crane Kran 11 Vintage Old 39973c

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Matchbox Series Series Series Lesney Jumbo Crane Kran 11 Vintage Old 39973c
Dinky Toys 552 Chevrolet Corvair empty box near mint box,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Corgi 1 50 Scale CC12802 - Scania T-Cab Bulk Tipper - Eddie Stobart Ltd.,.1 76 3M Scotch ADL Enviro500MMC - Trasnparent Tape (Red),.PORSCHE 911 S Rallye Monte Carlo 1972 Larrousse 2nd SEB NEW Minichamps 1 43,.NOREV Peugeot 504 Cabrinlet Models Collectors 1 18 Diecast Metal,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.UT - PORSCHE 911 GT1 - G-FORCE - WARSTEINER - AWESOME - DISPLAYED - L@@K,.Dinky COOPER BRISTOL RACING CAR - 233 rare red hubs,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.USSR RUSSIAN FIGHTER PLANE MODEL - N-16 - MADE IN RUSSIA,.Ferrari 400 Superamerica 1962 red KK-Scale 1 18 NEU OVP,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Fiat 125 Saloon - Politoys Export 578 1 43 36654,.1996 Matchbox Series 8 Premiere Collection die-cast complete collection POLICE,.HOT WHEELS 2004 TREASURE HUNT MORRIS WAGON SHORTCARD, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

REVELL 1 18th SCALE DIE CAST FORD 12M STREIFAN-TOUNUS CAR RE 08879,.Hudson Hornet Congreenible 1952 Brooklin 1 43,.UNIVERSAL-HOBBIES 4901 New Holland T7.225 1 32,.FERRARI 612 SCALIETTI 1 18 HOTWHEELS REF B6047 red COMME NEUVE ,.

Lancia Aurelia B24 Congreenible 1956 Spark S2378 1 43,.GREENLIGHT - TOKYO TORQUE - Set of 6 Cars - Series 1 - 1 64 nissan datsun,.Porsche 911 2.7 Carrera Rs Touring 1973 White Green Font 1 18 Norev 187636,.CARAVANE HENON 1955 1 18,.1 12 Repsol YAMAHA YZF-R1M models toy hobby Building Kits,.

1 43 Tanariv (France) WM LM85 Handmade Resin Model Car,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.2019 HOT WHEELS CONVENTION NATIONALS NEWSLETTER CAR DATSUN 510 WAGON,.WIKING 730 2 B Setra-Bus mit Fahrer himmelblue - 50er Jahre,.Mercedes Benz 170 V Cabrio Schuco 1 43,1965 Pontiac GTO in Iris Mist by Diecast Model by Sunstar in 1 18 Scale SS1845,.Audi Sport Quattro Coupe red 1984-1985 1 43 Minichamps Maxichamps Modell Auto ..,.

PEUGEOT 404 COUPE Apink WHITE 1967 NOREV 1 18,.Rio RI4543 MERCEDES SSKL N.87 WINNER MILLE MIGLIA 1931 RUDOLF CARACCIOLA 1 43 Mo,.. MINICHAMPS AUDI 50 1975 blueE MINT BOXED RARE,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Ferrari 275 GTB 4 NART Spyder 1967 yellow - 1 18 KK-Scale NEW,.

Hotwheels Magnus Walker Porsche 964 RLC Car,. We agree in part.

CHEVY CORVETTE 1953 Ertl American Muscle BIANCO 1 18,.Minichamps 1 43 - BMW 318 IS 4 Portes E36 red 1994,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.1995 Porsche 911 993 GT2 EVO street white 1 43 Minichamps Diecast,.1 43 IKARUS 260 Stadtlinien Bus DDR Russische Soviet Bus Ungarn UdSSR USSR OVP,.Porsche Cayman GT4 - achatgrey met. - 1 of 200 - Minichamps - car.tima EXCLUSIVE,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; HIGHWAY 61 1963 PONTIAC LEMANS blueE 1 18 SKU,.Schuco Piccolo-Set n° 519460 Roadster legenden porsche boite boxed 1 87 Rare,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Hummer H3T (birch weiss) 2006,; Matchbox lesney JAGUAR XK140 - 32,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

1996 Ertl Peachstate Muscle Car '1970 Red Ford Mustang Boss 429' 1 18,.Volkswagen VW Beetle Zoo Arhnem 1965 + Lion 1 43 Model RIO,Ertl Ford Restoration Tractor Ford 8N And Accessories MIB 2009,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Fiat 238 Garage Francorchamps 1972 Rio 1 43 Rio4242 Model Diecast,.

KK-Scale 1 18 Volkswagen Bulli T1 Samba 1962 rood zwart nieuw in doos,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Corgi Heritage Col 1 50 - Berliet GLR mit Semi-Citerne 'Shell',.Neo Saab 900 Cabriolet - metallic-grey - 1987 - 1 43,.Kyosho 1 64 Lotus Formula Minicar Collection Lotus 98T Ayrton Senna Secret,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Dip Models DIP115002 ZIS 150 TZM-150 FUEL TANKER ON CHASSIS Z.150 (MOSCOW) 1 43,; Redline Hotwheels bluee 1970 Heavy Chevy oc7674,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Mint Mini Champs 1 64 Alpha 8 C Competetizio,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Matchbox Series Series Series Lesney Jumbo Crane Kran 11 Vintage Old 39973cMatchbox Series Series Series Lesney Jumbo Crane Kran 11 Vintage Old 39973cMatchbox Series Series Series Lesney Jumbo Crane Kran 11 Vintage Old 39973cMatchbox Series Series Series Lesney Jumbo Crane Kran 11 Vintage Old 39973cMatchbox Series Series Series Lesney Jumbo Crane Kran 11 Vintage Old 39973cMatchbox Series Series Series Lesney Jumbo Crane Kran 11 Vintage Old 39973c

1976 FORD GRAN TORINO STARSKY AND HUTCH RED CHROME EDITION 1 18 GREENLIGHT 19023,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.



This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Joal 125 Lamborghini Miura made in Macau 1 43 scale NMIB Mebetoys rare,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

F1 Lewis Hamilton Winner Abu Dhabi GP 2016 Diecast in 1 43 Minichamps,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Kit LOTUS FORD 79 GP ITALIA 1979 ANDRETTI REUTEMANN Tameo CPK002,.SUBARU Legacy Impreza RS Rallye Schweden Eklund 1992 Clarion HPI RAR 1 43,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.FDS Models 1 43 Scale White Metal 14 - 1933 Alfa Romeo Alfetta,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.1 43 Modellino Auto Alfa Romeo 2600 Berlina 1962 bluee Cobalto Kess Lim. Ed. 300,.

RARE Y12 Matchbox Models of Yesteryear SMITHS CRISP'S DIAMOND JUBILEE LTD to 500,.1 18 Mitsubushi Lancer Evo VII,.Dinky Toys 4” FORD CAPRI Purple VINTAGE Toy Diecast CAR Rare Spares Repairs 165,.Dkw F94 Kombi Universal 1955 Light Green NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO45091,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.CORGI JUNIOR 18 WIGWAM CAMPER VAN, 1973, MINT, SEALED ,.

DeAgostini 365 GTB4 1968 1 24 Model Le Grandi Ferrari Collection No.12 Japan F S,.Rolls Royce Camargue red met 1975 NEO44210 1 43,.1 18 ANSON FERRARI 328 GTS DIECAST METAL MODEL CAR 30308 -RACE CAR RED,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, LANCIA DELTA HF Integrale 16V 1989 bluee Metallic, Model Car 1 18 Sun Star,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Lotus 19 - green 1960 1 43 Spark S0260,.FERRARI F50 berlinetta Hard Top 60th RELAY 1 18 HOT WHEELS MATTEL L2964 voiture,.Francesco Mac Cars Pixar Minicar,.FORD Focus WRC Rallye Mexico 2010 WM Expert Solberg M Sport Sunstar SP 1 18,.FORD Taunus P7 Coupe metallic Green 1971 1 43 NEO 43135,.

RENAULT 5 GT Turbo Supercinq 1985 blue bluee Sondermodell 185207 Norev 1 18, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.First Gear DCP 60-0439 Peterbuilt 351 with 40' van - Western Distributing,.Franklin Mint 1933 Duesenberg J Victoria 1 24 scale,. The PartridgeModel Icons Police Escort XR3i Cambridgeshire 1 18,.Kyosho Ky5011rs Ferrari 512 Bb Rossa Red Beige Inter.1 43 Nuova,.METAL BUILT KIT SQUIRE - 2 SEATER - PALE blueE 1 43 - GOOD CONDITION,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Spark Lotus 24 Jim Hall Monaco GP 1 43 S2141, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.John Deere 6920 S 042 5 SR00 marked First Production 1 32 Ertl,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.CORGI JAMES BOND THE DEFINITIVE BOND COLLECTION X 5 DIFFERENT CARS,.Club Bialbero 40TZ 371 MODELLO COMMEMORATIVO 40 ANNI TZ Modellino,Partridge[BOOK+MODEL] Lancia Delta HF Integrale delprado car collection 43 Evo 16V,.Franklin Mint 1 24Morris Mini Cooper red New NOS Mintnoboxed, verry rare,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Volkswagen VW Bus T3 1993 White 1 18 Model KK SCALE, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Norev 185241 1 18 RENAULT 4 1965 COPENHAGUE blueE,; Spark Model 1 43 Porsche 956 Winner 24H Le Mans 1985 Art. 43LM85,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, 1 18 Vodafone Mclaren Mercedes J.Button Showcar 530101871 Minichamps, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, UKBUS 0015 EAST YORKSHIRE MOTOR SERVICES PLAXTON PRSIDENT 1 76 SCALE MODEL BUS, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgePorsche 356A Cabriolet Beige 70 Jaar Porsche Jubileum Schuco,.

HOT WHEELS T6260 ELITE FERRARI DINO 246 GT NURBURGRING 1971 1 18 GREEN,.Corgi CC13225 DAF XF Super Space Cab Curtainside Chamberlain Transport Ltd, Clarke's negligent act.MODELLINO PEUGEOT 304 COUPE’ 1970 gold METALLIZZATO IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.Rio RI4308 FIAT 1100 103 TV 1953 GREY 1 43 Modellino,.Porsche 959 1987 Minichamps 1 18 Red 155066200,.

1 43 Art Model Ferrari 246 SP Car Targa Florio ART912 Diorama,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1970 Plymouth Cuda Funny Car Larry Arnold's King Fish Quarter Mile 1 18 World,New Bburago 1 32 Ferrari 488GTB Red Die Cast Model Car from Japan,. In Noska,Hot Wheels 1 64 Car Culture DRAG STRIP DEMONS CASE OF 10 FPY86-956F,.Burago 1 43 - Fiat 50 Vigili Del Fuoco Echelle Pompiers,.Bentley T Saloon - green met 1974 1 43 NEO 44135,.Spark 1 43 Scale S3344 - Ford Fiesta RS WRC th Monte Carlo 2012, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Norev 181494 Citroën 2CV Dolly 1985 Meije White + Comoran Grey 1 18,.Gama 1 41 Opel GT 1900 hellred,.GAZ VOLGA M24 1972 Volkspolizei Police - 1 18 - MCG,.Volkswagen 1200 Beetle 1983 German post , Model Car 1 43 Minichamps,. Id., p 923.

NOREV - 1 18 - CITROEN DS 19 - 1956 - 181566,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Truescale Model 1 43 Aston Martin Vanquish Zagato Red NEW ,NEW 1961 Chevy Corvette Congreenible 1 18 Scale Die Cast Car - Collectible,.Spark 1 43 Porsche 991 GTS 2015 (bluee) S4938,.Maisto GT RACING Mercedes-Benz CLK-GTR 1998 1 18 Ludwig Zonta FIA VN M BOX,.Sunstar 1 18 American Collectible 1948 CHRYSLER TOWN AND COUNTRY CONV SS6140,.Spark 1 43 Scale S3310 - Citroen DS3 WRC Winner Acropolis Rally 2011,.Best Model BT9511 FIAT ABARTH 700S N.60 RETIRED (ENGINE) LM 1960 RIGAMONTI-CATTI,.Nissan 370Z Z34 Fairlady Z Nismo Weiss Ab 2008 1 43 Kyosho Modell Auto mit ode..,. The parties BURAGO BG16802V 1 18 FERRARI SF16-H 2016 SEASON S.VETTEL,.

Porsche 919 Hybrid HY n.2 1st Bahrain 2016 by Spark,.Peugeot D4B Ambulance 1963 White NOREV 1 18 NV184699 Model,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, VW t1-bus, 1963, Yellow 1 18, Welly,; A Franklin mint model of a 1938 jaguar SS 100. Headlight missing ( NM ), (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Daihatsu Compagno Spider (1965) 1 24 Die-cast Model Hachette Japanese Cars (25),.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 1963 Pontiac Lemans blueE 1 18 Highway 61 50147,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Caterpillar CAT 335F L High Line Series 85925 Engineering Vehicles 1 50 Diecast,.Super Car No 1 Lamborghini Miura - White (Original 1970's Boxed),.KK-Scale KKDC180152 VW T1 Samba, 1959, bluee creme,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Corgi 72005 Bernard Type 110 Fourgone Lessive St MARC Ltd Ed. No. 0005 of 3500,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Spark 1 43 Porsche Cup n.99 2013 SF072,.FINEWORK Chgold Q size Mitsubishi Lancer EvoIX ver2.0 HG Resin Kit,.Meri Kit to assemble White Metal 1 43 - Ferrari 640 F1 1989 Airscope,.Neo 1 43 audi tts roadster metallic red neo46410 resin,.Toyota Celica St165 Gt-Four Turbo All-Trac 1988 Red IXO 1 18 18CMC001 Model,. The ScottsdaleUNKNOW MANUFACTURER (BARINI) 1 43 SCALE RESIN MODEL FIAT 500 ABARTH PININFARINA,PORSCHE 935 Turbo Gelo Loos Schenken Heyer Hezemans Le Mans 1977 Norev 1 18,.Franklin Mint 1 43 Scale Diecast FM201 - 1968 Dodge Charger - Copper,. Id.,Porsche 911 G-Modell Carrera 3.2 Coupe Dunkel red 1973-1989 1 43 Atlas Modell ..,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, HOT WHEELS 30 YEARS COMMEMORATIVE BOX 1968 Deora 1977 57 Chevy 1973 Sweet 16,; DTM 2018 Mercedes C 63 AMG Coupe Lucas Auer 1 43 Neu OVP,HRT F1 YAMAMOTO BELGIUM GP 2010 SPARK S3011 1 43,.MARX Wind up Tin Litho Tractor Hill Climber - USA,. The ScottsdaleMaisto 1 18 scale Diecast - 31804 Ferrari 348ts red Red model car,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Albedo 297031 Man Suitcase Tir Fröhling with Great Motif MIP,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; PRX010748 - Fourgon de la Poste Allemande BERGMANN édité à 1000 unités - 1 43,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Mercedes Benz E-Class 300Ce 24V Cabriolet 1990 NOREV 1 18 NV183567 Model,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 24 Super Car Series No.4 Lamborghini Huracan Aoshima LP610-4 model kit F S,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Porsche 356A Coupe 1957 Light bluee SUNSTAR 1 18 SS1329 Miniature,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Mclaren M6B Gt 1969 orange, Model Car 1 43 Premium x Models, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, 1 18 Norev Peugeot 205 GTI 1.9 Miami bluee 1992 NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Wiking H0 VW 1500 (BC583),; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeIXO. Fiat 619. Cirque Rancy (F) 1 43. Red Yellow. 1979. TRU 023.,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, 2017 MERCEDES AMG GT C ROADSTER YELLOW 1 18 DIECAST CAR MODEL BY NOREV 183451,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheSCHUCO HANOMAG L 28 + HOREX 02939 1 43,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Mercedes-Benz E-Klasse W211 T-Modell Kombi silver 2003-2009 1 43 Minichamps Mo..,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,1 18 Burago Lamborghini Ravenden Diecast Metal Model Kit Car Model Gift,Chevrolet Impala El Camino 1959 bluee Spark 1 43 S2906,.DIECAST MASTERS 1 87 SCALE PROGRESS RAIL - A CATERPILLAR COMPANY 85534,.RENAULT 1000 KG BOUCHERIE SERIE LIMITEE 1000 EX CIJ BY NOREV NEUF EN BOITE,. The HuygheAUTOART 1 43 JAGUAR E TYPE COUPE SERIES III V12 GREEN NEUF EN BOITE,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheSpark Model Mercedes-Benz 300 SL 1956 (red) 1 43 S4959,.

Chevrolet Monte Carlo SS 2000 Dark bluee 1 18 Model 1986 SUN STAR,.WEISE-TOYS 1028 DEUTZ-FAHR Agro Star 6.38 (93-95) 1 32,.

Best Model 9476 SIMCA ABARTH 1150 1963 red RED Modellino,.MINICHAMPS ALFA ROMEO MONTREAL ARANCIO 400120620,. Nonetheless, on the facts of 1 18 Road Signature 92327 1962 VOLKSWAGEN MICROBUS Sliding Sunroof green RARITÄT,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeDIECAST MASTERS 1 50 SCALE CATERPILLAR 950M WHEEL LOADER MODEL BN 85914,.Camions DINKY TOYS Atlas Simca Cargo Benne 33B Berliet Benne 585,.

For example, in Partridge,Redline Hotwheels Red 1973 Red Baron oc15800,. In Jorgensen, supra,Tekno 70100 Classic Dual Axis Box Trailer 1 ,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.GreenLight 1 18 1969 Dodge Charger Daytona orange 19004,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,PEUGEOT 908 HYBRID 2008 CHROME SPARK 1 43 SP1282,. That is the same situation in this 1 43 Honda Nsx Minicar,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.MAISTO 1 18 36115 JEEP WRANGLER RUBICON BRUSH FIRE UNIT,. Detroit Edison, supra.

RIO RI4335 ALFA ROMEO 1750 1932 GREY 1 43,.Panhard Scarlette 1953 Dark bluee Vehicle Miniature Wb147 Whitebox 1 43,.1 43 Minichamps Maserati Mistral 1964 Red 437123430,.

Diecast Masters Int'l HX520 Day Cab Tandem Tractor White 1 50 Trailer Head 71001,.