BoS 43605 1 43 FORD BRONCO 4X4 1970 BROWN BROWN BROWN WHITE cf183e

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
BoS 43605 1 43 FORD BRONCO 4X4 1970 BROWN BROWN BROWN WHITE cf183e
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Porsche 911 991-2 Turbo S Coupe 2015 Uni White HERPA 1 43 WAP0201360G Model,.Bmw Z4 M Coupé (E86) red 2009 Neo Scale 1 43 Neo44466 Model,.MINI Genuine Countryman Diecast Miniature Car Model Toy 1 18 80432447940,.Ferrari F12 Berlinetta red corsa 2013 True Scale Miniatures FJM1343012 1 43,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Citroen DS 3 blue-Met., 2011, 1 18, NOREV,.Spark - 1 43 - Porsche Carrera Cup Asia 2015,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.1 50 DM Caterpillar Cat 972M Wheel Loader Diecast Model,.MODELLINO OPEL KADETT E 1989 GREEN IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Talbot T23 F&F Teardrop Coupe 1983,.1 18 Norev Simca 1000 Rallye 2 yellow 1976 NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.Lesney Vauxhall Cresta, hell goldmetallic (SSK61), Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

First Gear 1 64th Peterbilt 351 Sleeper Cab w 40' Dry Van Navajo Freight Lines ,.MINIACARS 43 1 43 RESIN - 97.01C - SIMCA 1939 8 BERL LUXE - BROWN,.BRK 117 BROOKLIN 1939 MERCURY 99-A SEDAN COUPE blueE POLY 1 43,.Solido 1 18 Scale - 11801500 Citroen C4 WRC Red Bull 2008,.

Fiat 238 Van Assistenza Vacanze 1970 1 43 Model RIO4303 RIO,.Vintage Dinky Toys Volkswagen KDF & 50mm P.A.K Anti Tank Gun Green Car,.Fujimi 1 43 Ferrari F430 GTC JMB Racing 2011 Le Mans TSM11FJ027,.Modelcar Group MCG18078, Wartburg 353, hellbrown, 1 18, NEU&OVP,.EBBRO 44638 LEXUS LFA NURBURGRING PACHAGE 2011 - orange 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 12,.

Schuco Modellauto Neu Merc.-Maybach G650, blue 1 43 - 450900400,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Audi R8 LMS , 24H Nurburgring 2014 , Sparkmodels,.CHEVROLET CORVETTE Z06 POLICE 1 18 C5,.Schuco 1 43 Setra S6 Reisetraum,Matchbox Regular Wheels Original Moko Lesney Number 19 MG 'A',.1 18 Welly Porsche 911 GT3 Diecast Metal Car Model Toy Gift,.

70s Hot Wheels Redline Porsche 917 CHROME P917 NICE WHEELS TUFFIE PLZ READ ,.Mint Skynet 1 24 Gt-R R35 Rc Toy Model,.Sunbeam Alpine Tiger Mkii 1960 Red SPARK 1 43 S4063,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Siva Toys Siva Toys03015 Fence,.

ERTL 1 18 Scale American Muscle 1969 YENKO 427 CAMARO PredOTYPE ISSUE (gold),. We agree in part.


A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.VINTAGE MOKO MATCHBOX ESSO PETROL TANKER RED GPW & ORIGINAL BOX,.Ahsoka Tano, IG-88, Jabba Wampa R2-D2 Hot Wheels Star Wars Character Cars LOT,.DIECAST MASTERS 1 12 SCALE CATERPILLAR C15 ACERT DIESEL ENGINE BN 85139,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; RIO 1 43 1973 Fiat 238 Ferrari Service Van,.Porsche 911 Carrera RSR 3.0 km Imola 1974 - 1 43 - Minichamps,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Brumm BM0287CH FERRARI 126 C 2 P.TAMBAY 1982 N.27 2nd ITALY GP 1 43 Modellino,; 1 50 scale Caterpillar 140H Motor Grader Yellow Diecast Vehicle For Collection,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Minichamps 1 43 - Mercedes E Class 1994 W124 Cabriolet pinkwood,.Dtm Audi Rs5 1 43 2014,Spark 1 43 Scale S3049 - F1 McLaren Mercedes MP4-27 1st Brazil GP 2012,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Peugeot 208 Gti 2013 White Metallic, Model Car 1 18 ,.

Ferrari 250 Spider California 1957 red 1 43 ART 069,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Hotwheels La Storia F1 Ferrari F2003 M. Schumacher 2003 1 43 SF14 03,.Hot Wheels HWX5527 FERRARI 458 ITALIA SPIDER 2009 RED FOUNDATION 1 18 Modellino,.Maxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940 132571 - 1968 Triumph - orange,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Renault 4L Jogging 1981 white 1 18,; Volkswagen VW Maggiolone 1303 Anno di Costruzione 1972 green Metallico 1 18,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, YFE23-M 1906 Waterous Fire Engine,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

BoS 43605 1 43 FORD BRONCO 4X4 1970 BROWN BROWN BROWN WHITE cf183eBoS 43605 1 43 FORD BRONCO 4X4 1970 BROWN BROWN BROWN WHITE cf183eBoS 43605 1 43 FORD BRONCO 4X4 1970 BROWN BROWN BROWN WHITE cf183e

Maserati Quattroporte Iv black 1996 Neoscale 1 43 Neo45170 Miniature,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Hot Wheels 1969 Dodge Charger Modified 1 18,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]


This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

FN MPC 2-1014 N GAUGE BUILDING KIT 1 32 MASERATI INDY,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.HOT WHEELS 2003 LOOSE SERIES CARS c,.SSM LKW 1 43 ZIL-MMZ-45085 Baukipper-LKW,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Franklin Mint 1958 Edsel Citation 1 24 Die-Cast Car W Box & Papers,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.1 43 Schuco VW T2a Kreidler-Service mit Motorradanhänger und Kreidler Florett,.

Peugeot 908 HDI FAP h Le Mans 2007 - 1 18 - Minichamps,.TVR TUSCAN OPEN PURPLE SPARK SPTR07 1 43,.DINKY TOYS 36A LIMOUSINE AMSTRONG SIDDELEY,.1 43 IXO Benz pullman Long Axis Die Cast Model Dark bluee RARE,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.1976 Chevrolet Monza No.14 Champion Imsa Al Holbertr in 1 43 von Spark,.

POLISTIL 2215 FIAT CROMA METALLIC GREY MINT BOXED RARE SELTEN,.Norev Jet Car 709 Mercedes Benz C111 made in France 1 43 scale MIB Superb,.Kyosho Nissan Skyline 2000 Gt-R 1971 Hakosuka Novelty,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Franklin Mint 1967 Chevrolet Corvette HDTP Convt with New Display Case 1 24,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Ferrari 250 California 1958 Cameron Diaz Personal Car Grey 1 43 Art Model ART311,.NEO MITSUBISHI Sappgold Coupe Red Metallic 1 1 43 43443,.Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor 2014 Greenlight Collectibles 1 18,.MERCEDES E 350 CDI CLASS BORDEAUX 2009 MAISTO 1 18 1 18 W212 LIMOUSINE DARK RED,.Franklin Mint 1 24 Scale Diecast - B11JR67 Mercedes Benz 500K Special Roadster,.

Used no brand Spinning reel 3000 beautiful goods Japan sale Free shipping, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Minichamps 1 43 - BMW M1 Workscar - D.Pironi,.KK-SCALE 1 18 PORSCHE B32 VW T3 1984 grey MODELLINO,. The PartridgeMatchbox Regular Wheels No 70 Grit Speader Red Cab grey slide Superb,.NOREV CITROEN 22 CV ROADSTER 1934 - 8 CYLINDERS - blueE 1 43 - EXCELLENT IN BOX,.DeAgostini Ford Vedette 49 green color - DINKY TOYS,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, EMEK 30794 MAN TGS LX Tieflader mit Bagger 1 25, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.NOREV 185300 1971 RENAULT ALPINE A110 1600S 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR METALLIC blueE,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Mercedes 20-35 PS 1909 Dark Red 1 43 Model RIO4453 RIO,.NOREV 1 18 183559 2011 MERCEDES-BENZ B180 NEW DIECAST MODEL CAR RED,PartridgeSCHUCO 450238900 DKW Schnelllaster BÜSSING mit Anhänger , 1 43 Spur 0 NEU OVP,.Spark 1 43 Scale S3085 - F1 Infiniti Red Bull Racing Australia GP 2014,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1 43 McLaren MP4-20 , British GP 2005 , Spark models, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Spark Model SA112 PORSCHE 911 GT3 N.911 4th MACAU GT WORLD CUP 2016 E.BAMBER 1 4,; Lamborghini Miura P400S Bertone 50Th Anniversary 1968 Green RIO 1 43 RIO4584 Min,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, IXO 1 43 Ferrari BB512 Red FER005, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, VOLKSWAGEN -BEETLE COX KAFER MTU TIN TOY TOLE, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeBorgward Hansa 2400 Pullman bianco grey 1955 Neo 1 43 NEO44355 Model,.

MERCEDES BENZ E320 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY SUNSTAR RARE RED,.FORD Fiesta WRC 2017 Rallye Monte Carlo Tänak MS-RT Nightversion Spark 1 43, Clarke's negligent act.1 24 Scale Model - Ferrari 250 GTO,.CORGI 1 50 SCALE HERITAGE EX70514 - RENAULT 1000KG - RENAULT SERVICE,.AUTOART 1 18 LEXUS IS350 - CRYSTAL WHITE - FAULTY,.

Spencer Sinister rim wheel Girl Figure 1 8 lot 2,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Ros RS30125 TRATTORE NEW HOLLAND HYDROGEN 1 32 Modellino,Mint Opened Mini Car Body Only Jl 1 64 1971 Plymouth Gtx,. In Noska,Rio RI4590 LAMBORGHINI MIURA P400S 1969 gold 1 43 Modellino,.Spark 1 43 BMW 635 Csi n.21 Winner 24H SPA 1983 SB064,.VINTAGE CORGI TOYS MAJOR BEDFORD CARRIMORE CAR TRANSPORTER,.Audi 80 GT 1972 hell blue 1 of 252 1 43 Minichamps neu & OVP 400015002, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.P O MARK 43 1 43 Subaru Impreza WRX STI GRB Car with genuine option WR bluee Mica,.SPECIAL OFFER Spark S2161 Aston Martin One 77 Pearlescent White Sealed in Case,.QSP Model Collection DAF 33 Bestel 1 43 Dark Grey,.1 43 Minicar Mclaren Mercedes,. Id., p 923.


In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Smart 1 43 Mini Car Champs Four,WEISE-TOYS 1013 MB-trac 1100 (W441) 1 32,.Peugeot 205 Gti 1.9 1992 Miami bluee NOREV 1 18 NV184856 Model,.1994 Ferrari 348 TS red 1 18 Bburago 16006 R,.Matchbox No.57B Trailer Caravan cream body htf 1969 blistercard,.Spark 1 43 Aston Martin DBR9 GT LMP Motorsport Tour SF027,.Ebbro 1 43 Formula Nippon Team Le Mans 2000 H. Noda from Japan,.HOT WHEELS 1 18 AUTO DIE CAST FERRARI 250 TESTA ROSSA FUORI PRODUZIONE 23913,. The parties 1 43 Minichamps Porsche 911 GT3 2016 black metallic 410 066021,.

Porsche Cayman GT4 - white - 1 of 300 - Minichamps - car.tima EXCLUSIVE - CA04316,.Simca 1000 Ls 4-Door 1974 Amarante Red NOREV 1 18 NV185713 Model,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Hot Wheels LDC92138PK FORD FAIRLANE CROWN VICTORIA 1955 PINK 1 18 Modellino,; Citroen Gs Club Anno di Costruzione 1972 Camargue blue 1 18, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

1 43 Mercedes-Benz Collection S 204 C-Class Wagon Mini Car,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Brooklyn Models Vintage 1 43 Scale -1957 Ford Fairlane Skyliner BRK,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Best Box 2511 Ford Taunus - Rare Colour bluee,.Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale BRK86 - 1938 Cadillac 60 Special - Green Unboxed,.Alpine Renault A110 1600s 1971 Gendarmerie 1 18 Model NOREV,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Polistil Jeep CJ5 golden Eagle 1 25 Scale Diecast Collectible Vintage Rare Car,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.NEO Saab 9000 CDE Red 1 43 44596,.METAL KIT (built) EAGLE T2G 1966 No 10 - DARK blueE F1 1 43 - NICE CONDITION,.FORD F-800 FLATBED TRAILER U.S. ARMY 1 50 DIECAST MODEL CAR FIRST GEAR 50-3088,.Peugeot 206 CC, green, 1 18 - WELLY,.Trofeu TFRRAL71 TOYOTA CgoldLLA N.22 DNF RALLY OF PORTUGAL 2001 MATOS CHAVES-PAIV,. The ScottsdaleMinneapolis Police Interceptor 2002 IACP Gearbox Limited Edt. of 2002 MIB,Tin Wizard 1 43 Scale White metal 000106 Mercedes Benz 180 1952 bluee,.Mercury 1 43 - Box Empty Ferrari Sport 206 Art 2,. Id.,SOLIDO 1 43 - 4706 1011 MERCEDES BENZ 300 SL 1955 C W TIN COLLECTORS BOX,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Norev 1 43 Scale Model Car 270062 - 1961 Jaguar E-Type - Carmin Red,; Art Model AM0333 FERRARI 500 MONDIAL N.106 9th NASSAU 1959 A.MARKELSON 1 43 Mode,Best Model BT9397 LOLA T 70 COUPE' N.6 TARUMA'71 1 43 Modellino,.HOT WHEELS 2017 31st ANNUAL COLLECTORS CONVENTION VOLKSWAGEN DRAG BUS 455 2800,. The ScottsdaleAtlas 1 43 Scale Diecast 4 656 112 - Triumph Stag - Yellow,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Studebaker Avanti 1963 Red NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO47175 Model,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Aston Martin Vantage GT3 , 24H Nurburgring 2015 , Sparkmodels,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Matchbox Lesney 1909 Thomas Flyabout Y-12,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, KINSFUN RENAULT TWIZY 1 18 SCALE RED NEW NO BOX USA FREE SHIP,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Bburago BU76104 FERRARI CALIFORNIA T N.6 THE SUNOCO 70th ANNIVERSARY 1 18 Modell,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, ORIGINAL OLD CORGI CLASSICS BRITAIN RENAULT 12 16 1910 COUPE REF 9032 IN BOX, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, RARE Ford Focus WRC 2001 Rally Monte Carlo Auto Art 60112 1 43, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, ERTL 1 16 SCALE FARMALL 656 WIDE FRONT TRACTOR MODEL BN 14886,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeMinichamps 1 43 Opel Vectra GTS V8 OPC EUredEAM DTM 2004 Limited from Japan,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, 1 18 Auto World Connie Kalitta 1972 Ford Mustang NHRA in OVP,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheFujimi model 1 20 Grand Prix series No.46 Ferrari F2012 Malaysia GP,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.PROGETTO K 1 43 ALFA ROMEO GIULIA SW PUBBLICA ASSISTENZA FIRENZE PK177 RARA,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Bugatti Atlantic 57 Sc Atlantic 1938 Rio 1 43 Rio4313 Modellino Diecast,1999 Ertl American Muscle Collector's Edition '1967 Chevrolet Chevelle SS L-78',.AMX-30B2 BRENNUS French Main Battle Tank TIGER MODEL 1 35 PLASTIC KIT,.1 18 American Muscle Dodge SuperBee 1969 - OVP (K71),. The HuygheKS43010100 - FIAT REGATA WEEKEND 100S i.e. 1986 WHITE 1 43 MODELLINO MODELLO AUT,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheVolkswagen VW Microbus Soft Top 1962 1 18 Model YAT MING,.

OVER 55 TOY AUCTION CATALOGUES, DINKY, CORGI, TINPLATE, MATCHBOX, ROBOTS, VECTIS,.Jada 97168 - 1 24 Scale Model Car Fast & Furious - Brian's Toyota Supra,.

1963 Studebaker Avanti Dorado 1 18 Signature Models 18101,.Bburago 16010 Ferrari Fxx-K black Scale 1 18 Model Car New °,. Nonetheless, on the facts of WSI 03-1142 1 50 SCALE DAF CF SC MX-13 6X2 CAB UNIT - WHITE,.

Next, it is important to clarify that Partridge1968 OLDSMOBILE CUTLASS 442 HARDTOP BRONZE LTD 1002PCS 1 18 BY AUTOWORLD AMM1084,.Buddy L HUMMER H2 WAGON Pressed Steel Imperial Toys 1 12 Scale,.

For example, in Partridge,Spark Model S5509 PORSCHE 962 C N.2 ACCIDENT LM 1987 O.LARRAURI-U.SCHAFER-J.PARE,. In Jorgensen, supra,Schuco 09869 - 3er Set Schuco Espresso Tassen Nr.2 - Neu,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.SIMCA HUIT CANADIENNE 1948 IXO 1 43 I105,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Vroom Kits 1 43 Scale Resin - K1 Citroen 2CV Sahara,. That is the same situation in this case.Mclaren MP 4 5 Honda V10 1989 Ayrton Senna Collection Minichamps 1 43 New ,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.NOREV 1 18 1973 Simca 1000 Rally Monte Carlo Diecast Model Car Red (185707),. Detroit Edison, supra.

Rio RI40051 ALFA ROMEO P 3 1932 WHITE 1 43 Modellino,.HOT WHEELS MODERN CLASSICS 15 1970 PLYMOUTH ROAD RUNNER RED W+,.Porsche 356 a 1500 Gs Carrera Gt Anno di Costruzione 1957 blue 1 18 Sun Star,.

NEO MODELS Porsche Panamericana Closed 1 43 44585,.