Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Best Model BT9517 FERRARI 330 GTC 1966 PEARL 1 43 Modellino,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals National Motor Museum Mint 1941 Chevrolet Flatbed And Willys Jeep R1,.First Gear Peterbilt 351 West Coast Fast Freight 1 64 Fallen Flag Series 60-0491,.Jada 1970 Dodge Charger R T 1 24 scale used no box 2004 release HTF,.VW T5 Bus 2003 Minichamps 400052202 Rare 1 43,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Minicar Novelty Nissan Leaf Special Item,.Porsche 356 A 1500 GS Carrera GT 1957 green metallic Modellauto 1 18 Sun Star,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Mint Ebro 1 43 Nissan Skyline Gt-R R32,.Minichamps 1 43 Hispano Suiza J-12 1935 bluee,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Bizarre 1 43 Scale Resin BZ309 - Matra DJET Monte Carlo 1966,.MAISTO 1 18 - 31692 PORSCHE 911 CARRERA S - RED,.1969 HONG KONG BASE HOT WHEELS REDLINE LIGHT MY FIREBIRD RED WHITE INTERIOR, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Minichamps Kyosho 1 43 minicar BMW M3 limited edition 4512 units,.Dinky 1 43 Scale Diecast DY-903 - Classic British Sports Cars Series 2,.Matchbox TC-3 Team Convoy Construction Set MIB RARE,.Corgi Toys No.339 Mini Cooper S Monte Carlo Rally 1967,.

IVECO DAILY SÉCURITÉ CIVILE SÉRIE LIMITÉE 408 PIÈCES RÉF 116004 ELIGOR 1 43,.Matchbox 36c Opel Diplomat Rare Grey Engine, BPW E3 Boxed,.Hot Wheels 2018 Car Culture Japan Historics 2 Nissan Laurel 2000 SGX (Lot of 6),.Tobar 1 18 Scale F50 Model Car,.Spark Model S5511 PORSCHE 911 CARRERA RSR N.45 DNF LM 1994 K.H.WLAZIK-D.EBILING-,.

Universal Hobbies UH5265 1 32 NEW HOLLAND T7.165 S,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.NV181535 by NOREV CITROEN AMI 6 1964 NAPLES 1 18,.Minichamps ISO GRIFO '68 black - 436 128222 - 1 43 - Preis reduziert,.Somerville Models 1 43 Scale 107 - Fordson 5CWT Van - Model Auto Review - bluee,DIECAST MASTERS 1 50 SCALE CATERPILLAR 966M WHEEL LOADER MODEL BN 85928,.Matchbox Roadway No.2 Near mint unused Rare early print,.

Spark Model S4784 BRABHAM BT42 TEDDY PILETTE 1974 N.34 17th BELGIAN GP 1 43 Mode,.CORGI Ford Thames Caravan No. 420 (Mauve) 1 43 Scale Diecast Model RARE ,.Ferrari 400 Superamerica 1962 Red 1 18 Model KK SCALE,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

bluem P009 Mini Car 1 43 Ferrari 312B Mexico GP 1970 Finished Goods JAPAN NEW,.

DODGE 600 Congreenible (red metallic),. We agree in part.

Ferrari Laferrari Año Fabricación 2013 black Mate 1 18 Bburago,.Trofeu Renault Alpine A110 Monte Carlo Historique 2007 E. Comas 1 43 COF16,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.DE CADENET Lola Cosworth DFV 3.0L V8 Ford Belga Martin Bizarre Spark 1 43,.FINEWORK Chgold Q size MAZDA RX-7 FC3S Resin Kit,.Original boxed and condition DINKY TOYS 25X BREAKDOWN LORRY,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Tekno 813, Ferrari France , only Box, ab1985,.RENAULT Mégane RS Tonic orange 2017 Car Collection NOREV 1 18,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Fire Brigade models 1 72 Scale - FBM16 BA & Hose set modern C Figures,; FORD EXPLORER XLT blue 1 18 2015,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Fahrplan Guia Excelsior Oct. 1934,.Wiking Sondermodell-Set 1 87 blackbau MB NG Low Loader, u 406 Und,Mercedes SSK Count Trossi Der blacke Prinz 1930 black Modellauto 1 18 KK Sca,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Ferrari 365 Gtc4 1971 bluee Met KK SCALE 1 18 KKDC180282,.


A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.CIJ EUROPARC 1 43 RENAULT 2.5T Canon Autoporté Militaire ref 3 99,.Ferrari 250 Gtl Coupe 1964 Personal Car Jamiroquai bluee BEST-MODEL 1 43 BE9725 M,.Rio Models 1 43 Scale Diecast 4154 - Mercedes Benz 770 USA Army 1945 - Green,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, DIECAST CAR & DISPLAY CASE 1971 FORD MUSTANG SPORTSROOF GREEN SUN STAR 3620 1 18,; BMW M3 E30 DTM 1989 Ravaglia Warsteiner M-Team Schnitzer Minichamps 1 43,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, 1 24 HYUNDAI SOLATI H350 BUSINESS CAR DIE CAST MODEL,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).


Autoart PEUGEOT 307 WRC 2005 PLAIN BODY VERSION (RED) - 80557,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Tonka Polistil Porsche 911 Turbo Cabrio in 1 16- RED Model Car,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]


This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Vintage 1988 Matchbox Commando Strike Team NIP Helicopter, Tank, Gas Transporter,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.BMW M3 E30 WINNER GUIA MACAU 1991 E. PIRRO SPARK LIM. SA051 1 43,.ONYX 1 43 - 172 s WILLIAMS RENAULT AU REVOIR ALAIN PROST,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Brumm BM0331CH LOTUS 25 J.CLARK 1963 N.1 WINNER BELGIO GP WORLD CHAMPION + PILOT,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Ford Escort MkI TC Anderson Davenpo S. Remo 1968 1 43 Model 400688116,.

CORGI Eddie Stobart - MODERN - ERF Curtainside Lorry - MB,.Atlas Editions Dinky Toys 589A - Depanneues Berliet G.A.K. Autgoldutes MIMB ,.GOZAN 1 32 155 MM US HOWITZER. BRITAINS COPY IN PLASTIC AND METAL.BOXED.VGC,.Spark 1 43 scale 2008 BMW Alpina B6s cabriolet dark green,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Conrad Australian Mercedes Benz Sprinter Escort Van Oversize 1613-0 1 50,.

Studebaker Champion Coupe 1953 Cream Red SPARK 1 43 S2955 Model,.Spark Model S5813 ORECA 07 GIBSON N.26 DNF LM 2017 RUSINOV-THIRIET-LYNN 1 43 Mod,.Porsche 956 B Long Tail N7 Winner 24 H LM 1984 S0998 Spark 1 43 new in a box ,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Fiat 519S Limousine 1929 Rio 1 43 Rio4382 Model Diecast,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Emek Scania R Hook Lift Skip Tipper (White),.Peugeot 205 Gti 1.6 red 1983-1998 1 18 Norev Modell Auto mit oder ohne individ..,.SPARK 1 43 S1597 TYRRELL 022 RD SPANISH GP 1994 MARK blueNDELL,.Spark 1 43 Scale S3353 - Citroen DS3 WRC Winner Monte Carlo 2013,.JEM METAL MINIATURES 1 43 MG MIDGET SPECIAL - RARE SELTEN - GOOD CONDITION,.

blueestar VW T3 Multivan 1989 Volkswagen blue metallic 1 18 KK Diecast NEU, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Citroen DS Pompe Funebri Parigine 1 43 Model RIO,.Corgi CC12001 John Mitchell Transport MAN Curtainside,. The PartridgeBrooklin Models 1 43 Scale BRK83 FORD V8 STATION WAGON Mint Boxed,.AMC Pacer 1975 Beige - Red 1 43 NEO 43521 New,.Vitesse 1 43 Scale VCC99065 - 1997 Austin Mini Moke Cagiva - Yellow,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Collection 1955 Mercedes Benz 300S Car Welly, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Peugeot 504 Coupé 1969 Apink White NOREV - NO 184825 - Echelle 1 18,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Bugatti Veyron EDITION CENTENAIRE - CHROME GREEN 2009 Minichamps 1 43,.Corgi Toys no. 447 Ice Cream Van On Ford Thames...,PartridgeTatra 128N oliv grey Pritsche mit Plane - 1 43 Premium Classixxs PCL47077 NEW,.KK-Scale Ferrari 275 GTB 4 NART Spyder - red - 1967 - 1 18,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1997- MATCHBOX- HOT ROD COLLECTION SET - SERIES 11 - MIB - 1 OF 25,000, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, By370-2 x Matchbox Model Y-5+Y-1+ Y-16+Y-8+Y-7 +Yy18 + Ford Model T,; New 1970 Dodge Charger Elite Edition \The Fast & Furious\ Movie 2001 1 43 Diecas,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, PEUGEOT 504 break MAVIC Tour de France cycliste 1977 1 43 velo, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 1 43 McLaren MP4-20 , British GP 2005 , Spark models, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeSchuco 450292900 Hanomag L28 Kreidler with Kreidler Florett and driver,.

Schuco 1 43 MB SLS AMG GT3 Stoll Dobitsch,.1 87 Wiking MB SK Porta Fenster Wechselkoffer HZ, Clarke's negligent act.Studebaker Champion (Beige Red) 1953,.Maisto Exclusive 38134 1 18 Ford GT metallic bluee with white stripe NEW BOXED,.VINTAGE DINKY TOYS MECCANO d PETROL TANK WAGON RESTORED NM ,.

Ebbro 1 43 Taisan Porsche 911 GT3 RS 2006 Le Mans 24h from Japan,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Rio RI4234 BUGATTI 41 ROYALE NAPOLEON 1929 1 43,Ukbus 8005 Enviro 200 East Yorkshire 1 76 Scale Model Bus,. In Noska,Maisto Modellauto 1 18 Porsche Cayenne turbo,.DINKY TOYS MECCANO 50's DIECAST AUSTIN A90 ATLANTIC CONgreenIBLE No. 106,.BMW 5er E12 M 535i Limousine black 1972-1981 1 18 Norev Modell Auto mit oder..,.Sunstar Sun Star 1 18 Ford FOCUS Winner WRC Rally JAPAN 2007 HIRVONEN, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Porsche 924S Coupe 1988 White SPARK 1 43 S4460 Model,.Jada 1 18 Fast & Furious Brian's Toyota Supra Diecast Vehicle, orange,.IXO - MAGIRUS DLK 2312 FIRE ENGINE GERMAN FIRE BRIGADE 1 43 SCALE,.Oxford Diecast 1 76 Scale 76SCT003 Scania Car Transporter Woodside Motorfreight,. Id., p 923.

DODGE Charger 1969 Dirty Mary Crazy Larry Movie TV Muscle Car V8 ERTL AMT 1 18,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, MODELLINO FORD C-MAX COMPACT 2010 blue METALLIZZATO IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,MINICHAMPS BMW 635 CSI METALLIC blueE IAA 2001 1 43,.1978 Matchbox Datsun 260Z 2+2 & Motorcycle Trailer TP21, bluee,.Hydraulic Excavator Model 320D L 1 50 Diecast Caterpillar Engineering Vehicle,.Maisto 1 18 Scale Diecast - 31663 Jeep Wrangler Rubicon Red,.Norev 1 18 BMW X6 M (F86) Donington grey metallic nieuw in BMW dealer doos,.Ertl American Muscle Western Auto Monte Carlo 18 OVP ,.1963 FORD GALAXIE 500XL (WIILLIAMS STEELE) ST MARYS RACE SUNSTAR 1472 1 18,. The parties ALFA ROMEO 155 Q4 silver MINICHAMPS 1 43,.

Schuco Piccolo Henninger Limited Edition of 2222 VW Mercedes 2005 FREE US SHIP,.Nissan Zytek Lemans LMP2 Winner 2011 1 18 Spark 18S064,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, UNIVERSAL HOBBIES UH5293 1 32 MASSEY FERGUSON 8740S,; Welly WE9864 CHEVROLET IMPALA 1960 METALLIC LIGHT blueE 1 18 Modellino, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

GILLET greenIGO N°105 FIA GT 2005 SPARK S1462 1 43,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 1 18 UT Models Mercedes-Benz SLK 320 AMG DIECAST CAR w RETRACTABLE TOP RARE YW,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)AMC PACER 1975 RED MET CREAM Neoscale 1 43 NEO43521 Model,.BMW Alpina B6 Gt3 no. 40 ADAC Masters 2011,.Welly 1 18 Scale Diecast 18052W - Audi R8 V10 - Red,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Mercedes-Benz E-Klasse Cabrio Stannit grey A207 Vor Facelift 2009-2013 1 43 Sc..,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Hikosebun Carnel 1 43 Nissan Elgrand Highway Star (E52) 2011 Musashino-S New F S,.Hotwheels 1 43 Scale Model Car P9928 - Ferrari GTO - Red,.NOREV - 1 18 - PEUGEOT 309 GTI 16 - 1991 - 184881,.KYOSHO 1 18 PROMO BMW 6 SERIES CONgreenIBLE USED ISSUES PLEASE READ IN BOX,.Starter 1 43 Scale Unbuilt Kit - SX21B Mercedes 190 AMG Circuit GrA 1990 2 Vers,. The ScottsdaleISUZU BELLET 1600GT 1969 1 24 Big Scale Box Mini Car Display Diecast 3CA14,Porsche 919 Hybrid Porsche Team Bernard Webber Hartley Spark S4638 1 43,.Mecedes 300sl Roadster Toy By Hubley,. Id.,Vintage TONKA TOY JEEP Military US Army 1970s G-452-8 Pressed Metal Plastic,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, LESNEY MATCHBOX NO 73 10 TON PRESSURE REFUELLER GREY WHEELS,; BURAGO 1 18 3071 MASERATI 3200 GT RED,Spark 1 43 Scale S4513 - Citroen DS3 WRC th Monte Carlo 2015,.White pink Collectibles 9C1 1988 Police Patrol CHROME Chevrolet Caprice NuBoxed,. The ScottsdaleMaisto 1 18 1969 DODGE RT Muscle Diecast Model Toy 1 18 Charger In Box Collect,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Best Model BT9343 FERRARI 275 GTB SPYDER 1968 STEVE MC QUEEN blueE 1 43 Modellino,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Spark 1 43 Triumph TR3S Spider Team Standard h Le Mans 1959 Art. S1395,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, UNIVERSAL HOBBIES UH3895 1 18 LAND ROVER DEFENDER 90 TDI STATION WAGON,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, CMR 1 43 Scale SBC004 - Porsche 956K - 1000Km Nurburgring 1983,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Porsche 911 930 Turbo 3.3L Coupe 1977 Olive Green NOREV 1 18 NV187575 Miniature,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Early Dinky Toys London Taxi Cab with Driver - Dinky Toys Public Transport (2), (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, 1962 VOLKSWAGEN MICROBUS blueE 1 18 LIMITED TO 300pc BY GREENLIGHT 12852B, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Minichamps 430032294 Mercedes-Benz 250 TD (S123), 1982 Massstab 1 43,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the Partridge1970 Plymouth Cuda Funny Car Larry Arnolds King Fish Quarter Mile 1 18 Auto Worl,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Citroen GS Basalte 1978 black red 1 18 Norev 181626 neu & OVP,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheMINICHAMPS Mercedes Benz 300 Cabriolet 1 43 437032130,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Brumm BM0564 FERRARI 250 GTO N.8 3rd GP.ANGOLA 1962 DAVID PIPER 1 43 Modellino,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Alfa Romeo Giulia 1973 Europa-Testfahrt Sizilien-Hammerfest - 1 43 - Minichamps,Premium ClassiXXs VW T3a Porsche B32 Carrera Cup PCL13031,.CORGI TOYS OSI DAF CITY CITY CAR 1 36,.PORSCHE 911 GT1 Lister Greasly Wallind G-FORCE STRANDELL FIA GT 1997 UT 1 18,. The HuygheSpark Lotus 24 Maurice Trintignant 1 43 S2138,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheDINKY TOYS 1405 OPEL REKORD COUPE 1900 - blueE METALLIC 1 43 - GOOD CONDITION,.

1957 Chevrolet Belair Turquoise 1 18 Ertl American Muscle 7026,.SPARK VANWALL VW5 Winner Belgique GP 1958 Tony Brooks S4872 1 43,.

PEUGEOT 807 SAMU 10 Troyes 1 43 Ambulance,.Universal Hobbies UH5305 MASSEY FERGUSON 5713S 1 32 Modellino,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Hobby Japan MARK 43 1 43 Toyota Altezza RS 200 Super Bright Yel Japan,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgePeugeot 302 Darl' Mat 1 18 Norev Neu OVP,.Russo-Balt 1912 A43 1 43 Limousine Rear Light Made in USSR 1986,.

For example, in Partridge,Neo 1 43 Chevrolet Monte Carlo SS, metallic-dunkelred 1986,. In Jorgensen, supra,PEUGEOT 405 TURBO 16 N.2 WINNER PIKES PEAK 1989 UNSER 1 43 SPARK,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Peugeot 908 Hdi-Fap No. 9 2009 Le Mans Gewinner Harz 1 43 - Spark,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Dinky Toys 288 - Superior Rescuer on a Cadillac Chassis + patient complet no box,. That is the same situation in this case.Porsche 911 Gt3 RSR 2009 Promo 1 43 Model 400096909 MINICHAMPS,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.VESPA MODELLINO CON SIDECAR IN SCALA 1 6 PIAGGIO UFFICIALE ORIGINALE BOX,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Autoart 1 43 Scale Diecast 50921 - 1998 Bugatti EB 118 - bluee,.DINKY 279 AVELING BARFORD DIESEL ROLLER MECCANO ENGLAND ROULEAU COMPRESSEUR,.TSM Model 1 43 Scale TSM144342 - 2012 Mini Countryman All4 Racing,.