Fiat 238 Pirelli Servizio Rally 1971 1 43 Model Model Model RIO 64d27e

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Fiat 238 Pirelli Servizio Rally 1971 1 43 Model Model Model RIO 64d27e
PLYMOUTH FURY SPORT HARD TOP 1968 voiture miniature 1 43 collection neo 44700,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals JOHNNY LIGHTNING WHITE LIGHTNING 1964 Chevy Impala LIMITED EDITION,.EMEK 82095 MAN TGS LX Kofferauflieger 1 25,.Mint Ixo 1 43 Citroen C4 Wrc Cyprus Rally 2009,.Matchbox New Model Racing Car Transporter M-6,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Tekno Diecast DAF XF Spacecab J.HEEBINK,.Schuco Set Weihnachten 1998 für Händler 3x Porsche vergoldet,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Nos Vintage Electronic Funrise Honda goldwing Motorcycle Toy New Lights & Sound,.Renault 30 TX Limousine brown black Metallic 1975-1984 1 18 Norev Modell Aut..,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.CITROEN C4 CACTUS 2014 1 18 NOREV (PEARL WHITE CHOCOLATE AIRBUMP),.WSI 03-1146 1 50 SCALE IVECO STRALIS CAB UNIT - WHITE,.Renault 30 Tx 1981 Bronce brown Metálico, Coche Modelo 1 18 Norev, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Spark Model Porsche Carrera Cup Sven 1 43 S5152,.Porsche 911 991-2 Gt2 Rs Coupe 2018 SPARK 1 43 S7624 Miniature,.NEO MODELS US Dreamcar 1954 Green 1 43 44826,.Minichamps 437137220 Aston Martin V12 ZAGOTA 2012, RED Massstab 1 43,.

PORSCHE 956 K 956K Test session Paul Ricard for Le Mans Testcar Minichamps 1 43,.Porsche 911 (991.2) GT2RS Weissach Paket Kreide 2018 410067220 Minichamps 1 43,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 530 784307 - F1 McLaren Ford M26,.WIKING 230 3 C Mercedes 300 SL Coupé - 60er Jahre,.Set of 30 model cars IST 1 43 Triumph Morris Mercedes Opel Skoda Fiat Diecast,.

Minichamps 1 43 - Citroen SM greene,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.McLaren F1 Xp-4 1993 bluee Experimental Predotype 1 43 Model,.Ferrari F 458 Italia 2009 red - DIE CAST 1 24,.SCHUCO 1 43 450886100 PORSCHE 934 RSR B. WOLLEK 1976,FORD 750 Front End Loader,.1 18 Sealed WELLY PREMIUM COLLECTIBLE 1969 FORD MUSTANG Metal bluee 1 18 DIECAST,.

Toyota 2000 GT 1967 red, Modellauto 1 18 Triple9,.Mercedes Benz SLS AMG GT3 no. 36 ADAC GT Masters 2011,.1 43 BO5B CHEVROLET CAMARO RACE KIT BY SMTS,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Vintage 1969 Redline Hot Wheels RED BARON , Very Good Condition HK. With Badge,.

Spark 1 43 McLaren MP4-12C n.16 24H SPA 2014 SB088,. We agree in part.

Best Model BT9118 ALFA ROMEO TZ2 N.28 DNF 1000 KM MONZA 1967 DE LEONIBUS-DI BONA,.Jada 97168 - 1 24 Scale Model Car Fast & Furious - Brian's Toyota Supra,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.CORGI CC15212 1 50 SCALE MAN TGX REEFER - McLANACHAN TRANSPORT LIMITED WAGON,.Wiking 773 45 Fendt Vario 828 (2014) 077345 1 3 2 NEW BOXED,.1 43 Ebbro Nissan Gt-R,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; MAISTO 2001 CORVETTE ZO6 TORCH RED SPECIAL EDITION 1 18 NEVER OPENED,.Spark SE00 1 43 Resin Audi R8, Winner 2000 Sebring 12H, audi Sport Team Joest,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, 1998 Hot Wheels Pinstripe Power Series 4 Car Set - 20 Sets + (83 Total Cars),; Shelby Collectibles Shelby Terlingua Mustang (black yellow) 2008 1 18 OVP ,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Weird 1 43 - Panhard X88 Le Mans 1954 No.59,.H0 1 87 NPE NA99017 Borgward B 4500 Tanklastzug Aral neu,CORGI SCANIA TOPLINE FRIDGE TRAILER L E JONES LTD RUTHIN MIB CC12908 1 50,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Chevrolet Impala SS 1967 Congreenible Cabriolet Royal plum TSM Modellauto 1 43,.

NOREV 187630 1969 PORSCHE 911 T 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR DARK RED,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Mint Kyosho 1 43 Nissan Concept 2020 Vision Gran Turismo,.Maisto Modellauto 1 18 Porsche Cayenne turbo,.Corgi CC12111 Renault Premium Step Frame Box Trailer - TNT. MIB.,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Rw Modell 1 40 - Hyster Challenger 40 Forklift Trolley Forklift,; Porsche 911 GT3 RSR Gordon Team 1000 KM Spa 2005 Minichamps Nr 400056473,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Neo NSU 1200C orange 1 43 49558,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Corgi Modern Heavy Haulage CC13806 Mercedes Curtainside Norfolkline 1 50 Scale,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Minichamps 400 120631 Alfa Romeo 2600 Spider 1964 silver 1 43,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Ford Falcon XB 351 GT Sedan 1 32 Scale Aussie Classic Diecast Mulberry Model Car,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

RECORD PORSCHE 356 B CABRIOLET BUILT RESIN MODELCAR 1 43,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Yonezawa Toys Diapet Toyota Cgoldlla II 1500 SR 3-Doors in Red on 1 40 in Box,.VW Volkswagen Käfer Beetle 1303 Cabriolet Cabrio orange 1972 Norev 188521 1 18,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Hot Wheels LDC92328BN VW MICROBUS 1962 2 TONE BROWN 1 18 Modellino,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Porsche Carrera Cup ,2e Macau Race 2013, Sparkmodels,.

Lamborghini Miura P400 Bertone 1966 orange RIO 1 43 RIO4583 Model,.Spark 1 43 Porsche 935 n.18 Trans Am Champion 1979 John Paul S4415,.NEO 46230 ALFA ROMEO GIULIA SUPER GIARDINETTA RED 1 43 NEW IN BOX,.Verem (France) Yellow Chevrolet (Pinder) 1950 Diecast 1 43 NIB,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Schuco 1 43 Resine 08871 Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG Roadster (A197), red,.

Solido SE Modell Borgward Isabella Ambulance in White on 1 43 in Box,.1986 Wartburg 353S brown 1 18 MC Group 18078,.SOLIDO 1 43 - 4702 1011 BUGATTI ATLANTE 1939 - C W TIN COLLECTORS BOX,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, 1 18 Ertl Speed Racer Shooting Star yellow,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Matchbox No 24 Weatherall Hydraulic digger in original box very good condition,.Camion Américain Métal Semi-Remorque Lumineuse Spéciale Fête Noël Coca-Cola 1 43,.1954 Chevrolet Belair Congreenible Yellow 1 18 SunStar 1712,.Citroen DS3 WRC Rallye du Chablais S. Loeb Spark SF068 Scale 1 43,.Dinky Commer Breakdown lorry - Brown Green - A NB,.

Dinky toys lot de 3 pièces 405 25D 49A, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Kess Alfa Romeo 2600 Osi De Luxe in White 1965 KE43000250 Ltd Ed 250 1 43,.PORSCHE 911 - 997 CARRERA S anthracite Maisto 1 18,. The PartridgeCorgi Toys 224 Bentley Continental Sports Saloon 1 43 Oldtimer,.LOUIS MARX WILLY'S JEEP, COLLECTIBLE PRESSED STEEL, IN ORIGINAL CONDITION,.Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale BRK4 002C - 1937 Chevrolet Coupe UNBOXED,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, CORGI TOYS AUSTIN A60 ( DRIVING SCHOOL ) 1 43 CODE 3, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.CORGI TOYS 232 FIAT 2100 OVP 1 43,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.DTE LESNEY MATCHBOX SUPERKINGS SK-58 CHEVY CORVETTE POWERBOAT GIFT SET,.1986 Wartburg 353S brown 1 18 MC Group 18078,PartridgeKibri H0 13014 Demag HC 665 m. Superlifteinrichtung Scholpp NEU OVP,.SPARK - 1 43 - PORSCHE 718 CAYMAN GTS 2018 - S7618,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Motormax 1 18 Scale diecast - 73133 1969 Pontiac GTO Judge Green, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, CORGI 222 RENAULT FLORIDE , MAROON, NMB ,; Mazda Mx-5 Nr-A Anno di Costruzione 2015 Bianco 1 18 Tripla 9,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Mini Champs 1 43 Porsche 911 Gt3 Rs, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Chgold Q TAKARA ALL JAPAN GT CHAMPIONSHIP 2001 SERIES SET Rare F S, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeMinichamps 1 43 Mercedes AMG Petronas N. Rosberg Abu Dhabi GP 2014 410-140406,.

1972 Pontiac Firebird Trans Am Adriatic bluee 1 18 Auto World Ertl AMM1076,.ERTL 1949 MERCURY RAT ROD POLICE 1 18 1 OF 700 MADE, Clarke's negligent act.MINICHAMPS VW PASSAT MARINOyellow 400054200,.Model Van Scooby Doo. Includes characters. Kit mounting. Scale 1 25,.Spark Model 1 43 Bmw 5-series Alpina B7 Turbo (E12) 1978 Red Art.S2803,.

Porsche 997 Gt3 R Hybrid 2010 1 43 Spark S2088 Model,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, SPARK 1 43 S0746 RUF DAKARA 2010 blueE,Spark Porsche 911 GT3 RSR (997) IMSA 1 43 S4232,. In Noska,Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM29 - 1935 Triumph Vitesse Flow-Free - Cream,.VINTAGE SCHUCO GERMAN 1041 MIDGET WIND UP MICRO RACER & BOX,.Greenlight Dioramas Series 1 Limited Edition  Steve McQueen Bullitt 1 64 Scale,.Minichamps - Ford Focus RS Le Mans Edition Ford GT40 Tribute - 1 of 504, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.1 43 PORSCHE 956 LH SHOW CAR 1983 FRANKFURT LIMITED EDITION 250pcs by HPI RACING,.Minichamps 1 43 Deichst Mercedes Benz Kipper mit Aufsetztank Gilles Stolberg,.HOT WHEELS hotwheels 5 CAR GIFT PAK 1987 ACTION COMMAND ARMY TANK Near mint,.Hot Wheels 2018 50th RLC Redlines Hot Heap loose Original 16 Display Set 1 1500,. Id., p 923.

1 18 UT Models Mercedes C-Klasse DTM D2 Ludwig NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Fiat Nuovo 500 - Mebetoys A-36 1 43 35466,Vintage 1990's & 2000's Hot Wheels Random Mixed Wholesale Lot of 100 pieces New,.Minichamps 400720011 1 43 LOTUS FORD 72 DAVE WALKER USA GP 1972,.EBBRO 1 43 Motual Autech GT-R Fuji 2015 Finished product,.Norev NV185260 RENAULT BREAK JUVAQUATRE 300 kg 1951 IVORY 1 18 Modellino,.NOREV 183451 2017 MERCEDES BENZ AMG GT C ROADSTER 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR YELLOW,.MODELLINO AUDI A4 PLAYBOY CH. ABT DTM 2007 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.DINKY TOYS 2162 FORD CAPRI - blueE 1 25 - RARE SELTEN - GOOD CONDITION,. The parties NEO MODELS Volkswagen T5 Hornis NEO-45453,.

DINKY TOYS TRIUMPH HERALD N° 189,.Norev Porsche 911 GT3 RS 2010 - blue + weissgoldene Beschriftung 1 18,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, ( GO ) 1 18 Anson Porsche 911 GT2 24 Hours Daytona NEU OVP,; MAYBACH ZEPPELIN 1932 WHITE blueE blue WEISS L. E. 528 PMA 436039408 1 43 NEW OVP, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Diecast Car Model BMW All New 7 Series 750 Li 2017 1 18 (Dark bluee) + GIFT ,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, MASSEY FERGUSON 175 TRACTOR 1 16 DIECAST MODEL BY UNIVERSAL HOBBIES UH2906,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)1 43 Jaguar E-Type Series 1 Coupe - Century Dragon-Cream White-High End Diecast,.RENAULT ESTAFETTE HOOVER 1961 car miniature 1 43 collection ixo,.4282- Vintage Battery Operated VW VOLKSWAGEN Bug Police Car by Alps Japan,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,DIECAST CAR & DISPLAY CASE 1981 CHEVY CAMARO Z28 T-TOP W GREENLIGHT 12906 1 18,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.RENAULT 5 Maxi Turbo Rallye 1986 Armor Thomasse budget labbe Solido N 18,.Ferrari 550 von 1996, red, 1 43, PMA MInichamps,.GreenLight 12859 1 18 Scale 1987 Pontiac GTA, sizedega 500 Pace Car Diecast,.Bburago Burago Mercedes Benz 190 E 1 24 Modellauto,.SPARK Cadillac Series 61 Congreenible 1 43 S2922,. The ScottsdaleClassic Metal Works 1 24 NATIONAL PARK POLICE Ford Police Interceptor,Feather Town & Country Large Rug - 51.25 x 51.25 Square,.Hot Wheels 2018 Lamborghini Aventador Miura Homage Super Treasure Hunt.,. Id.,1951 Studebaker Panorama - The 43rd Avenue Collection England 1 43 in Box 34984,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1987 BMW M535i blueE METALLIC 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY NOREV 183267,; Porsche 911 GT2 RS (red black) 2018,1 43 Wiking MAN TGM Feuerwehr pinknbauer AT LF 0431 97,.Burago bburago fiat 124 au 1 24,. The ScottsdaleINTERALLIED MODELER'S MD43202 1 43 Keisuke Takahashi RX-7 FD-3S Finished Goods,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Aoshima Bunka Kyozai 1 24'll move selling series No.03 festival Wow Japan,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; NEO Bitter SC Coupe 1979 (metallic dark bro 1 43 44267,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, MOTEUR V8 CHEVROLET BLOWN HOT ROD 1 6,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, DTM 2018 Mercedes C 63 AMG Coupe Daniel Juncadella 1 43 Neu OVP,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, 04985 SCHUCO 1 43 VW Tiguan NOTARZT Nürnberg Arzt RTW,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Revell 28503 Renault Clio Sport V6 Trophy, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, MINICHAMPS 1 43 - 400 034090 MERCEDES BENZ 200 - POLIZEI, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Minichamps PM437091997 AUDI R 8 N.97 NURBURGRING 09 1 43,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeNeuheit norev V.Übersicht PEUGEOT 205 RALLYE 88 Auto Miniatur 1 43,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, SCHUCO RESIN RENAULT R5 MAXI TURBO PEARL WHITE 1 43 LIMITED EDITION OF 500,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheBrooklin 1 43 Scale BRK34 001 - 1954 Nash Ambassador Maroon,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Schuco 1 32 Traktor Fendt 211 Vario, green 450781500,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,ArsTecnica Dunlop MAN in red Dunlop-Edition,SPARK ENSIGN N176 British GP 1976 Chris Amon S3952 1 43,.Maisto 1 18 Scale Diecast - 31618 Chrysler Panel Cruiser bluee,.A.S.S WIKING UNVERGLAST OPEL BLITZ WIMO SIP GETRÄNKE GK 353 1 CS 164 1 1.W TOP,. The Huyghe1974 Rover 3500 V8 Policia Reino Unido 1 18 MC Group 18045,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheVintage Auburn Rubber Toys Police Officer On 3-Wheeler Motorcycle 521 Excellent,.

Puma Gtv 033 1985 With Alfa Romeo Engine White Limited 175 pcs 1 43 Model,.MCG - 1 18 - LADA NIVA - 1976 - 18111G,.

PlayStation Gran Turismo Sortiment Set 13 Modellautos Retro PS 1 64 Hot Wheels,.Art Model AM0161-2 FERRARI 166 MM BARCHETTA N.23 ACCIDENT LM 1949 J.LUCAS-HELDE',. Nonetheless, on the facts of Hi-Story HS138RE 1 43 MAZDA ATENZA WAGON 2016 Soul Red Premium Metallic,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeNorscot 55205 Cat 836h Landfill Compactor; 1 50,.1973 Porsche 911 Carrera RS Model Car 1 43 Scale by Spark,.

For example, in Partridge,Ford Fire Engine 1938 1 24 Model YAT MING,. In Jorgensen, supra,Ferrari California T Turbo Coupe Dunkel red Geschlossen Ab Facelift 2014 Signa..,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Porsche 918 Spyder 2013 blue 1 of 624 1 43 Minichamps neu & OVP 410062130,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,1 18 diecast Model by Sun Star Mitsubishi Pajero,. That is the same situation in this case.Art Model 1 43 Scale ART123 - Ferrari Dino Bridgehampton 1986 - Pedro Rodriguez,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Audi R8 V10 Plus Coupe 2015 Red MAISTO 1 18 MI38135R,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Porsche 911 997 II GT2 silver Coupe Ab 2007 2004-2011 1 18 Norev Modell Auto m..,.Hot Wheels Redline Double Vision Dark Green Enamel. 1973 - Near Mint ,.Porsche 911 (993) Carrera Cabriolet, silver, 1 18, Norev,.

Vintage hot wheels lot 5 cars 1960’s 1970’s,.