PORSCHE 914 6 914 Rallye Monte Carlo 1971 1971 1971 Waldegaard Nightversion Spark 1 43 698163

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
PORSCHE 914 6 914 Rallye Monte Carlo 1971 1971 1971 Waldegaard Nightversion Spark 1 43 698163
Spark Model S5092 PORSCHE 935 N.45 13th LM 1979 A.PLANKENHORN-P.GURDJIAN-J.WINTE,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals J-collection 1 43 Toyota Crown Hybrid 2008 Die Cast Model,.6 Racing Champions 24 K gold 1 24 Scale Hot Rod Magazine NIB Complete Set Of 6,.CORGI TOY 57301 MERCEDES BENZ AMBULANCE PARAMEDIC M BOXED RARE ,.Fiat 128 Cl Maradona 1982 White, Model Car 1 43 Neo Scale Models,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Mebetoys A23 Chaparral 1 43 jamais joué en boite MIB,.Playwell (Hong Kong) Red Porsche 917K Martini Racing Team Plastic Electric 1 16,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.TAM20061 by TAMIYA LOTUS TYPE 79 KIT DI MONTAGGIO - 1 20,.1 24 Action Austin Dillon Rheem 2016 Chevy Camaro 1 of 505,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Spark 1 43 Scale S4211 - Morgan Nissan G-Drive Racing Le Mans 2014,.Fujimi FJ15237 PORSCHE 935 K 3 N.61 LM 1981 1 43 Modellino,.ROAD LEGENDS, 1964, SHELBY COBRA, 427S C, 1 18 Scale, Diecast Model Car., Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Original Audi SQ7 4M S Q7 Modellauto 1 43 Daytonagrey Daytona grey 5011617613,.Contessa Hino 1 43 Minicar,.Wiking 773 19 Amazone seeder EDX 6000-tc 077319 1 3 2 NEW BOXED,.Audi R8 LMS Ultra Prosperia 24H Nurburgring 2014 , spark models,.

CITROEN 2CV POMPIERS DE COGOLIN ELYSEE 545 1 43,.SSM Soviet Tank T-64B-60 1 43 3031,.1989 Lancia Delta HF Integrale 16V Dark Grey 118 Triple-9 1800172,.1 18 Bburago Ferrari 250 GTO Nürburgring blue Handarbeitsmodell aus Bausatz,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 430103005 - 1966 Lamborghini Miura - Yellow,.

MATCHBOX SUPERFAST 43 PONY TRAILER + HORSES - YELLOW - VERY GOOD IN BOX,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.IXO Altaya 1975 M.A.N. Saviam 32-256 Schwerer-Hauber ,1 43 RARITÄT,.Revell 1 18 Scale Diecast - 8833 '69 Chevrolet Corvette Cabriolet Red,.VINTAGE Dinky Toys b-G SUNBEAM-TALBOT by Meccano Diecast Car. RESTORED RARE,PORSCHE 911 997 GT3 R VLN 2012 Lieb Krumbach Manthey Moskovskaya Spark 1 43,.Peugeot RCZ R Concept Coupe Matt black mit gold Ab Facelift 2013 1 18 Norev ..,.

Corgi Classics Showmans Range 15901 Scammell Highwayman Generator Trailer Dodgem,.Vintage Johnny Lightning Lot of 7 1970 Boss 302 in Different colors MIP MOC,.Saurer D 330 Swiss Army green Tek Hoby 1 87,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

IXO TRU009 Mercedes Benz 1113 Stassano & STASSANO Lait CAMION échelle 1 43 °,.

FORD Mustang GT Trans Am TransAM 1967 Titus Terlingua Racing RAR Spark 1 43,. We agree in part.

(S) brooklin white metal LINCOLN CONTINENTAL BRK11,.Lotus 25 BRM GP French 1964 M.Hailwood S1612 1 43 Sparkmodel,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Porsche 911 GT3 Rs N.66 Gewinner 24H Daytona 2003 in 1 43 von Spark,.ZAZ 965 light bluee 1960 DIP Models resin 196501 1 43,.Schuco Hanomag L28 Horex 1 43 - 1 43,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; BMW 507 Cabrio 1956 silver 1 18 Norev 183483 neu & OVP,.BBURAGO 1 18 FERRARI 488 GTB 2015 No25 LIMITED EDITION 70th ANNIVERSARY BURAGO 7,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Minichamps PM437110336 MERCEDES SLS GT3 N.36 ADAC 2011 1 43,; Porsche 911 R 2016 1 43 Minichamps 410066232 991 NARDOGREY YELLOW 504pcs.,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Kyosho Porsche 911 Turbo 1975 (White),.TSM Model 1 43 Scale TSM144343 - 2012 Mini Countryman All4 Racing,CORGI 1 50 CC15207 MAN TG-X (XL) FUEL TANKER EDDIE STOBART (D29),. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Saab 95 1959 bluee White 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,.

1969 Dodge Charger Daytona LA orange County Dealer 1 18 Auto World Ertl AMM1091,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.6 X JAMES BOND 007 CASINO ROYALE CARS CRAIG ASTON ROVER EAGLEMOSS FABRI NEW,.Corgi - CC13783 - Scania R Highline Walking Floor Trailer Malcolm Logistics,.1 18 Norev Opel Manta A Coupe 1970 green NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, PORSCHE 911 Carrera RSR 3.0 Kremer Jägermeister Heyer Minichamps 1 43,; SPARK HILL GH1 th British GP 1975 - Alan Jones S5675 1 43,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Record 1 43 Ferrari Mondial 8 Cabriolet Resin Handmade Model Car Kit,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

PORSCHE 914 6 914 Rallye Monte Carlo 1971 1971 1971 Waldegaard Nightversion Spark 1 43 698163PORSCHE 914 6 914 Rallye Monte Carlo 1971 1971 1971 Waldegaard Nightversion Spark 1 43 698163PORSCHE 914 6 914 Rallye Monte Carlo 1971 1971 1971 Waldegaard Nightversion Spark 1 43 698163

1 18 Eagle Chevrolet Deluxe Congreenible 1941 bluee NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

FERRARI FXX-K YELLOW 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY BBURAGO 16010,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

BB239-2 Schuco 1 43 03091 Mercedes-Benz MB L6600 Fire Brigade Fw , Nip,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

SCHUCO PICCOLO 740 BUS MERCEDES - VOITURE MINIATURE GERMANY REF31294,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Bruder Ambulance with Driver Mercedes-Benz Sprinter 1 16 Kids Toy Vehicle 02536,.Jada 1 24 Scale 99574 - Brian's Ford F-150 SVT Lightning - Fast & Furious,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Greenlight 1 18 Scale Diecast - 12838 1967 Volkswagen Beetle orange White,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.BB248-2 x Vitesse 1 43 Model Mercedes 170 4711 + Volkswagen 1500 etc. Nip,.

1 18 NEUHEIT Norev - Citroën DS 23 Pallas 1973 - Tholonet Beige,.Glazier Günther Adgreenising Bus Man SD 200 DETAILED FROM WIKING BUS H0 1 87 gd4å,.AutoArt 1 43 - Mercedes McLaren SLR 2003 black,.Rio RI4571 FIAT 1500 6C GASOGENO 1935 1 43 Modellino,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.BENTLEY CONTINENTAL GTC cabriolet blue Breeze 1 43,.

1 18 PORSCHE 917 10 Nurburgring 1974 Minichamps,.1 18 Minichamps Williams Renault FW19 Villeneuve Champ NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.Norev 188521 1 18 VW VOLKSWAGEN 1303 CABRIOLET 1972 orange,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, DINKY TOYS No 23p GARDNER'S MG MAGNETTE LAND SPEED RECORD CAR (MINT),; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.HOT WHEELS TREASURE HUNT LOT OF 10 CARS 2008 MUSTANG GT '09 TORINO sizeDEGA ^,.Smart 1 43 Mini Car Champs Four,.XactDetail 1967 Camaro SS Hot Rod test car 1 18 scale diecast,.Dkw Universal Type 89S Meisterklasse 1951 Neoscale 1 43 NEO46275 Model,.Rio RI4564 FIAT 128 RALLY 1971 GREEN 1 43 Modellino,.

Porsche Macan Turbo black Minichamps Dealer Box WAP0201520E 1 43, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Norev 1 18 Mercedes Benz 190 SL Beige Diecast Model Car Beige 183539,.SPARK 1 43 S1322 ABARTH FIAT 700S N52 LM 1962,. The PartridgeDINKY TOYS MECCANO 50's DIECAST AUSTIN A90 ATLANTIC CONgreenIBLE No. 106,.MODELLINO PORSCHE 911 GT3 O. RACING TEAM MORELLATO PORSCHE SUPERCUP 2006 IN MET,.1953 Ford Crestline Sunliner Coupe red-black 1 18 Welly 12525,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, HOTWHEELS - ELITE (MATTEL) - 1 0 - STAR WARS TIE FIGHTER FALCON - THE EMPIRE STR, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.NOREV ANCIEN RENAULT 4 FOURGONNETTE PUB CALOR + BOITE,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Vw Passat B3 Vr6 Variant 1988 Grey Metallic 1 18 Model KK SCALE,.PORSCHE 914 6 914 Rallye Monte Carlo 1971 Waldegaard Nightversion Spark 1 43,PartridgeBest Model 9445 FERRARI 308 GTB COUPE AUSTRA'83 1 43 Modellino,.Minichamps PM437110336 MERCEDES SLS GT3 N.36 ADAC 2011 1 43,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Lot 5300 Wiking MAN 415 Kühlsattelzug, greyblue abasaltgrey, 1967-1969, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, SPARK HILL GH1 th British GP 1975 - Alan Jones S5675 1 43,; Audi RS 6 Limousine 2002 bluee met. - Minichamps 1 43 ,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, DINKY TOYS No 23p GARDNER'S MG MAGNETTE LAND SPEED RECORD CAR (MINT), (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Lot 5300 Wiking MAN 415 Kühlsattelzug, greyblue abasaltgrey, 1967-1969, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeAudi RS 6 Limousine 2002 bluee met. - Minichamps 1 43 ,.

Trofeu TF1704 BMW 2002 TI N.8 WINNER AUSTRIAN ALPINE RALLY 1973 A.WARMBOLD-J.TOD,.SPARK 1 43 - S1423 ZYTEK 07S 2 TEAM BARAZI EPSILON LM 2007 2ND LMP2 CLASS, Clarke's negligent act.Best Model BT9342 JAGUAR E COUPE' N.177 DNF TOUR D.FRANCE 1963 CARDI-KLUKASZENWS,.FORD Sierra RS COSWORTH 1986 1 18 Norev 182770 Greymetallic,.Ford Fiesta WRC No19 20th Monte Carlo 2015 Raoux Escartefig S4514 Spark 1 43 NEW,.

Matchbox Series Lesney Leyland Petrol Tanker BP 32 Vintage Old,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Trofeu TF1704 BMW 2002 TI N.8 WINNER AUSTRIAN ALPINE RALLY 1973 A.WARMBOLD-J.TOD,Minichamps 1 18 Porsche 911 (991) GT3 R Class winnaar 24h Daytona 2017 de Quesad,. In Noska,Renault 16 1968 grey 1 18 Norev 183133 neu & OVP,.Spark Model S5092 PORSCHE 935 N.45 13th LM 1979 A.PLANKENHORN-P.GURDJIAN-J.WINTE,.J-collection 1 43 Toyota Crown Hybrid 2008 Die Cast Model,.6 Racing Champions 24 K gold 1 24 Scale Hot Rod Magazine NIB Complete Set Of 6, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.CORGI TOY 57301 MERCEDES BENZ AMBULANCE PARAMEDIC M BOXED RARE ,.Fiat 128 Cl Maradona 1982 White, Model Car 1 43 Neo Scale Models,.Mebetoys A23 Chaparral 1 43 jamais joué en boite MIB,.Playwell (Hong Kong) Red Porsche 917K Martini Racing Team Plastic Electric 1 16,. Id., p 923.

TAM20061 by TAMIYA LOTUS TYPE 79 KIT DI MONTAGGIO - 1 20,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, SPARK 1 43 - S1423 ZYTEK 07S 2 TEAM BARAZI EPSILON LM 2007 2ND LMP2 CLASS,1 24 Action Austin Dillon Rheem 2016 Chevy Camaro 1 of 505,.Spark 1 43 Scale S4211 - Morgan Nissan G-Drive Racing Le Mans 2014,.Fujimi FJ15237 PORSCHE 935 K 3 N.61 LM 1981 1 43 Modellino,.ROAD LEGENDS, 1964, SHELBY COBRA, 427S C, 1 18 Scale, Diecast Model Car.,.Original Audi SQ7 4M S Q7 Modellauto 1 43 Daytonagrey Daytona grey 5011617613,.Contessa Hino 1 43 Minicar,.Wiking 773 19 Amazone seeder EDX 6000-tc 077319 1 3 2 NEW BOXED,. The parties Audi R8 LMS Ultra Prosperia 24H Nurburgring 2014 , spark models,.

CITROEN 2CV POMPIERS DE COGOLIN ELYSEE 545 1 43,.SSM Soviet Tank T-64B-60 1 43 3031,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Best Model BT9342 JAGUAR E COUPE' N.177 DNF TOUR D.FRANCE 1963 CARDI-KLUKASZENWS,; 1989 Lancia Delta HF Integrale 16V Dark Grey 118 Triple-9 1800172, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

1 18 Bburago Ferrari 250 GTO Nürburgring blue Handarbeitsmodell aus Bausatz,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 430103005 - 1966 Lamborghini Miura - Yellow,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)MATCHBOX SUPERFAST 43 PONY TRAILER + HORSES - YELLOW - VERY GOOD IN BOX,.IXO Altaya 1975 M.A.N. Saviam 32-256 Schwerer-Hauber ,1 43 RARITÄT,.Revell 1 18 Scale Diecast - 8833 '69 Chevrolet Corvette Cabriolet Red,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,VINTAGE Dinky Toys b-G SUNBEAM-TALBOT by Meccano Diecast Car. RESTORED RARE,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.PORSCHE 911 997 GT3 R VLN 2012 Lieb Krumbach Manthey Moskovskaya Spark 1 43,.Peugeot RCZ R Concept Coupe Matt black mit gold Ab Facelift 2013 1 18 Norev ..,.Corgi Classics Showmans Range 15901 Scammell Highwayman Generator Trailer Dodgem,.Vintage Johnny Lightning Lot of 7 1970 Boss 302 in Different colors MIP MOC,.Saurer D 330 Swiss Army green Tek Hoby 1 87,. The ScottsdaleIXO TRU009 Mercedes Benz 1113 Stassano & STASSANO Lait CAMION échelle 1 43 °,FORD Mustang GT Trans Am TransAM 1967 Titus Terlingua Racing RAR Spark 1 43,.(S) brooklin white metal LINCOLN CONTINENTAL BRK11,. Id.,Lotus 25 BRM GP French 1964 M.Hailwood S1612 1 43 Sparkmodel,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Porsche 911 GT3 Rs N.66 Gewinner 24H Daytona 2003 in 1 43 von Spark,; FORD Sierra RS COSWORTH 1986 1 18 Norev 182770 Greymetallic,ZAZ 965 light bluee 1960 DIP Models resin 196501 1 43,.Schuco Hanomag L28 Horex 1 43 - 1 43,. The ScottsdaleBMW 507 Cabrio 1956 silver 1 18 Norev 183483 neu & OVP,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, BBURAGO 1 18 FERRARI 488 GTB 2015 No25 LIMITED EDITION 70th ANNIVERSARY BURAGO 7,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Ford Fiesta WRC No19 20th Monte Carlo 2015 Raoux Escartefig S4514 Spark 1 43 NEW,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Matchbox Series Lesney Leyland Petrol Tanker BP 32 Vintage Old,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Porsche 911 R 2016 1 43 Minichamps 410066232 991 NARDOGREY YELLOW 504pcs.,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Kyosho Porsche 911 Turbo 1975 (White),; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, TSM Model 1 43 Scale TSM144343 - 2012 Mini Countryman All4 Racing, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, CORGI 1 50 CC15207 MAN TG-X (XL) FUEL TANKER EDDIE STOBART (D29), (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Saab 95 1959 bluee White 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the Partridge1969 Dodge Charger Daytona LA orange County Dealer 1 18 Auto World Ertl AMM1091,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, 6 X JAMES BOND 007 CASINO ROYALE CARS CRAIG ASTON ROVER EAGLEMOSS FABRI NEW,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheCorgi - CC13783 - Scania R Highline Walking Floor Trailer Malcolm Logistics,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.1 18 Norev Opel Manta A Coupe 1970 green NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,PORSCHE 911 Carrera RSR 3.0 Kremer Jägermeister Heyer Minichamps 1 43,Record 1 43 Ferrari Mondial 8 Cabriolet Resin Handmade Model Car Kit,.1 18 Eagle Chevrolet Deluxe Congreenible 1941 bluee NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.FERRARI FXX-K YELLOW 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY BBURAGO 16010,. The HuygheBB239-2 Schuco 1 43 03091 Mercedes-Benz MB L6600 Fire Brigade Fw , Nip,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheSCHUCO PICCOLO 740 BUS MERCEDES - VOITURE MINIATURE GERMANY REF31294,.

Bruder Ambulance with Driver Mercedes-Benz Sprinter 1 16 Kids Toy Vehicle 02536,.Jada 1 24 Scale 99574 - Brian's Ford F-150 SVT Lightning - Fast & Furious,.

Greenlight 1 18 Scale Diecast - 12838 1967 Volkswagen Beetle orange White,.BB248-2 x Vitesse 1 43 Model Mercedes 170 4711 + Volkswagen 1500 etc. Nip,. Nonetheless, on the facts of 1 18 NEUHEIT Norev - Citroën DS 23 Pallas 1973 - Tholonet Beige,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeGlazier Günther Adgreenising Bus Man SD 200 DETAILED FROM WIKING BUS H0 1 87 gd4å,.AutoArt 1 43 - Mercedes McLaren SLR 2003 black,.

For example, in Partridge,Rio RI4571 FIAT 1500 6C GASOGENO 1935 1 43 Modellino,. In Jorgensen, supra,BENTLEY CONTINENTAL GTC cabriolet blue Breeze 1 43,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.1 18 PORSCHE 917 10 Nurburgring 1974 Minichamps,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,1 18 Minichamps Williams Renault FW19 Villeneuve Champ NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,. That is the same situation in this case.Norev 188521 1 18 VW VOLKSWAGEN 1303 CABRIOLET 1972 orange,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.HOT WHEELS TREASURE HUNT LOT OF 10 CARS 2008 MUSTANG GT '09 TORINO sizeDEGA ^,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Smart 1 43 Mini Car Champs Four,.XactDetail 1967 Camaro SS Hot Rod test car 1 18 scale diecast,.Dkw Universal Type 89S Meisterklasse 1951 Neoscale 1 43 NEO46275 Model,.

Rio RI4564 FIAT 128 RALLY 1971 GREEN 1 43 Modellino,.