PORSCHE PORSCHE PORSCHE RS 1960 LM 1960 JOLLY MODEL JL756 5ea31f

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
PORSCHE PORSCHE PORSCHE RS 1960 LM 1960  JOLLY MODEL JL756 5ea31f
Peterbilt 350 Preston People 1952 IXO 1 43 TTR003 Model,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals VINTAGE DIECAST--CORVETTE MAKO SHARK PredO--1 18 SCALE--10 LONG--by MOTOR MAX,.Burago 1 24 Scale Model Car 0120 - Ford Escort XR3 Martini,.Best Model BT9625 FERRARI 330 GTC PERSONAL CAR MARCELLO MASTROIANNI 1 43 Modelli,.BMW Z4-M Coupé h Nurburgring 2009 - 1 43 - Minichamps,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.1 18 AUTOart Lamborghini Gallardo Superleggera grey NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.Ebbro 1 43 Nissan Gt-R Lm Nismo 2015 Launch Version New F S,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Corgi CC11907 ERF EC Petrol Tanker BP - gold Star Special 1 50 Scale - Ltd. Ed.,.Planex Communications 1 43PLANEX COLLECTION LOTUS F1 SERIES Lotus72E Austr...,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Voiture miniature Peugeot 402 Eclipse fermée Elysée 1 43,.DINKY Meccano England original 1947 RILEY SALOON RMA RMB (40a) light green,.BN183-0,5x Highspeed H0 1 87 Metall-Auto Alfa Romeo etc, NEUW, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Spark - 1 43 - Porsche 997 GT3 cup Team Starchase,.Franklin Mint 1913 Model T Ford 1 16 Die-Cast Car W Box & Papers,.Auto World 1 64 Lot of 15,.AUTOart 1 43 Lamborghini Gallardo LP570-4 Superleggera White AA54643,.

Setra S6 Bus Travel Dream Light bluee, Model Car 1 43 Schuco,.1 18 ERTL EUROPEAN CLASSICS 1948 JAGUAR XK120 GREEN od,.Wiking 1 32 077347 Claas Scorpion 7044 Teleskoplader - NEU OVP,.1 43 ARROWS FA1 (1978) R.PATRESE - SRC FORMULA 1 BUILT MODEL,.Herpa - MAN TGX HZ Bayern LKW 2016 500 Jahre Reinheitsgebot - 926621 -1 87,.

Dinky Toys No. 228, Super Sprinter, - Suberb Mint.,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.NOREV185113 - RENAULT Megane trophy Team Oregon costa Vainqueur 2012 - 1 18,.1 43 CL20BK Jaguar Mk2 Coombs race car KIT BY SMTS,.Spark 1 43 Citroen C3 WRC Loeb Elena Rally Mexico 2018 S5962,Corgi Toys 1 36 Working LAND ROVER LWB + HORSEBOX TRAILER WEATHERED Car MIB`02,.Porsche 911 Carrera 2 Cabriolet 1990 bluee Metallic Minichamps 1 43 430067331 Mod,.

1 43 TSM124384 Acura NSX Cabriolet, Purple 2012 Avengers Cars, Resin HONDA NSX,.DUBLO Dinky Toys MECCANO England vintage MORRIS ROYAL MAIL VAN mint boxed,.Corgi toy No 424 is the model of the Ford Zephyr Estate car VNMB,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

NOREV 1990 RENAULT 5 GT TURBO RALLEY MONTE CARLO blueE 1 18 DIECAST CAR,.

007 James Bond Car Collection Chevrolet Lincoln Mercedes Hearse X 5 LARGE SETS,. We agree in part.

Ghia 230 S Coupe 1963 Christmas Edition 1 43 MATRIX MX10701-012X,.Lancia Flavia Sport Zagato red silver 1963 Neo 1 43,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Premium ClassiXXs Mercedes L 319 Abschleppwagen - Isetta-Service - 1 43,.Audi 80 GT 1972 hell blue 1 of 252 1 43 Minichamps neu & OVP 400015002,.AUTO WORLD 1 18 1969 1 2 PLYMOUTH ROAD RUNNER DIE-CAST WHITE AMM1147,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; PORSCHE 911 GT1 Baldi Neard KONRAD MOTORSPORT LE MANS 1997 MINICHAMPS 1 43,.UH Renault 5 Turbo Coupe Europe Europcar 1981 4550 Universal Hobbies 1 18,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, CORGI - C89 60 YEARS OF TRANSPORT BUS SET,; FORCES OF VALOR 1 32 GERMAN AMBULANCE 4X4 80073,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

1 43 Art Model Ferrari Dino 246 Car Nurburgring ART911 Diorama,.Minichamps Werbemodell Porsche Panamera 4S Diesel in blue-metallic 1 43,Spark 1 43 Lotus 109, No.11, European GP 1994 Eric Bernard S1678,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.1973 Mercedes 220-8 (W115) Policia Alemania 1 18 MC Group 18054,.

OLD AR Char RENAULT Ref 49 MINT 1938 7cm,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Triumph TR3 S , 24H LeMans 1959 , Spark models,.1 64 Hot wheels Cool Classic Datsun blueeBird 510 two different cards,.Ikarus 280.33 red-white Soviet Bus 1 43,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Porsche Minicar 1 43 Schuco Shuko,; Spark S2161 Aston Martin One-77 MIB,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Tyrrell Ford 007 J.P. Jabouille 1975 1 43 Model 400750015 MINICHAMPS,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

1 18 Norev Mercedes-Benz 300 SL Cabrio 1986 dunkel blue Softtop1 18 Norev 183466,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Fiat Ritmo Bertone 100S Supercabrio Palinuro Open 1985 Kess 1 43 KS43010040 Mode,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Renault R16 1968 Grey Met NOREV 1 18 NV185133 Model,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

REMORQUE L ALSACIENNE SERIE LIMITEE 1000 EX CIJ PAR NOREV NEUF EN BOITE,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.International 1 50 scale HX520 White Tandem Tractor - Diecast Masters 71001,.Matrix Cisitalia 33DF Volo Radente 1954 1 43 MX10307-011,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.UT 1 18 FERRARI F355 SPIDER xc,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Tekno Denmark 823 Ford Taunus 17M 17 M 2 tone in excellent plus condition,.

KYOSHO 1 43scale Bentley Bentayga Onyx [No.KS05621NX],.Schuco Varianto Bus 3044 a cuerda AÑOS 40 Made in US-Zone Germany coche juguete,.MASERATI 150GT SPIDER FANTUZZI 1957 WHITE MX41311-021 Matrix 1 43 New ,.Norev PM0010 RENAULT LAGUNA COUPE CONCEPT 2007 Modellino,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Bmw 5-Series M535I (M5) (E12) 1978 bluee Met NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO49540 Model,.

Volkswagen Beetle Kafer With Ski 1953 Red RIO 1 43 RIO4561 Model,.Minichamps 1 43 Porsche 911 RS 964 redax N°9 Carrera Cup 1993 M. Hezemans,.ALTAYA CAMION POMPIERS DELAHAYE 103 EPM MARGIRUS NEUF SANS SA BOITE,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Schabak Models 1 43 Scale Diecast - B66005748 Mercedes Benz SL 500 Green,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.RC AUTO NIKKO MINI + CARAVAN 0382165,.Neo 1 43 Fiat Abarth 1000 GT Monomille red,.EBBRO 1 20 KIT IN PLASTICA AUTO TEAM LOTUS TYPE 91 1982 BRITISH GP ART 012 5800,.DINKY FRANCE 1413 CITROEN DYANE MADE IN SPAIN 77 COMME NEUVE EN BOITE D'ORIGINE,.1 18 KYOSHO MORRIS MINI COOPER DIECAST MODEL IN RED,.

Spark 1 43 BMW 6-series M6 Team Schubert Winner Round 3 VLN 2016 Art. SG370, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Ferrari FXX Evoluzione, red, 2008, Red Line, RL128, 1 43, NEW, MIB,.Minichamps 1 43 minicar B.A.R Honda F1 Takuma Sato limited edition 9504 units,. The PartridgeSchuco Deutz 8.30 with Twin Tyre 1 32 450768700,.UKBUS 0004 BUS EIREANN ENVIRO 200 1 76 SCALE MODEL BUS,.1 50 Diecast Masters Caterpillar 85921 DM CAT 627K Wheel Scraper Tractor Yellow,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, New Greenlight Fast and the Furious 1 43 Nissan Skyline GT-R R32 1989 Japan, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.1 43 Rial ARC1 van de GP van Japan in 1988, Spark,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Spark 1 43 Porsche Cayenne - World Expedition 2018,.NOREV JET CAR METAL MADE FRANCE CITROEN GS CAMARGUE BERTONE 1972 COUPE REF 714a,PartridgeBMW M5 E34 (1994) Resin Model Car 43311,.Fiat 501 1925 + figurine Rio 1 43 4302 P,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Fiat 238 Ambulanza Croce white Di Milano 1973 1 43 Model RIO, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Atlas Editore 1 43 Traccia 0 DKW F89L Trasportatore Auto Union Cassone Von,; Vintage Lesney Cement Mixer - Green with Red Wheels - Rare,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, 1 43 Ixo Peterbilt 350 Preston 1952 orange creme, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, BROOKLIN BRK.136 1947 CHEVROLET STYLEMASTER SEDAN DELIVERY, 1 43, MIB , (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeS.M.T.S Gallery Collection Station Hairpin 1987 Lotus 99T - Boxed,.

Giocher PA01C FIAT PANDA STRADALE CARABINIERI,.Best Model 9466 LANCIA BETA GIRO D'ITALIA 1980 1 43 Modellino, Clarke's negligent act.1 18 Norev Porsche 911 (997) GT2 white 2007 NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.BMC Mini Cooper S - Corgi Toys 334 England 30497,.Honda Prelude Mk IV blue-met. 1992 Neoscale 1 43 NEO44509 Model,.

WEISE-TOYS 1108 DEUTZ-FAHR 6155 Agredron 1 32,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Mercedes Benz 230 Ge W460 1991 Thw Minichamps 1 43 400038091 Diecast Model,Best Model BT9585 ALFA ROMEO 33.2 SPYDER N.5 WINNER MONTLHERY 1969 LARROUSSE-VER,. In Noska,PEUGEOT 202 MICHELIN PARAD CAR grey 1 43,.STAR MODELLI 12 KIT BUILT FERRARI 348 TS - RED 1 43 - GOOD IN BOX,.NEO MODELS Lloyd LT 500 600 1955 1 43 43872,.Spark Model SG381 DALLARA F3 N.3 3rd RACE 3 ZANDVOORT GP 2017 M.GUNTHER 1 43 Mod, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.CORGI 158 LOTUS CLIMAX F1 RACING CAR IN ORIGINAL BOX,.Burago 1 18 scale Diecast - 3021 Porsche 356B Coupe 1962 White,.Rio RI4513 VW MAGGIOLINO 1949 CABRIO C CAPOTTA grey 1 43 Modellino,.Best Model BT9267 ALFA ROMEO TZ 1 N.44 20th LE MANS 1965 KOOB-FINKELSTEIN 1 43 M,. Id., p 923.

Kit PORSCHE 911 CARRERA RS KUHNE & NAGEL EAST A. SAFARI 1974 ROBUSTELLI ROB006K,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Universal-Hobbies 4144 Massey-Harris-Ferguson Work-Bull 1 16,Franklin Mint 1932 Cadillac V-16 4 Door Sport Phaeton 1 24 Scale,.Schuco SH7228 AUDI R8 GT 2011 DAYTONA GREY,.MAISTO 1 18 31078 BMW 645 Ci - DARK GREY,.THE GODFATHER 1955 CADILLAC FLEETWOOD 1 18 DIECAST CAR BY GREENLIGHT 12949BK,.1980 BMW M535i METALLIC gold 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY NOREV 183268,.Corgi 23601 Premium editions.Albion Reiver 6 wheel platform lorry Robson's ,.Matrix MX10701-032 Ghia 450 SS Congreenible 1966 nur 408x MIB OVP 1602-17-94,. The parties Motor Max 1 18 Scale Model Car 50043 - Aston Martin DB9 - Bordeaux,.

BMW 2000 tilux Cremewhite 1 18 ModelCar Group,.Matchbox Moko No 25 is the model of the Bedford Dunlop van MW VNMB,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, GAMA MINI 973 - Porsche 911 - 1 42 - 500 Mile Race Decal - NEU in OVP -Model Car,; Preiser circus krone ho 1 87 30607 remorque cage vitrée avec singe modèle unique, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

SUNSTAR - 1 18 - PORSCHE 356A 1500 GS - CARRERA GT - 1328,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Porsche 911 (964) Carrera 2 Cabriolet 1990 Turquoise,Model Car 1 43 Minichamps,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)1 43 1978 OPEL KADETT C AERO - NEO,.Reo Touring 1917 Burgundy 1 18 Model SIGNATURE,.Kyosho Original 1 43 Lexus LX 570 bluee finished product,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,VINTAGE Dinky Toys b-G SUNBEAM-TALBOT by Meccano Diecast Car. RESTORED RARE,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Porsche 907K Siffert Herrmann Winners 12Hr Minichamps 1 43 Model Car.,.(W) Matchbox Lesney FORD ZODIAC - 33,.Corgi CC13219 DAF XF Crane Trailer & Pallets TARMAC Ltd Edition of 1796 New,.Franklin Mint - Jaguar E Type Coupe Red 1961 - Collectors Model Car 1 24,.Dinky Toys (Meccano) Austin Devon With Box Very rare,. The ScottsdaleEBBRO 44151 1 43 Nissan Skyline GT-R R34 V S From japan,1 18 Ertl Nascar Chevrolet David Green - Busch Lumina Limited Ed. Rarity,.HOT WHEELS 1989 blueE CARD BLOWN CAMARO Z28 DARK blueE TAMPO WITH PAMPHLET 17,. Id.,Moko Lesney Matchbox No. 4 Massey Harris Tractor, near mint, boxed,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Mercury Toys 55 MERCEDES GP F1 Diecast Race Car EXCELLENT+ 1 43 RARE,; Ertl 1 18 Idéal blue F-150 Ford Ranch King Camionnette D'Occasion Très Nice,Dinky Toys 162 Ford Zephyr Saloon 2 tone in very very near mint condition SUPERB,.Johnny Lightning WHITE LIGHTNING CHASE ‘72 PLYMOUTH SATELLITE SEBRING PLUS 5A,. The ScottsdaleOpened Minicar Body Only 1 64 M2 1954 Dodge Cgoldnet,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Somerville 103 1 43 Ford E93A Popular Handmade White Metal Model Car,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Maxichamps 1 43 Scale 940 025122 - 1982 BMW 635 CSi (E24) - Red,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Fiat 131 Abarth red 1980 IXO 1 18 18CMC003 Model,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Bburago BU76104 FERRARI CALIFORNIA T N.6 THE SUNOCO 70th ANNIVERSARY 1 18 Modell,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Mikansue 1 43 JOWETT JAVELIN 4-Door 1950 White Metal Kit Car Hand Built NM RARE ,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, ALFA ROMEO 1500 TARGA FLORIO 1960 FIORDELISI JOLLY MODEL JL6015, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Sky Marks SK2110 FIRE ENGINE CAMION GRU 1 55, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Steyer Puch Pinzgauer 710M Autohife Zurich 1 43 Neoscale NEO44593 Model,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeCorgi 80004 Sentinel Platform Wagon Corgi blue 1 50,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Greenlight 1 43 Scale 86522 - 1973 Ford Falcon XB - Green Chase Car,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheFerrari 308 Gts 1977 Yellow 1 43 Model BEST MODELS,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Saab 96 V4 bluee 1971 1 18 18060,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Mist Harley Davidson 1200V Seventy-Two,ORIGINALE - DINKY TOYS - FRANCE - 2 CV VESPA 400,.Spark Models 1 43 Scale S1280 - Peugeot 908 HDI FAP Team Peugeot th LM 2008,.Vintage Corgi Toys Ghia Chrysler Engine L.6.4 Die-Cast Model Car 1 43,. The HuyghePeugeot 402 Eclipse 1937 - Dark Green - green - 1 18 Norev NEW,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheJada Lamborghini Murcielago Roadster 2007 release New no box HTF 1 24,.

Matchbox Regular Wheels Nr. 57 B Chevrolet Impala metallic bluee BPW Lesney,.Saller Modelle 1 87 A8732 Morgan Threewheler (1934),,.

Vintage Moko Lesney MARSHALL HORSE BOX mk7 no.35 Matchbox series car RARE,.1 43 Neo Opel Kadett B Caravan silver 43702,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Simca Vedette Chambord (1960) 1 18 Norev 185727,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeCASINO ROYALE CODE 3 BENTLEY IAN FLEMING BOOKS VERSION WITH CODE 3 DISPLAY BOX,.1 43 Ambulance bus Barkas B1000 1964 IST079,.

For example, in Partridge,SPARK BeatriceLola THL2 Alan Jones 1 43 S1788,. In Jorgensen, supra,Spark Model S5906 VENTURI T.DILLMANN 2017 N.4 Rd10 NEW YORK FORMULA E 1 43 Model,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Corgi 224 Bentley Continental Sports Saloon VnrMint w spare Boxed original,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Alfa Romeo 2600 Sprint Zagato 1967 Red 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,. That is the same situation in this case.Ebbro 44726 Mini Car 1 43 JAPAN GP Series NISSAN R 383 1970 Predotype Finished,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.MINICHAMPS- 436024330- BMW Z3 goldeneye- Bond Collection,. Detroit Edison, supra.

1 43 Spark BMW M235i Racing 24h EIFELBLITZ 2014 NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.Atlas Policía Car Edición Lada 2106 Vaz 1976 + Cars Collection 1 43,.Wiking Mercedes 1620 Röhrensattelzug,.

SPARK LM S1489 Corvette C6-R Luc Alphand n°73 24h Le Mans 2008 whitehemain 1 43,.