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Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
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FERRARI F12 BERLINETTA GREY 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY HOTWHEELS BCJ74,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Audi R8 LMS Ultra Prosperia 24H Nurburgring 2014 , spark models,.Ferrari California T Hot Rod silver 1 18,.M SCHUCO BMW 5ER 5 SERIES E39 TOURING MET. GREY MINT BOXED,.Franklin Mint 1933 Duesenberg J Victoria 1 24 scale,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Matchbox SF Nr.32B Maserati Bora 3 Aufkleber 5 arch Räder top in Box,.Hot Wheels Swingin' Wing - Magenta - NEAR MINT - Vintage Redline,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Camion pegaso tractora 2011 50 modificacion 1 43,.1 43 1965 HUMBER SUPER SNIPE SALOON IN MAROON. NEO,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.3 X TRIUMPH LLEDO VANGUARDS CARS - HERALD MET CONgreenIBLE LIMITED EDITIONS ,.Solido 118341 MB SLK 55 AMG 2005 1 18,.Jensen Healey Mkii Spider 1972 Green NeoScale 1 43 NEO44391 Model, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Schuco 5207 SET 3 PICC.OPEL MANTA+OPEL GT+NSU Modellino,.Porsche 956 Test F1 Tag Engine 1986 White Spark 1 43 S3410 Model,.Lada Samara 1984 red - 1 18 KK-Scale NEW Auktion,.DINKY TOYS 2CV 24T GRENAT ROUE CREME 1 43,.

Neo Models Mercedes-Benz C111-IID in orange 1976 47020 1 43 NEW,.Lancia Stratos San Remo 1980 Tabaton-Radaelli 1 43 430801224 Minichamps,.Dodge 600 Congreenible red metallic resin modelcar 44995 Neo 1 43,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK16 046 - 1935 Dodge Van PCTS 1989 1 Of 200 White,.Greenlight 1 64 Scale 31040-B - 2015 Ford F150 1995 Lincoln & Trailer The Matrix,.

2019 Hot Wheels 19th Nationals Convention Pink 1967 Chevy Camaro,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Corgi Toys Gift Set 14 Jeep FC-150 with original Lamp Standard and Workman,.Hot Wheels Rumblers Bold Eagle Yellow-Tan Rider,.Hot Wheels Redline Red Classic '57 T Bird ,OLD CARS IVECO EUredRAKKER BETONIERA SCALA 1 43,.TEAM T - COUGAR CO 1 - 1 43E,.

Franklin Mint 1969 Chevrolet Corvette,.Chevrolet Corvair Van 1963 red white, Modellauto 1 43 Neo Scale Models,.Hot Wheels 20th Convention Dinner '69 Firebird Trans AM Yellow Real Riders 1 68,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Chrysler Pontiac Classic Congreenible Model Cars - Licensed Set Of 6 -4 1 2 Long,.

RENAULT MEGANE coupé GENDARMERIE 2001 1 43,. We agree in part.

Citroen Gs Club Año Fabricación 1972 Camargue blue 1 18,.AUTO WORLD 1 18 AMERICAN MUSCLE 1969 PLYMOUTH GTX CONgreenIBLE DIE-CAST AMM1102,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Nissan Juke grey brown Ab 2010 1 43 J-Collection Modell Auto mit oder ohne ind..,.Corgi Classics (Great Britain) bluee White Bedford O Series Pantechnicon 1 40 NIB,.BOS Best of Show BOS43665 1 43 1969 Dodge Charger R T Resin Model Car,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Minichamps 1 43 - Audi Front 225 roadster 1935 black,.ALFA ROMEO Alfasud 1.3 red red 1972 Metall NEU Diecast geschl. KK 1 1500 1 18,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, 1 43 Spark Ligier JS P217 Le Mans 2018 Di Resta Albuquerque Hanson S7010,; Maserati Quattroporte III Royale 1989 green Metallizzato 1 43 Minichamps,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Porsche 911 (993) Carrera Coupé Año Fabricación 1993 silver 1 18 Norev,.Motormax MTM73175R CHEVY BEL AIR 1957 RED 1 18 Modellino,1969 FORD MUSTANG BOSS 302 High Detail 1 18 scale Yellow,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.New 1 43 Minichamps BMW M4 GTS F82 Turbo six cylinder coupe grey wheels M3,.

Hot Wheels Battle Force 5 Saber Die-Cast Car [With Armor],.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Wiking 099078 Flink & Robust Hanomag-Dienst NEW,.AUTOTRANSPORTER SAVIEM avec Lohr construction de SOLIDO 1 43 good condition,.Ford Gran Torino 1976 dunkelgreen metallic, Modellauto 1 18 Greenlight,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Norev 1 43 Scale Diecast - 05062018M Citroen C-Elysee WTCC,; Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG GT3 no. 36 Nürnburgring 2011,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Bulgarian Matchbox Superfast Lotus Europa №5 gold 1969,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Spencer Sinister rim wheel Girl Figure 1 8 lot 2,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

CORGI TOYS, MORRIS J VANS 1 43 4 Different Logos Free Postage,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Audi Q7 2015 Modellauto 1 18 Argusbrown brown - 5011407615,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Ebbro EB44628 TOYOTA 2000GT N.2 2Hh FUJI 1967 1 43 Modellino,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Rio RI4309 FIAT BALILLA AUTOCARRO 1932 PERUGINA 1 43 Modellino,.Corgi 73301 Berliet GLR 8 Fire Engine for Colmar Diecast Model in 1 50 Scale,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Renault ESTAFETTE 1965 Beige 1 18 Norev 185174 Hi-Boy Petit-Panel CARAL Bus,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.CORGI TOYS BEDFORD HORSE TRANSPORTER NEWMARKET STABLES 2 HORSES NICE CONDITION,.

2016 17 - Star Wars - HOT WHEELS - 2 x SPEEDER BIKES ⭐️MINT⭐️,.Abarth Ot 2000 Bialbero Monoposto Record 1965 1 43 Spark S1330 Modellino,.Ferrari 365 GTC 4 1971 silver 1 18 KK-Scale NEW,.MODELLINO FORD FOCUS RS WRC GARDEMEISTER HONKANEN RALLY MONTE CARLO 2005 IN META,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.[FFSMC Productions] Decals 1 8 Alpine A110 1600SC Michèle Mouton, MC '76,.

HOT WHEELS 2012 HIDDEN TREASURE HUNT - HW PERFORMANCE HONDA S2000,.Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast - 33266 Chevrolet Corvette Congreenible Red,.1 18 MCG OPEL MANTA B 400 MATTIG Kissling Motorsport MODEL CAR GROUP GTE Tuning,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Schuco 1 43 450370900 Porsche 914 6 Clubmodell 2013 Marathon 1970 s.Foto (B1232),; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.RENAULT ALPINE GT4 2+2 PARADCAR 072BB 1 43 résine ancien boitage,.MINICHAMPS 400137720 Aston Martin V8 Coupé 1987 Grey Metallic 1 43 NEW,.Morgan Plus 4 Coupe 1965 Red NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO46131 Model,.RUSSIAN T-90S MODERNIZED TRUMPETER 1 35 PLASTIC KIT,.Predop Creation 1 43 Scale Model Car C1050 - Hotchkiss Berline - Metallic Green,.

Ford Sierra RS Cosworth 1986 grey metallic 1 18 Norev 182770 neu & OVP, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Alfa Romeo 2600 Sprint Zagato 1967 Red 1 43 Neoscale NEO45600 Model,.Porsche Cayman S, orange, Welly 1 18,. The PartridgeAUTOSHKA MICRO AUTO SET 10 PCS. SEALED USSR SOVIET ERA,.Corgi Toys Whizzwheels no. 150 Surtees T.S. 9 Formula 1 Racing Car ovp,.EFE 99933 Bus Set London Transport Museum Green Line Routemaster CRL Reliance RC,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, 1961 Aston Martin DB4 Series 3 - 1 43 scale - Spark - NEW, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.NOREV - 1 18 - VOLKSWAGEN 1303 - 1972 - 188523,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.PORSCHE RSK GP REIMS 1959 JOLLY MODEL JL240,.CORGI TOYS 315 Simca 1000 Competition Model near mint all original condition,PartridgeMac Due MCG18111 LADA NIVA GREEN 1 18 Modellino,.Porsche 914 6 , winner Marathon de la Route 1970, minichamps,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Ebbro 44164 Lotus Elan S2 TYPE 26 ( Yellow ) 1 43 scale, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Nice PR-modelcar Porsche 997 Speedster 2011 - white,; Minichamps 400045890 OPEL ASCONA VOYAGE - 1970 - ´FEUERWEHR COESFELD´ L.E. 1008,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Kess Alfa Romeo Arna Ti in White 1985 KE43000040 Limited Edition of 162 1 43 NEW, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Danbury Mint 1965 Pontiac GTO, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeMint Kyosho Mini Champs 1 43 Lamborghini Gallardo Lp 560-4,.

Matchbox 2 C Regular Muir Hill Dumper Kipper Laing mint model OVP 1411-22-09,.SS3407 - CHEVROLET IMPALA OPEN CONgreenIBLE 1961 TWILIGHT TURQOISE 1 18 MODELLINO, Clarke's negligent act.1 43 Minichamps BMW 2000A 1962 silver 437 023000,.SB107 Herpa MAN Sattelzug Bayern-Edition 2012 Hopfen und Malz 1 87 PC+OVP,.1973 Porsche 911 Carrera RS 2.7 orange 1 18 Welly Porsche Museum,.

MCLAREN MERCEDES MP4-17 2002 FORMEL 1 F1 RÄIKKÖNEN 1 18 MINICHAMPS DEALER,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, RIO RI4339 FIAT 238 ASSISTENZA FERRARI LE MANS 1977 RED 1 43,Schuco - Model - BMW 3er Row M 3 E 36 - 1 24 - (7.DIV-26),. In Noska,GREENLIGHT 1 18 SCALE 1967 CHEVROLET IMPALA SPORT SEDAN MODEL BN 19047,.MB 560 SEL 1990 bluemet. NOREV 1 18 0018346400,.Norev 184881 Peugeot 309 GTi16 1991 Miami bluee 1 18,.SUNSTAR 1 18 AMERICAN COLLECTIBLES 1963 FORD GALAXIE 500 XL RACING SS1472, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Hi-Story HS138RE 1 43 MAZDA ATENZA WAGON 2016 Soul Red Premium Metallic,.Porsche Cayman GT4 - mintgreen - 1 of 200 - Minichamps - car.tima EXCLUSIVE - CA0,.Ebbro 44906 Costin Nathan Targa Florio 1970 No. 206 (Resin Model) 1 43 scale,.CITROEN DS3 DS 3 Rallye WRC Monte Carlo 2015 Loeb Abu Dhabi SP Norev 1 18,. Id., p 923.

EBBRO 44346 1 43 Datsun 17 type sedan 1938 From japan,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, DE AGOSTINI II^ G.M. Messerschmitt Bf 110 E-1 1 72 N°12 ε,2017 Porsche 911 R Resin Model Car in 1 43 Scale by Spark,.SSM Soviet Tank T-64B-60 1 43 3031,.MINICHAMPS Duesenberg Model J MC-437150431,.1 18 Chevrolet Caprice Classic Sedan año 1985 MC Group 18038 Taxi Nueva York,.Schuco SH2928 MERCEDES L1000 MARKLIN METALLSPIELWAREN 1 43 Modellino,.CORGI - 497 THE MAN FROM UNCLE 'THRUSH BUSTER' 1966,.MASSEY FERGUSON 1100 GAS NARROW FRONT TRACTOR 1 16 DIECAST BY SPECCAST SCT547,. The parties Matco Tools 2001 Hot Rod Replica Collector Set 1 24 Diecast,.

Ros RS60223 MISCELATORE PICHON B4 (5M) 1 32 Modellino,.Mini-Champs 1 43 Bentley Arnage R,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Siku Super 1070 VW T5 Multivan Feuerwehr-Einsatzleitwagen Werbemodell Sikumuseum,; Spark 1 43 Scale S3787 - Volkswagen Polo R WRC th Monte Carlo 2014, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

1917 Ford Model T Cargo Van Coca-Cola Drink Delicious 1 18 Diecast Model Car by,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, AutoCult 07006 1951 NSU Kompressor Weltrekordwagen 1 43 Resine günstig,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)POLISTIL MS102 MOTO GUZZI V7 SPECIAL - RED 1 15 - GOOD CONDITION IN BOX,.Action 1 24 Scale Diecast - WWF Winston World Finals 1996 Top Fuel Dragster,.GREENLIGHT 1 18 STARSKY & HUTCH - 1976 FORD GRAN TORINO RED CHROME DIECAST 19023,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Spark Porsche 911 RSR (991) C. Ried 1 43 S4237,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Spark Model S5825 ORECA 07 GIBSON N.39 44th LM 2017 GUIBBERT-TROUILLET-WINSLOW 1,.Schuco 450891900 Porsche 911 Coupé, Vipergreen,.Mercedes Benz 320 Cabriolet D Scala 1 43 Spark,.Nzg - Metal Model - Mercedes Actros Articulated Lorry - 1 50 - (8.DIV-2),.1 43 Ixo Maserati Quattroporte Sport Gt,. The ScottsdaleHot Wheels HWX5519 FERRARI N.MANSELL 1990 N.2 PORTUGAL GP 1 43 Modellino,Spark 1 43 Porsche 934 3.3L Turbo Team Equipe h Le Mans 1980 Art. S5094,.Hot Wheels 2017 Super Treasure Hunt '69 Chevelle SS 396 gold Short Card VHTF,. Id.,CSM Collector's Model 1 76 Scale V206B - Leyland Victory II Bus - Hong Kong R21,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1967 Praga V3S − Fire department − ABREX 1 43 - FREE SHIPPING,; LOTUS EVORA HYBRID 2010 BRONZE 1 43 SPARK S2207 NEU,Norev Renault R.S. 01 - INTERCEPTOR - Jean Ragnotti Modell 2016, 1 18,.NOREV 188351 Audi A5 Cabriolet weiss 2009 HQ 1 18,. The ScottsdaleNEO MODELS Pontiac Grand Am 2-d Coupe 1973 (red me 1 43 44755 1 43 1 43,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Danbury Mint 1940 Ford Deluxe Coupe 1 24 scale diecast model,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 1950 Studebaker Champion 1 18 Road Signature metalico alto detalle,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Provence Moulage Kit à Monter 1 43 - Nissan R86 V N°32 Le Mans 1986,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, K457 SCHUCO 1 43 CAMION HANOMAG KURIER 03245 nf bt blue,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, WOW EXTREMELY RARE Ford GT43 GT40 550hp 2004 White bluee Stripes 1 43 Minichamps,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, GREENLIGHT 1 43 DIECAST 1958 PLYMOUTH FURY CHRISTINE RARE GREEN BODY CHASE CAR, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Fiat 500 Giardiniera 1968 - 1 18 - Norev, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Schuco 1 43 Wiesmann Roadster MF5 Brown 450888300,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeMERCEDES BENZ LP911 SINALCOKOLA PREMIUM CLASSIXXS LIM. 12151 1 43,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, ZIL 130 MMZ 4502 bluee SSM 1058 1 43,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in Huyghe2018 Hot Wheels Car Culture Team Transport Set Duster Cuda Porsche,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Superior Mini Cooper Mini Cooper Red Minicar toy hobby toy toy car Japan F S New,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Sun Star Mercedes-Benz 220 SE 1958 1 18 bluee (JS),Faller 163704 Car System Chassis-Kit Transporter,.Volkswagen VW Microbus Soft Top 1962 Light Green w White Roof 1 18 Model,.FRANKLIN MINT 1956 CORVETTE CONgreenIBLE 1 24 SCALE DIE CAST WITH BOX,. The HuygheFERRARI 458 ITALIA GT2 AF CORSE LE MANS 2011 FUJIMI FJ022 1 43,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheSpark 1 43 Bmw Alpina B6 3.5S (E30) 1985 Art. bluee Met. S2805,.

HOT PURSUIT GREENLIGHT 1 64 1978 DODGE MONACO 42820D ILLINOIS STATE SUPER CHASE,.Citroen Sm Mylord By Henry Chapron Cabriolet 1971 NOREV 1 18 NV181730 Miniature,.

VW Touareg II weiss GTA Edition 1 18 Welly NEW,.DINKY TOYS 190 CARAVAN WOHNWAGEN - YELLOW orange + CREAM - EXCELLENT IN BOX,. Nonetheless, on the facts of TOP Schuco 00096 Goggomobil Limousine Baujahr 1965 hellblue-white 1 18,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeSpark 1 43 Scale Resin S2564 Audi R10 TDI Kolles LM 2010,.Tekno Rare Van Rijn BV Holland Scania 4 Series 144 with Fridge Trailer,.

For example, in Partridge,SCHUCO 02568, VW BREZELKAEFER, DARK RED, 1 43 SCALE,. In Jorgensen, supra,Venturi Trans Cup 1990 SPARK 1 43 S2245 Model,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Rio 4343 FIAT 128 4 P TRENTO BONDONE 69 1 43,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,PORSCHE CARRERA GT black 1 18,. That is the same situation in this case.Schuco Varianto 3042 Lasto ( bluee ) mit Kreuzung 3010 21,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.LINDBERG 21119 KIT 1 32 57' FORD COUPE MONTADO,. Detroit Edison, supra.

1980`s Mira made in Spain Renault 25,.Spark Model S5255 BRABHAM BT24 S.TINGLE 1969 N.17 8th SOUTH AFRICAN GP 1 43 Mode,.BUDDY L 1932 Ford ROADSTER Pressed Steel,.

Porsche 935 Zolder DRM 1977 n° 51 Vaillant 1 18 Norev 187432,.