65 Nova Gasser Hot Wheels Redline Spoiler-ized Yellow Yellow Yellow Deep Dish 6cb697

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
65 Nova Gasser Hot Wheels Redline Spoiler-ized Yellow Yellow Yellow Deep Dish 6cb697
1 32 Schuco Fendt 211 Vario mit Frontlader Nr. 450764400 OVP,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Motor Max 1 18 Scale Model Car 50043 - Aston Martin DB9 - Bordeaux,.Spark 1 43 Scale SF039 - Mini John Cooper Works WRC France 2012,.MATCHBOX LESNEY No 59A VINTAGE FORD THAMES VAN DARK KELLY GREEN VERY RARE NMINT,.1989 Lancia Delta HF Integrale 16V Dark Grey 118 Triple-9 1800172,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Mercedes Benz S-Class Amg S65 (V222) 2016 Grey Met SPARK 1 43 S4916,.Corgi Classics The Greatest Show on Earth Scammell Box Trailer - Robert Bros,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Maisto Mercedes CLK-GTR GT1 1998 1 18 Zonta Ludwig FIA GT (MCC),.CORGI VINTAGE GLORY MODEL No.22402 GARRETT + BEDFORD TK LOW LOADER MIB,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Neo Hamann Guardian - Porsche Cayenne - yellow carbon - 2011 - 1 43,.1 18 Solido Citroen DS19,.WESTERN MODELS CHEVROLET BELAIR 1957, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

DINKY TOYS ATLAS AUTOCAR ISOBLOC green BIcolor REF 29E IN BOX,.2012 Sahara Force India F1 Team Mercedes VJM05 1 43 Scale by Minichamps,.Schuco BMW M8 Coupé - red 1 43 - VorBesteellung - 1 43,.Universal Hobbies UH4290 redOIMBALLATRICE KUBOTA BV5160 1 32 Modellino,.

Johnny Lightning Honda Civic 1998 Livery Red JLCP7182 1 64 White Lightning,.PROVENCE MOULAGE KIT OPEL TIGRA MULLER - ANDROS 97 - 1 43 - IN BOX,.LADA NIVA - 1 43 SCALE - DARK YELLOW orange TYPE COLOUR - BOXED,.SIKU 3279 Fendt 939 Diecast Model Toy,.FRANKLIN MINT 1 24 CORD 812 de 1937 COMME NEUF + CERTIFICAT et DOCUMENT,.

█► 10 Opel Ascona SR kieferngreen herpa 1 87 OPS Händler-OVP,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Die Cast Model 1 24 166MM 1948 Collection No.40 Ferrari,.Spark Model 1 43 Chevrolet Corvette C1 Hard Top 1960 White Art.S2967,.MATCHBOX SUPERKINGS MODEL K-127 PETERBILT GETTY TANKER VN MIB,CORGI 1 50 Scale Mercedes-Benz Actros (MP4) Flatbed Trailer No CC15811,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Opel Rekord P2 Caravan 1960 Grey 1 43 Minichamps-Diplomat P1,.

2010 Bentley Continental Supersport Coupe whiteo 1 18 Welly 18038,.Peugeot 504 Cabriolet 1970 Capucine Yellow NOREV 1 18 NV184826 Model,.Ligier JS OAK Racing , 24H LeMans 2015 , Spark models,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

BROOKLIN MODELS BRK 32A 1953 Studebaker Two Tone Starliner 1 43 Excellent w box,.

Porsche 912 Coupe orange - Spark 1 43 MAP02001317 - Museum Edition - Brand New,. We agree in part.

21 Vintage Johnny Lightning Muscle Cars USA 1970 Chevy Chevelle SS Die Cast Lot,.Porsche 911 GT3 RS n.66 Winner 24H Daytona 2003 in 1 43 Scale by Spark,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.ALFA ROMEO GIULIA blueE EUROPA 1970 Minichamps 400120905,.Spark Dome S101H Judd 2006 1 43 Lammers Yoong Johansson 24h Le Mans 2006,.NOREV - 1 18 - MERCEDES-BENZ AMG GT C ROADSTER - 2017 - 183451,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Schuco 1 32 Hanomag Robust 900 Turquoise Tractor 450780000,.Mclaren M8f Can-Am Series 1971 D.Hulme 1 43 Minichamps 530714305 New,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, 1 18 Bentley Continental Supersport Coupe año 2010 Welly 18038w whiteo,; Schuco Opel Blitz S 3t THW - 1 43,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Opel Kapitan P 2.6 Coupe Autenrieth 1963 Dark Red NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO47030 Model,.MMP Ebbro 45138 Car 1 43 Honda FIT 3 HYBRID Premium White Pearl Finished Goods,Mercedes Amg G 500 4x4 (2) 2015 White 1 43 Model S4693 SPARK MODEL,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.1 43 Ford Fiesta Wrc 2012 8,.

SPARK US040 Collectible Miniature Car, White bluee,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Matchbox Model of yesteryear, y5-1 Bentley with green steering wheel C9 ,.Redline Hotwheels Pink 1970 Whip Creamer oc17252,.LION CAR BERKHOF DAF SB 250 BUS - GVB AMSTERDAM - WHITE 1 50 RARE - GOOD,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Coche coleccion Norev,escala 1 18,Fiat 500L,Ref.187770,; EXCELLENT SPARK 1 43 RESIN 1956 MERCEDES-BENZ 300SL GULLWING IN RED S4959,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Rare HTF EDOCAR Suzuki Samurai Jimny SJ413Q In White COMPAQ Promo Mint Loose,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

65 Nova Gasser Hot Wheels Redline Spoiler-ized Yellow Yellow Yellow Deep Dish 6cb69765 Nova Gasser Hot Wheels Redline Spoiler-ized Yellow Yellow Yellow Deep Dish 6cb69765 Nova Gasser Hot Wheels Redline Spoiler-ized Yellow Yellow Yellow Deep Dish 6cb69765 Nova Gasser Hot Wheels Redline Spoiler-ized Yellow Yellow Yellow Deep Dish 6cb69765 Nova Gasser Hot Wheels Redline Spoiler-ized Yellow Yellow Yellow Deep Dish 6cb69765 Nova Gasser Hot Wheels Redline Spoiler-ized Yellow Yellow Yellow Deep Dish 6cb697

BMW 5er 550i Limousine (F10) saphirblack, Art.Nr 80422158006 Maßstab 1 43,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

CSM Collector's Model 1 76 Scale V110B - Leyland Victory II Bus - Hong Kong R73A,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

RARO LOTTO AUTO VINTAGE Lancia Stratos + Ferrari 512 S + MV Augusta,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Premium Classixxs 11030 MERCEDES-BENZ L319 1 43,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Märklin Digital - 3665 Diesel Locomotive Br 260 Model Railway Gauge H0 (Mf11),.1 43 Art Model Ferrari 500 TRC Car Targa Florio ART906 Diorama,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Universal Hobbies UH4079 VALTRA T SERIES 2011 METALLIC blueE 1 32 Modellino,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Spark Brabham BT42 Teddy Pilette 1 43 S4784,.

1 24 JADA FAST & FURIOUS NISSAN SKYLINE GTR R34 blueE BRIAN OCONNOR PAUL WALKER,.BoS-Models 1 43 VW Dannenhauer und Stauss Cabrio, dunkelred 1951,.Rare matrice résine intérieur SEAT IBIZA 4 porte 1 43 Heco voiture miniature FL',.Action 1 24 NASCAR Dale Earnhardt Jr. D.M.P. 2003,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.ENGINE CHEVROLET BLOWN HOT ROD 1 6 MODEL BY LIBERTY CLASSICS 84035,.

Spark S2164 Aston Martin Vantage V12 2009 Metallic bluee Still Sealed in Case,.Ertl Amway Semi Tractor Trailer 1 25,.1 43 Spark Shadow DN5B Ford South African GP 1976 Pryce S3838,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Diecast Car Model JMC All New Yusheng S350 SUV 1 18 (Red Brown) + GIFT ,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Trofeu 2310 FORD CAPRI 2600RS BP 3RD TOUR FRANCE,.KK-Scale 1 18 Ferrari 275 GTB4 NART Spyder 1967 rood nieuw in doos,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast 180 960004 Benetton Renault B196 G. Berger,.Porsche 911 Carrera Cup LM 1993 (E. Calderari - L. Pagotto Spark S2071 1 43,.AUDI R8 V10 5.2L yellow 1 18 2015,.

Corgi Toys 478 Hydraulic Tower Wagon in very near mint condition in original box, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Speed model sc1 43 alfa romeo 166 berlina,.Matchbox Super Kings K-14 Scammell Freight Liner unpunshed in O-Box,. The PartridgeBRK 117 BROOKLIN 1939 MERCURY 99-A SEDAN COUPE blueE POLY 1 43,.Renault 12 Gordini 1971 blue Coche Modelo 1 18 Norev,.1 43 Spark Porsche 996 GT3 RSR White Lightning LM NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Tekno Denmark 823 Ford Taunus 17M 17 M 2 tone in excellent plus condition, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Yat Ming 24068 1972 Lincoln Continental Pres Reagan Car 1 24 Scale Die Cast Car,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.'60 Alfa Romeo Spider 2600 , '65 Giulia , Alfa Romeo S12 Die Cast Metal,.DINKY TOYS MODEL No.429 ( SMALL ) TRAILER GREEN VERSION VN MIB,PartridgeBMW Alpina B6 GT3 Engstler Liqui Moly GT Masters 2011 Spengler Minicham 1 43,.Hot Wheels '67 Camaro Z-28. Seattle Toy Show. 1 of 8000 Made.,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, NEO NEO44693 1 43 PLYMOUTH FURY CONgreenIBLE 1960 METALLIC TURQOIS WHITE, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Dodge Charger 500 1970 orange, Modellauto 1 18 Greenlight Collectibles,; Solido 1 43 - Ford GT Le Mans 146,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, 1 18 PORSCHE BOXSTER RARE WHITE (DEALER ED), (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, RARE cattera sound of motors ford mustang GT 350 1966, white and bluee stripes., (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeMNC400120905 - Voiture sportive ALFA ROMEO Giulia Europa Testfahrt de 1973 coule,.

Very Rare Creaks of Camberley Peel Collection PC1 Police Motor Cycle & Sidecar,.Mist Brago 1 18 Lamborghini Aventador Lp 700-4, Clarke's negligent act.Renault 30 TX Limousine brown black Metallic 1975-1984 1 18 Norev Modell Aut..,.RAE Models 1 43 Scale MG TF 1954 Handmade Hand Built White Metal Kit Model Rare,.Wonderful modelcar VW BEETLE CARRERA PANAMERICANA 1954 - red - 1 43 - lim.,.

Range Rover Evoque 5 Türer Weiss mit blackem Dach Ab 2011 Triple 9 1 43 Ixo ..,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 530 784307 - F1 McLaren Ford M26,Transitional Matchbox Superfast No 46 Mercedes 300 SE Light Org-gold Doors Cast,. In Noska,1967 McLaren M4B BRM Race of Champions in 1 43 Scale by Spark,.Spark Porsche Carrera Cup Sven 1 43 S5152,.AUTOWORLD AMM1113 1 18 1970 PLYMOUTH SUPERBIRD BARN FIND ,.Porsche 911 930 Turbo 3.3i G-Modell Coupe Olive green 1973-1989 1 18 Norev Mode.., necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Alfa Romeo 115 Giulia Nuova 1600S Ochre 1970 1 43 Minichamps,.Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor Weiss - mit Licht und Sound - 1 18 Gree..,.MINICHAMPS 1 43 Porsche 911 (997-2) Gt2 RS Coupè 2010 Red Art. 400069407,.Vintage Matchbox Car Lesney England 1960's Honda Motorcycle In Box,. Id., p 923.

Kid Box 20941 Spark 1 43 1979 Lotus 31 H. Rebaque French Gp New,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Johnny Lightning Frightning Lightnings Job Lot,BMW Z4 GT-3 Pixum Team Schubert ADAC GT Masters 2013, Minichamps models,.ZIL 131 APA-50M Aerodrome mobile electric unit SSM ModelPro 0046MP 1 43,.FORD P6 12M Turnier 1966 1 43 Neo scale models NEO44340,.Vintage Matchbox Models of Yesteryear Lot of 20 - NIB,.Wiking VW T1 Pritsche achatgrey mit Plane,.Opel Kadett C Limousine Anno di Costruzione 1973-1977 blue 1 18 Kk-Scale,.Polistil 1 16 Scale - 016793 Porsche 911 Turbo Cabrio metallic grey,. The parties ● RARE HTF PLAYART FASTWHEEL 1 64 HONG KONG UNPUNCHED CAR AMBULANCE RESCUE,.

Rio RI4465 CITROEN DS 21 1967 PERNOD 1 43 Modellino,.Seat Arona SUV Desire red Ab 2017 1 43 Seat Modell Auto mit oder ohne individi..,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, MINICHAMPS VW 1303 CABRIOLET 'WORLD CUP '74' 430055141,; Mercury Park Lane Hard Top Anno di Costruzione 1959 Bianco gold 1 , (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Diecast 1 50th Caterpillar 85927 DM CAT 972M Wheel Tractor Engineering Vehicles,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, VW 1200 Export British Car Hire (1974) Diecast Model Car 431051294,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Pontiac GTO, metallic-hellgreen, 1 18, Sun Star,.Bilico Man con escavatore JBC 4 XC,.HOT WHEELS RED LINE CLUB EXCLUSIVE 55 CHEVY SANTA'S SPEED SHOP 2009 HOLIDAY CAR,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Hot Wheels Pro Circuit Kenny Bernstein,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Scale model 1 43 Self-propelled roller DU-50,.WINROSS 1 64 GROENDYKE TRANSPORTATION INC. TRACTOR AND TRAILER ,.Soviet hungarian long bus Ikarus 280 33 1988 Yellow version USSR Soviet Bus 1 43,.Mercedes W116 450 SEL 6,9 Kopfstütze vorne velour,.Ferrari 315S 57 Sebring Portago Musso 1 43 Model 0140 ART-MODEL,. The ScottsdaleEmek Scania R Hook Lift Skip Tipper (White),Porsche 956 Winner Le Mans 1983 1 43 - 43LM83 SPARK,.Rio 4233 BUGATTI 41 ROYAL COUPE NAPOLEON '29 Modellino,. Id.,A1 GP FORMULA TEAM GREAT BRITAIN 2008 SEASON AMALGAM 1 43,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, MCG18044 by MCG ROVER 3500 V8 1974 1 18,; NOREV181545 - CITROEN DS3 Cabriolé blacke (2013) - 1 18,BMW 2000 CS 1965 red Modellauto 1 18 KK Scale,.Audi A4 (3.2 quattro) 2004 07 Antracite Perfetta Minichamps 1 18 no scatola box,. The ScottsdaleFord Mustang II Stallion 1976 - 1 18 - Greenlight,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, UH 4946 - Universal Hobbies Fendt Farmer 2 mit Fritzmeier Kabine - 1 32,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Citroen 2CV 1980 yellow Mimosa Yellow 1 43 Minichamps,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, ESDO MODELE 1 43 - REF 78 - SIMCA ARONDE OCEANE 1960 - CREAM,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Schuco Plantation tractor P312 1 43 450895000,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Hummer H3T (birch weiss) 2006,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Schuco 7414 MERCEDES B. SLS AMG C197 gold 1 43 Modellino, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Holland-Oto MB Actros MP2 Sattelzug Ekol Türkei Turkey 1 50 HO12, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Diecast Car &Trailer Boston Red Sox 2012 Ford Fusion Fenway 100 Yrs Lionel 1 24,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeAlfa Romeo Alfa 6 2.5I V6 Quadrifoglio gold 1983 1 43 Kess Model Ks43000150 Model,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Minichamps 1 43 Porsche 911 GT3 Cup UPS,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheDiecast Car Model Benteng Besturn B70 Sport RS 1 18 (White) + GIFT ,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Minichamps 437123120 1 43 MASERATI INDY 1970 LIMITED EDITION 432 PCS. RED,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,FIAT 500 L pink 1 18,Gescha 1 50 Planierraupe Liebherr 731,.Peugeot D4B Ambulance 1963 White NOREV 1 18 NV184699 Model,.MATCHBOX 10 FODEN 8 WHEEL SUGAR CONTAINER,. The HuyghePilen M 305 Mercedes Benz 250 Coupe made in Spain 1 43 scale Mebetoys Mint Cond.,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheCorgi 1 50 Scale CC13830 Mercedes Benz Actros Intake Transport Sheffield United,.

Ktm X-Bow Gt 2016 bluee SPARK 1 43 S5663 Model,.MINICHAMPS - VW 1200 - 1983 - red - lim. Ed. 1 of 2.016 pcs,.

SHELBY COLLECTIBLES - 1 18 - FORD MUSTANG SHELBY GT 350 R - SHELBY168,.Ferrari 365 Gt4 2+2 1972 Light bluee Met KK SCALE 1 18 KKDC180162 Model,. Nonetheless, on the facts of BMW Z4-M Coupé h Nurburgring 2009 - 1 43 - Minichamps,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeSpark Models 1 43 Scale S1462 - Gillet greenigo GT 2005,.Honda Civic Ef3 Si 1987 SPARK 1 43 S5450,.

For example, in Partridge,Citroen Dyane 6 1975 Tuileries Green 1 18 Norev,. In Jorgensen, supra,TEKNO No 930 Chevrolet MONZA GT COUPE WHITE No 88 Car Made in Denmark,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.SIKU 3273 New Holland T8. 390 1 32 Diecast Model Toy,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Unimog Exhibition Model Promo Roco Ovp H0 1 87 Å,. That is the same situation in this case.Porsche 918 RSR 1 43 Minichamps neu & OVP,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.MERCEDES BENZ LP608 LP 608 Jägermeister Racing Team LKW Schuco 1 43,. Detroit Edison, supra.

1987 Franklin Mint 1 24 1930 Duesenberg J Durham Tourster - Made in Hong Kong,.1960's Tin Toy MARCHESINI BOLOGNA TIN TOY VAN PENNY TOY Limo Rare ,.CAMION BRITANNIQUE FORDSON WOT-2 15cwt, WW2 - Kit résine PLUS MODEL 1 35 N° 348,.

Jada Ford Mustang GTR Concept 1 24 scale used no box 2006 release,.