Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
1 18 Audi A4 STW Abt Sportline Nissen UT Model,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals 1 43 CL28K ASTON MARTIN DB4GT KIT BY SMTS,.Wiking Unverglast Porsche 356 mit Bodenplatte Nr.160 2C azurblue,.1 18 Anson Studebaker golden Hawk 1957 gold NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.SKID-VITESSE-DE AGOSTINI -AUTO SCALA 1 43 SERIE LIMITATE -NUOVE LOTTO 3 AUTO,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.BRM P160E th silverina GP 1974 Jean-Pierre Beltoise Spark S1149 1 43,.Mercedes-Benz L6600 'Universal Motorgerät' - 1 43 - Schuco,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.BMW 5er Reihe 535i M M535i 535 E12 Limousine 1980 gold met. Norev 1 18,.Ferrari 315S 57 Sebring Portago Musso 1 43 Model 0140 ART-MODEL,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.1968 Fiat 500 Giardiniera Familiar Positano yellow 1 18 Norev 187724,.Tekno No 832 MG 1100 Morris Taxi - Made In Denmark,.Minichamps Porsche 911 Carrera S Cabriolet 2012 black 1 43 410060230, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Minichamps 43 McLaren M8A, 1968 CanAm Series, Bruce McLaren Ltd Ed,.Ebbro 44646 Calsonic Skyline GT-R R32 1993 Rd.4 Fuji Champion 1 43 scale,.Porsche 911 (997) GT2 • 2007 • NEU • Norev - • 1 18,.Politoys 1 43 - Ferrari 330 GTC Grey,.

Modelcar Group 18046 Rover 3500 V 8 Beige 1 18 Schönes Modell,.Schuco 1 43 - Opel Manta A Turbo bluee,.MINICHAMPS VALENTINO ROSSI 1 12 FIGURE YAMAHA 2005 RIDING GP VALENCIA MOTOGP NEW,.4x4 LADA NIVA 1600 green 1 18,.Best Model 9050 2 PORSCHE 908 3 TARGA FLORIO 1970 1 43 Modellino,.

Minichamps 400 142720 1967 Chevrolet Camaro Ermine White 1 43,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Ferrari 308 Gtb 1978 Grey 1 43 Model BEST MODELS,.Opel Manta B Mattig yellow blue Film Movie 1991 1 18 MCG diecast,.1 43 Ixo Maserati Quattroporte,Mercedes Benz 500 K Roaster Bburago Diamonds 3020 1 18 scale,.Ferrari 250 California 1957 red Scuro 1 43 Art Model ART325,.

Corgi Toys No.339 Mini Cooper S Monte Carlo Rally 1967,.1 50TH DIECAST MASTERS INTERNATIONAL HX620DAY CAB TANDEM 71007 Trailer Head,.Top Model 1 43 Scale Resin TMC052 - Aston Martin DB35 - LM 1955,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.


1 43 Minichamps MB L 3500 Getränkepritsche Libella 439350050,. We agree in part.

1 43 NEO Model Ford Granada Turnier Yellow 1972,.Porsche 356A 1600 Speedster - Minichamps 1 43 in Box 34701,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.CITROEN GS X3 1979 Mimosa Yellow 1 18 Norev 181624 Grande Serie GSA yellow,.Ferrari 365 GT4 2+2 Baujahr 1972 red 1 18 KK-Scale,.OPEL ASCONA B i2000 1980 yellow WEISS 1 43 NEO 43710 NEU,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; 1 18 SCALE ERTL AMERICAN MUSCLE KONI 1971 PLYMOUTH GTX,.Minichamps - Hill & Villeneuve - Williams - FW18 & 19 - 1996-97 - 1 43 - Set 5,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Wonderful modelcar VW BEETLE CARRERA PANAMERICANA 1954 - 1 43 - lim.,; Herpa 121903 H0 LKW Scania CS 20 Hochdach Kühlkoffer-Sattelzug Heide Logistik,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

MINICHAMPS Mercedes-Benz E-Class Break (bluee) 1 43 Scale Diecast Model NEW RARE ,.1 43 Original Norev Renault 4 CV Yellow - with suspension,Fujimi 1 43 Ferrari 599 SA Aperta red Corsa 2011 TSM11FJ005,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Spark 1 43 Preca 03R - Nissan n.48 Le Mans 2014 Murphy Predotypes S4225,.

Corgi Toys 506 Police 'Panda' Sunbeam Imp,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Vintage 1969 Hot Wheels Red Baron Car Rat Rod Roadster Helmet,.FINEWORK Chgold Q size Ferrari 512BB HG Resin Kit,.Mattel Hot Wheels Rebound Raceway Car Play Set Toys from 4 Years,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, 1 18 Norev Mercedes AMG GT C Roadster yellow 2017 NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,; Neo Humber Super Snipe Saloon - dunkelred - RHD - 1965 - 1 43,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Mg F Magma Salonette 1933 Green Ivory NeoScale 1 43 NEO46465 Model,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).


VINTAGE DINKY TOYS MODEL No.25c FLAT WAGON ( orange VERSION ),. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.



This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

VW Corrado Garage Scene 1 43 16v G60 VR6,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Spark 1 43 Scale SF039 - Mini John Cooper Works WRC France 2012,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.MEBETOYS A-37 A37 A 37 NSU RO80 RO 80 METALLIC GREY MINT CONDITION RARE SELTEN,.Best Model BT9083 FERRARI 275 GTB 4 N.57 10th LM 1966 P.NOBLET-C.DUBOIS 1 43 Mod,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Resin Car Model TSM Model Jaguar F-Type 1 43 (Red) + GIFT ,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Brand New ROAD SIGNATURE 66 OLDSMOBILE TgoldNADO gold 1 18 SCALE,.

Modelcar Group MCG18078, Wartburg 353, hellbrown, 1 18, NEU&OVP,.INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER 856XL MODEL TRACTOR REP101,.Honda Civic EF9 SiR Vtec 1990 red 1 18 Triple9 Diecast 1800105,.Diecast Masters Int'l HX520 Day Cab Tandem Tractor Grey 1 50 Trailer Head 71005,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.BBURAGO 0130 RENAULT 4 WEGENWACHT ANWB - OCRE 1 24 - GOOD CONDITION,.

CORGI Toys Batman Diecast 107 Glastron BATBOAT in Clear Display Diorama Case,.NOREV 184826 Peugeot 504 Cabriolet 1970 Capucine Yellow 1 18 OVP,.MNC400120905 - Voiture sportive ALFA ROMEO Giulia Europa Testfahrt de 1973 coule,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Opel Manta A Coupe 1970-75 Lemon Green Metallic 1 18 Norev,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.1 18 Lancia Delta HF Integrale 16V año 1989 Triple-9 1800172 Dark Grey,.1 43 IXO Kyosho Honda Civic LX EG9 1993 Die Cast Model,.Antique Arcade Cast Iron Car w Trailer Hitch Hole 5 3 4 L 1930's SEE PHOTOS,.AUTOWORLD AW209 1 18 1964-1 2 FORD MUSTANG 289 INDY 500 PACE CAR DIECAST MODEL,.OLIVER 1650 DIESEL WIDE FRONT TRACTOR 1 16 DIECAST MODEL BY SPECCAST SCT656,.

Ferrari FXX Evoluzione, red, 2008, Red Line, RL128, 1 43, NEW, MIB, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.1 18 Norev Renault Megane R.S. orange 2017 185225,.Revell Volkswagen T1 Samba Bus Model Kit, 1 16 Scale 27.2 cm,. The PartridgeKode 9 Gulf Ken Okuyama Design 2013 Light bluee orange Spark 1 43 SJ034,.Ford Falcon XW GT HO 351 1 32 Scale Aussie Classic Diecast Car Brambles Red,.Vintage - McLaren M80 Gran tgolds - 1 43 Joal 122,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Ford Falcon XB GT 351 Ute 1 32 Scale Aussie Classic Diecast bluee Model Car, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.VOLKSWAGEN KOMBI VAN T1 1963 voiture miniature 1 18 collection welly 18053w,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.FINEWORK Chgold Q size Alfa Romeo 8C Competizione HG Resin Kit,.Schuco Piccolo Year Set 2002 AG 50520700,PartridgeBermat kit 1 43 preverniciato ferrari f50, ,,.New Ferrari California T Closed Top Red Signature Series 1 18 Diecast Model Car,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Porsche 911 RSR Turbo Mid-Ohio 3 Hours 1977 NOREV - NO187427 - Echelle 1 18, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Spark 1 43 Scale S2069 - Porsche 911 Carrera RSR 3.8 Test Paul Ricard 1993,; MINICHAMPS Porsche 908 02 Spyder MC-437692001,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Sunstar 1 18 American Collectible 1948 CHRYSLER TOWN AND COUNTRY CONV SS6140, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, DINKY TOYS 112 PURDEY'S PURDEY S TRIUMPH TR7 TR 7 YELLOW NEAR MINT BOXED, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeSPARK SURTEES TS7 Dutch GP 1971 Gijs van Lennep S5402 1 43,.

Alfa Romeo Ricotti 1915 Rio 1 43,.Dinky Toys Hillman Imp Rally Car Excellent condition., Clarke's negligent act.MAJORETTE VW BUS 244 - SERVICE AUTgoldUTE - RARE SELTEN IN GOOD CONDITION,.IXO Models FORD FIESTA RS WRC V. Rossi-C. C 1 18 18RMC015,.MODELLINO PORSCHE 918 SPYDER FINAL 2013 blueE METALLIC IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.

Porsche 911 Carrera RSR , 24H LeMans 1974 , Spark models,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Deagostini Le Grandi Ferrari Collection No.15 With 1 24,BMW 320 SI WTCC 2006 PRESENTAZIONE 1 43 Spark SP0410,. In Noska,UT MODELS 1 18 BMW Z3 ROADSTER - JAMES BOND 007 - MINT BOXED L@@K ,.Kit Mini Racing - Talbot Lotus - Rallye Codasur 1981 - Frequelin Todt - ref 0405,.1 43 Fairlady Z Gt 500 Calsonic,.Spark Model S4842 MC LAREN MP4 1C NIKI LAUDA 1983 N.8 2nd LONG BEACH GP 1 43 Mod, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.UNIVERSAL HOBBIES UH4957 1 32 NEW HOLLAND T5.120 2016,.Spark 1 43 Scale Resin S2564 Audi R10 TDI Kolles LM 2010,.1994 Nylint Toys 'Napa Auto Parts' 4x4 Power Prop Combo No. 6816-N,.1960’s Bentley S2 Cabriolet HJ Mulliner 1 18 Diecast Car Classic Concours Show,. Id., p 923.


In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Scania Topline 143m 4x2 Italeri Kit 1 24,PICCOLO DANNO Modellino DieCast 1 18 DODGE CHARGER blue CHRISTINE King AUTOWORLD,.BUB 06918 Der VW-Transporter Bubmobile Jahresedition 2009 1 87 OVP ,.1 18 Norev Citroen DS23 1973 dunkelred 181568,.Spark 1 43 Scuderia Tgold red STR11 n.26 10th Spanish GP 2016 Daniil Kvyat S502,.AUTO WORLD 1 18 1967 BALDWIN MOTION CAMARO DIE-CAST blueE AMM1118,.Maserati Sebring Series Ii Metallic bluee 1 43 NeoScale NEO45643 Model,.FRANKLIN MINT 1 24 SCALE RED WHITE 1955 CHEVROLET BEL AIR,. The parties SSM LKW 1 43 KRAZ-214 Pritschen-LKW Hilfsdienst,.

RARE Miltary Sd.Ah.116 Tank Transporter and Trailer RARE,.Hot Wheels ROAD BEASTS STIKEY TONGUES SLITHERBITE. RARE ,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Herpa scania S730 IAA16 1 87 1 87 ho,; Siku Super 3726 00100 DÜWAG MGT6D Straßenbahn DISCO TRAM VIVEZ EN MUSIQUE , (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]


Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Mercedes - Benz 260D Pullman Landaulet 1936 brown black Esval 1 43 NEU OVP,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)MATCHBOX LESNEY A DENNIS FIRE ESCAPE ENGINE, METAL WHEELS, EXCELLENT, BOXED,.American Muscle 1971 Plymouth GTX 440 Tan With White Top 1 18 Scale MISB 2002,.S5458 SPARK 1 43 Honda Civic EF3 Group A 1988,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Spark S4997 - Porsche 91 2.7 Carrera Baujahr 1974 white-black 1 43 NEU,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.2018 Hot Wheels 50th Anniversary Redline Set All 5 Diecast 1 64,.Lancia Delta HF Integrale 16v 1990 Red, Model Car 1 18 Triple9,.Coche coleccion Norev,escala 1 18,Fiat 500L,Ref.187770,.Hot Wheels 2012 RLC Subscription School Busted Short Bus Rare Members Only,.Mattel T6939 FERRARI 126C2 ITALY 1982 1 43,. The ScottsdaleMercedes-Benz Modellauto 1 43 PKW W222 S-Klasse S65 AMG,TSM Model TSM430148 R - Jaguar F-Type - Baujahr ab 2014 - Caldera Red - 1 43,.Very rare french solido lorry tracteur willeme cabine horizon mint in box,. Id.,Mercedes Benz SL-KLASSE de 2012 Grey Matt NOREV - NO 183590 - Echelle 1 18,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, VINTAGE MATCHBOX M4 RUSTON-BUCYRUS DIESEL SHOVEL REFURBISHED, EXCELLENT ,; Tekno 63366 Sattelauflieger 3achs Curtainside 1 50 NEU in OVP,Norev 185133 Renault 16 1968 - grey metallic 1 18,.Mercedes-Benz L 315 Pritsche 1950 Pma 1 43 439034420 Model,. The Scottsdale1 43 1950'S FURGON MERCEDES BENZ L.319 SCHENKER & CO Handmade,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, 1 43 . MECEDES-BENZ 300 CE de 1987 CENTURY,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Trofeu TF1427 FIAT 131 ABARTH N.6 11th RAC RALLY 1977 T.MAKINEN-H.LIDDON 1 43 Mo,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Subaru Forester 2013 1 43 Premium X PRD392,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Lamborghini Mura -1.18e- club metal die cast -neuve,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Aral Tanklastzug aus Metall von Märklin 8008 u.a.,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, 1 18 Ixo 18RMC015 FORD FIESTA RS WRC V. ROSS MONZA RALLY 2015 cochesaescala, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Spark 1 43 Scale S3049 - F1 McLaren Mercedes MP4-27 1st Brazil GP 2012, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, NOREV NV185271 RENAULT 30 TX 1981 BRONZE 1 18,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeBrumm BM0534 FERRARI 250 GTO N.19 2nd LM 1962 GUICHET-NOBLET 1 43 Modellino,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Dinky Toys 192 De Soto Fireflite made in England 1 43 scale Near Mint,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheCORGI Eddie Stobart - MODERN - SCANIA Box Trailer - MB,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.AMIE AM43003 Mini Car 1 43 Ultraman 80 UGM Scouter S7 AJ-8 Finished Goods JAPAN,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,NOREV LE NAIN GOURMAND 1 43,Rio RI4586 CITROEN DS 21 N.1.000.000 1969 gold 1 43 Modellino,.1 43 Spark Jaguar XJR9 Silk Cut Le Mans 1988 Sullivan Jones Cobb S4719,.Maisto 1 18 Scale Diecast - 31135 Range Rover Sport orange,. The HuyghePorsche 911 997 II GT2 silver Coupe Ab 2007 2004-2011 1 18 Norev Modell Auto m..,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheBrumm BMS1735B FIAT 500F BABBAZZA NATALE AUTOSTOP 2017 (BIONDA) 1 43 Modellino,.

Rare NIB Elegant Miniatures Marx Collectoy Military Vehicles Tank No. H.K. 6058,.Red Bull Racing RB12 Winner Malaysian GP 2016 Ricciardo S5023 Spark 1 43 New ,.

Matchbox Regular Wheel 63 Ford Service Ambulance 1959,.Spark 1 43 Sunbeam Alpine n.33 Le Mans 1963 S4765,. Nonetheless, on the facts of MINICHAMPS 1 43 MCLAREN FORD M23 Nr.133 JAMES HUNT JAPANESE GP 1976 - 530764391,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeMINICHAMPS FORD CAPRI RS 2600 1972-73 RED 1 43 430 085802,.Norev 1 43 Scale 517704 - 2014 Renault Megane RS Trophy - Pear White,.

For example, in Partridge,POLISTIL MS102 MOTO GUZZI V7 SPECIAL - RED 1 15 - GOOD CONDITION IN BOX,. In Jorgensen, supra,Signature Models 1 43 Scale PM43709 - 1950 Mercedes Benz 170S - Met Light bluee,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Spark 1 43 Porsche 997 Mentos 2013 SA039,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Dinky Toys France. Traction Citroën BL Ref 24N,. That is the same situation in this case.LEGOLAS LORD OF THE RINGS RTOTK 12 DELUXE ACTION FIGURE SET BXD ISSUE K8967Q ,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.18111 MCG 1 18 Lada Niva green 1976,. Detroit Edison, supra.


VW FAW Volkswagen BORA TSi 1 18 model car,.