Best Best Best Model BT9583 FERRARI 330 P2 N.77 DNF DAYTONA 1965 SURTEES-RODRIGUEZ 1 43 Mo 39c328

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Best Best Best Model BT9583 FERRARI 330 P2 N.77 DNF DAYTONA 1965 SURTEES-RODRIGUEZ 1 43 Mo 39c328
MATCHBOX LESNEY MODEL NO.31c LINCOLN CONTINENTAL VN MIB,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals BRITAINS 9687 HONDA BENLY 125CC 125 CC MOTOR BIKE WITH DRIVER RED MINT BOXED,.Hot Wheels Barbie HIWAY HAULER 1 5000 Limited Edition Made (Very Rare),.Lotus Europa S Coupe Weiss 75368 1 18 AutoArt Sonderangebot Modell Auto mit od..,.Rio Models 1 43 Scale Diecast 4166 - Fiat 128 Quattro Porte - Carabinieri,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.1 18 scale Lancia Stratos 1975 Rally Tour De Course Darniche . Mahe rare,.Vintage - SAAB 99 S coupè - 1 43 Nacoral S.A. Ref. 123,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Spark Model Team Lotus 24 Trevor Taylor 1 43 S4272,.1 43 1938 Jaguar SS 100 WMS Western Models handmade,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Spark 1 43 Porsche 997 GT3 RS WRC 2017 SF115,.1 18 Highway 61 Die Cast Promotions, 1970 AAR 'Cuda, w Display Case, LOOK ,.Maxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940 023701 - 1960 BMW 700 LS - Red, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Spark Models 1 43 Scale S1522 - Ginetta-Zytek 09S Strakka Racing LM 2009,.FERRARI F12 BERLINETTA GREY 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY HOTWHEELS BCJ74,.Jada 1 24 Scale 98399 - Transformers Metal Car 2016 Chevy Camaro - Bumblebee,.SCANIA S730 V8 tracteur camion ref 116203 1 43 eligor,.

CORGI 1 50 - 29201 GUY WARRIOR PLATFORM TRAILER - BRS,.1 43 Minichamps Bentley S2 Standart Saloon,.Matchbox Preproduction Grand Prix Racing Car,.Toyoda Aa Sedan Toyota Museum 1 43 10Th Anniversary,.CORGI TOYS - VINTAGE METALLMODELL - COMMER BUS - 2500 SERIES - (CORGI 16),.

Vintage - ALFA ROMEO Giulia Canguro 1600cc. - 1 43 Joal n°105 MIB,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Minichamps 1 43 scale 436 139424 Bentley R-type Continental 1955 green,.Minichamps 410066028 Porsche 911 GT3 2017 Green 1 43 Scale,.PORSCHE 911 991 R Coupe 2016 Leichtbau weiss mit red white red Minichamps 1 43,BROOKLIN BRK 7 CHRYSLER AIRFLOW 1934 4 DOOR SEDAN 1 43,.SPRINT CARS 3 DIFFERENT OUTLAW SERIES MINT BOXED NEVER ON DISPLAY RARE VITEMS,.

1 12 Ducati 998 RS Nannelli SBK 2004 1 12 • Minichamps 122040224,.Matchbox Superfast My First Matchbox Set with School Bus MIB LL-113,.Mikansue 1 43 Scale Built Model Car Kit 22 - Adler Racing Car White Unboxed,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

1 150 Kyosho Diecast bus Mitsubishi Fuso Aero Queen SHD (N scale) Kira Kira tour,.

Herpa 308373 - Mercedes-Benz Actros SLT Tieflade-SZ mit Ladegut Max Bögl 1 87,. We agree in part.

Peugeot 309 GTi16 1992 Miami bluee NOREV - NO 184881 - Echelle 1 18,.1 43 CL64K ASTON MARTIN DB2 (1st series) KIT BY SMTS,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.1 18 NISSAN GENISS MPV DIE CAST MODEL,.BURAGO 1 18 - COD. 3036 FERRARI 456GT 1992 - METALLIC blueE,.1 50 Corgi Bernard Type 110 Fourgon Danone 72001,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Norev - Nissan GT-R R35 - 1 18 - Norev 188052,.1957 Land Rover Series I 88 Station Wagon1 43 Scale by Truescale Miniatures,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, 1955 Ford Crown Vic,; TSM TRUESCALE, ACURA NSX ROADSTER, MARVEL AVENGERS, 1 43 Scale RESIN NEW,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

1 18 Elite Ferrari 599 GTB FIORANO bluee white NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.FLAKPANZER IV(WIRBELGIUM),1945 char,miniature tank 1 72 collection warmaster,Schuco 1 43 Scale Model Car 04354 - BMW 320i - Polizei,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Corgi 70301 - Pinder Jean Richard - Berliet TLR - Semi Transport Chevaux - MIB,.

Porsche 911 997 Turbo H Nürnburgring 2008 Hankook MINICHAMPS MODEL CAR,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Kit Metal Assembled 1 43 - Renault 40CV Records 1925,.Best 9603 Ferrari 250 GTL from diorama Maranello very rare 1 43 EVP 1412-24-07,.Porsche Minicar 1 43 Schuco Shuko,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, (D) dinky STUDEBAKER goldEN HAWK - 169,; Maisto 1971 DATSUN 510. 1 24 DIECAST MODEL.,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Hot Wheels Honda NSX Acura 14 x,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

RARE Corgi 77501 1960's DC Comics 1 24 diecast Batmobile with BatCommunicator,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

MODELLINO MERCEDES BENZ CLK DTM 2003 J. ALESI TEAM HWA IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

MINIACARS 43 1 43 RESIN - 97.01C - SIMCA 1939 8 BERL LUXE - BROWN,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Chgold Q TAKARA 70's Sports Cars Set SUBARU SKYLINE blueEBIRD BELLETT MAZDA NEW,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.181480 Norev 1 18 Citroën DS 19 1956 green Printemps & Champagne,.Renault 12 TS 1973 orange 1 18 - 185211 NOREV,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Neo Lincoln Continental Mark VII LSC - metallic-dunkel-red 1984 - 1 43,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.TW Collection 1 43 Scale White Metal Kit 59 - Dusenberg 3 Ltr GP 1921 - Cream,.

1 43 Audi R8 LMS KK Performance 1000km Zhuhai ILMC, Spark SA006,.Spark 1 43 - Lotus Evora Hybrid 2010,.2017 -SUPER RARE -Star Wars -Solo Resistance Xwing & Speeder Bike - ⭐️MINT⭐️,.Moko Matchbox Lesney Ferrari Berlinetta MINT OriginalBox,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Minichamps 400720011 1 43 LOTUS FORD 72 DAVE WALKER USA GP 1972,.

IXO 1 43 1964 Ferrari 158 Surtees Italian GP La Storia,.Modell 1 18 Volkswagen VW T3 Bus Red Star 1992 red Norev 188542,.1 43 Peugeot 205 Gti 1986 - Red,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, FORD Capri RS 2600 Rallye Race Villa Real Gimenez Repsol 1972 Trofeu 1 43,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Fire Brigade Models 1 50 Scale - FBM4 Dodge G Fire & Rescue Service engine,.1 43 PremiumClassixxs VW T2 Open Air Bus silver 18401,.Porsche 718 Cayman GTS 2018 Yellow 1 43 SPARK S7618,.DODGE Challenger T A Best Of Show 1 43 BOS43645,.Neo Borgward P 100 1 43 mit Box Unbespielt,.

Cadillac Series 62 Berline 1950 bluee Spark S2923 resin 1 43, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Porsche 911 991 Carrera S Coupe silver grey Ab 2012 1 18 Welly Modell Auto mit..,.New 1 43 Tarmac Works Audi R8 LMS Super Taikyu Series 2018,. The PartridgeBrooklin Models 1 43 Scale Model Car BRK32 - 1953 Studebaker Starliner - Unboxed,.Volkswagen Kafer Beetle Stoll Coupe 1952 2 Tone Cream NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO47055 Mod,.Peugeot 504 Break 1976 1 18 Modelcar Group Mcg18035 Familiar Crema,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, TSM 1957 Land Rover Series 1 88 Soft-Top., although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Rio RI4587 FIAT 1100 103 POLIZIA 1954 1 43 Modellino,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Excellent DINKY SUPERTOYS 963 Blaw Knox Heavy Tractor & Early Original Box,.ACME 1 18 SCHUTZ AND THOMPSON DIRT CHAMPS,PartridgeEbbro Ebro Arta Skyline R33 Jgtc1998,.Spark Model S7024 ORECA 07 - GIBSON N.38 10th LM 2018 H.P.TUNG-S.RICHELMI-G.AUBR,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Rio 4329 GENERAL 40 HP GRAND PRIX 1902 1 43, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, SPARK 1 87 PORSCHE 908 WINNER TARGA FLORIO 1970 VERY RARE,; 1 18 Norev Peugeot 504 Cabriolet 1969 orange NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, 1 43 Hi Story Model NISSAN Prince Skyline Deluxe Brown 1957, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Minichamps Mercedes Benz 300 Cabriolet 1 43 437032130, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeSiku World 5501 Set Stadt mit Sniper blue, Porsche red, BMW yellow,,.

Spark Fiat 500 Jolly 1 43 Resin S1497,.Atlas Editions Dinky Toys 811 - Caravane Avec Glaces - MIMB , Clarke's negligent act.1971 Valiant Charger R T E49 1 32 Scale Aussie Classic Diecast Model Hobby Car,.Spark Model Mercedes-Benz 300 SL 1956 (red) 1 43 S4959,.NEO SCALE MODELS 1 43 Bmw 318i 3er (E30) Baur 1986 White NEO49527,.

Daihatsu Compagno Spider (1965) 1 24 Die-cast Model Hachette Japanese Cars (25),.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Bentley Embricos 1938 bluee Minichamps 1 43 436139821 Model,Ebro 1 43 Xanavinismo Gt-R Low Down Force Fuji Test 2008,. In Noska,CORGI CLASSICS MODEL No.17603 SCAMMELL CONSTRUCTOR & TRAILER SIDDLE & COOK MIB,.1970 Hot Wheels Redline CONCEPTS Peeping Bomb AWESOME pink NEAR MINT ,.BMW SERIE 3 E30 ALPINA B6 3.5S blue 1 43 M3,.Fiat Punto 2003 Carabinieri C O Esercito Italiano 1 43, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.KTB-4 trolleybus white ,.Spark Model Lotus 59 Graham Hill Winner 1 43 S4277,.CHEVROLET IMPALA CONgreenIBLE 1959 green SPARK S2901 1 43,.FERRARI FXX EVOLUZIONE 1 43 RED LINE,. Id., p 923.

CORGI ATKINSON BORDERER FLATBED & LOAD - BRITISH RAIL. cc12512.,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, CLAAS Direct Disc 520 with Cutting Unit Trolley,DINKY TOYS 552 CHEVROLET CORVAIR LIGHT blueE VN MINT CONDITION ,.MATCHBOX 1-75 MOKO LESNEY Nr. 12 B LAND ROVER SERIES II 1959 58mm + 1 Spielzeug,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE BMW E46 325ti Compact 2.5L 24V 2000 Red 1 43 Minichamps-GTR,.PARPA-97094 - Voiture berline BMW X4 color black - 1 18,.CORGI 239 VOLKSWAGEN 1500 KARMANN GHIA - VERY GOOD in original BOX,.SPARK 1 43 S1648 TYRRELL 007 DUTCH GP 1976 ALESSANDRO PESENTI ROSSI,.NOREV AUTOBUS SAVIEM SC 10 U LA MULATIÈRE-LE ROULE-BELLECOURT REF 98 BON ÉTAT,. The parties Rio RI4545 FIAT 1500 AMBULANZA 1936 1 43 Modellino,.

MITSUBISHI Lancer EVO Rallye Schweden Eriksson Winner Sieger 1995 HPI 1 43,.Sw1501, Wiking Demag Mobilkran 1 87 Spur H0 680-5 60er Jahre,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Corgi No 304S Mercedes 300SL Hardtop - Chrome Plate (Boxed Original 1960's),; Brooklin models BRK 27, 1957 Cadillac Eldorado Brougham.. Boxed, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Ixo Impreza Wrx Sti 1 43,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Citroen 2CV 6 Club 1979 yellow 1 18 Norev 181496 neu & OVP,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Danbury Mint Pewter - approx 1 43 scale - 1951 Jaguar C-Type,.Maxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940 121662 - 1974 Fiat X1 9 - Red (Copper),.FINEWORK Chgold Q size Bugatti Veylon16.4 HG Resin Kit,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,ALPINE RENAULT A110 vainqueur Rallye Tour de CORSE 1973 1 18,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.MATTEL BCJ76 Batmobile Camourflage Tumbler Dark Knight Rises Batman 1 18th scale,.Anson AS023 PORSCHE 911 GT3 CUP N.38 CARRERA AUSTRALIA 2017 CHAMPION DAVID WALL,.Best Model BT9635 FERRARI 250 GTL STEVE MC QUEEN PERSONAL CAR 1 43 Modellino,.1 18 GT Spirit Aston Martin V8 Vantage Volante 1986 darkgreen,.Autographed MATT KENSETH Team Caliber DeWALT Diecast Collector 8.5 NIB VG ,. The ScottsdaleMan Car Transporter With Trailer 1970 Red Grey IXO 1 43 TTRX007 Model,SCHUCO 1001 1 MIRAKOCAR Mint in Original Box NO REPRO Full Working + key,.Danbury Mint 1931 Ford Model A Roadster 1 24 scale diecast model,. Id.,AUTOWORLD AMM1146 1 18 1971 PLYMOUTH SATELLITE SEBRING PLUS MCACN PURPLE,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Dinky 276 Bedford Airport Fire Tender With Flashing Light In Original Box - Nice,; Vintage 1972 MATCHBOX SUPER KINGS Racing Car Transporter K-7 K7,Rio RI4583 LAMBORGHINI MIURA BERTONE P400 1966 orange 1 43 Modellino,.Corgi CC 11507 1 50 scale AEC MkV 8W Platform & Container - SUTTONS OF CORNWALL,. The ScottsdaleSchuco 1 43 03031 LKW Pritschenwagen Krupp-Titan s.Foto OVP (B1255),Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, 1953 Chevrolet Bel Air Congreenible bluee 1 18” Scale Die-Cast by Sun Star JVE 226,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; TEKNO HOLLAND 950 MERCEDES BENZ 0302 OAD REIZEN - CREAM 1 50 - EXCELLENT IN BOX,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Matchbox M3 - Tank Transporter - Green - B NB,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 43 ORECA 07 - Gibson N°28 24H Le Mans 2018 F. Perrodo - M. Vaxivière - L. Duva,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Spark Models 1 43 Scale Dauer 962 LM No36 Winner Le Mans 1994 M. Baldi Y Dalmas,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Ferrari 365 GT4 2+2 1972 red - 1 18 KK-Scale NEW, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Nissan NV350 Caravan School Bus 2012 Yellow 1 43 Model 45597 EBBRO, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Chgold Q TAKARA ALL JAPAN GT CHAMPIONSHIP 2001 SERIES SET Rare F S,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeMINICHAMPS 1 43 - F1 FERRARI 1996 LAUNCH VERSION - M. SCHUMACHER,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Mint M-Tech 1 43 Skyline Gt-R R33,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheMatchbox - Series 74 Mobile Refreshments Canteen Boxed,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Herpa Scania Ristimaa Schwedenzug Zorro,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,LOT 38442 Norev 181525 Citroen Méhari 1983 yellow 1 18 Modellauto NEU in OVP,VEHICLES 1953 PONTIAC VAN, MINI VAN + OTHER VANS (DT) MINI VAN NOT INCLUDED,.Citroen Break 21 1970 Bordeaux 1 18 Model 181592 NOREV,.Deagostini Le Grandi Ferrari Collection No.40 With 1 24 166 MM 1948 F1 F S,. The Huyghe1986 Wartburg 353S yellow 1 18 MC Group 18077,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in Huyghe1 43 Toyota Cgoldlla Wrc 1997 Oriole,.

Hostaro Opel Kapitan 1956 in Metallic Green on 1 43 in Box,.VECTOR MODELS MERCEDES BENZ 03500 BUS + 1950 METAL HANDMADE 1 43,.

RENAULT R.S. 01 RS01 Interceptor 01 Sport Jean Ragnotti 1 300 Spark 1 43,.Matchbox Series Lesney Leyland Petrol Tanker BP 32 Vintage Old,. Nonetheless, on the facts of CORGI TOYS 1 43 - NSU SPORT PRINZ NO= 316 - IN NEAR MINT CONDITION,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeLote de Coches Clásicos 1 Seat 1500 + 1 SEAT 124 L - ( 1 24) Nuevos,.HOT WHEELS REDLINE FLYING COLORS SIR RODNEY ROADSTER NEAR COMPLETE MINT,.

For example, in Partridge,Coffret Alpine A110 Pure & Lègende 2018 Set 517864 1 43 Norev,. In Jorgensen, supra,Yat Ming 1 19 VW Microbus T1 green Weiss mit OVP (OR10,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.CITROEN 2CV PROPHYLTEX Lutte Contre Le SIDA NOREV 1 43,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,NOREV - 1 18 - AC COBRA 289 - 1963 - 182754,. That is the same situation in this case.Renault Clio Williams 1 18 Norev,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Best Model BT9267 ALFA ROMEO TZ 1 N.44 20th LE MANS 1965 KOOB-FINKELSTEIN 1 43 M,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Porsche 917 30 No.6 sizedega 1975 (Mark Donohue),.Minichamps Ford Fiesta RS WRC Street 2011 LIMITED EDITION 1 18 scale,.Minichamps 410130201 Replica Model, bluee,.

NOREV 1 18 1962 FIAT 500 GIARDINIERA GREEN DIECAST TOY CAR 187723,.