Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals VOLKSWAGEN 1500 S (Typ 3) 1963 Light bluee - 1 18 - MCG,.Schuco 1072 BMW Formula 2,.MODELLINO OPEL DIPLOMAT V8 COUPE’ 1965 blueE IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.WILLIAMS FW19 GP BRASILE 1997 TAMEO KITS IN METALLO 1 43,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.1969 Peugeot 504 Coupe weiss 1 18 Norev 184825,.EBBRO 44845 1 43 TOYO From japan,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.UNKNOW MANUFACTURER (BARINI) 1 43 SCALE RESIN MODEL FIAT 500 ABARTH PININFARINA,.Mercedes 300 Limousine 1955 grey 1 18 Norev neu & OVP 183578,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.1 18 Norev BMW M535i E28 Sedan bluee 1987 NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.Porsche 911 GT3 Cup, No.55, Asian Carrera Cup, Macau, 1 43, Minichamps,.TOYOTA HILUX PredOTYPE 1 43 - IXO, RALLY DAKAR 2015, DIECAST, METAL, NEW IN BOX., Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
MODELLINO PORSCHE 911 GTS 997 II GIALLA 2011 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.ERTL 1 16 SCALE CASE SV340 SKID STEER LOADER MODEL BN 44121,.SPARK RENAULT 5 Turbo Winner Tour de France 1984 J. Ragnotti S3863 1 43,.1 18 SCALE AMERICAN MUSCLE 10 FASTEST WHITE 1969 DODGE SUPERBEE,.
Lancia Hyena Zagato (Red) 1992,.BB239-2 Schuco 1 43 03091 Mercedes-Benz MB L6600 Fire Brigade Fw , Nip,.CORGI 1 50 27501 ATKINSON 8 WHEEL PLATFORM LORRY AARON HENSHALL,.CORGI TOYS ASTON MARTIN V12 VANQUISH JAMES BOND 40TH ANNIVERSARY,.Herpa PC MB Actros LH KüKoSZ Henglein Pizzateig 2009 121200 OV,.
Bedford Van Findlaters - Dinky Toys Code 2 John Gay in Box 34435,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.FERRARI F 430 CHALLENGE COCA COLA DIE CAST 1 18 BY HOT WHEELS ELITE N 2069,.BBU16904 by BBURAGO FERRARI CALIFORNIA T OPEN TOP (CABRIOLET) 1 18,.Citroen Gt Salon De Paris 2008 White Met NOREV 1 18 NV181610 Miniature,MINICHAMPS MERCEDES-BENZ VIANO CARBONblack METALLIC 400032210,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 30718A - BMW M3 Sport Evolution,.
Volkswagen VW Maggiolone 1303 Anno di Costruzione 1972 green Metallico 1 18,.Spark Model Porsche 964 Carrera 4 JeanMarc 1 43 S1373,.Norev 184707 1955 Peugeot D4A with Ladders 1 18 Model Car Red,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
Vintage Tonka Flat Bed Mound, Minnesota,.
Alpine Renault A110 1600s 1971 Gendarmerie 1 18 Model NOREV,. We agree in part.
POLITOYS M - METALLMODELL - MINI-COOPER - NR. 582 1 24 1 25 OVP (5.DIV-43),.Ferrari 208 Gtb Turbo 1982 Bianco White Best 1 43 BE9575 Model,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.MG B N°37 LE MANS 1964 HOPKIRK HEDGES BUILT UP PINKO 1 43,.RENAULT 4 1965 COPENHAGHE blueE NOREV 1 18,.Jaguar F-Type SVR AWD - Caldera red - TSM-Model - 1 43 - TSM430148,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Ford Ranchero GT White 1972 (Neo Scale 1 43 44856) TOP PRICE ,.Mercedes Benz bluee Zero Concept 2010 Spark S1056 1 43,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Spark S2161 Aston Martin One-77 MIB,; Ford Mustang Sportsroof 1971 - 1 18 - Sun Star,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
VINTAGE DIECAST--1954 CHEVY CORVETTE CONV--1 18 SCALE--9 LONG--by CARMANIA,.V 1 87 REDLINE MODELS 87RL019 FERRARI 599 GTB 599GTB FIORANO RED MIB RARE,Ferrari 500 F2 n° 16 Kit monté sur base Quartzo 1 43 Magnifique,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.OCCASION PORSCHE 911 CARRERA cabriolet anthracite 1 43,.
1971 Ford Bronco Bill Stroppe Baja Edition in 1 18 Scale,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.CMR 1 43 Scale SBC006 - Porsche 956K 1st 200 Meilen Norisring 1983 - S.Bellof,.Schuco 1 43 Scale Model Van 03351 - Mercedes Benz L319 - Feuerwehr,.NOREV - 1 18 - MERCEDES-BENZ 300 SL CABRIOLET - 1986 - 183467,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Renault 4 Fourgonnette 1965 EDF-GDF 1 18 Norev,; Wiking Magirus S 7500 Pritschenhängerzug Tepinkn OVP (N5753),. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Diecast Car &Trailer Boston Red Sox 2012 Ford Fusion Fenway 100 Yrs Lionel 1 24,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
371G Novoexport CCCP Saratov Moskvitch 408 Militia Police Soviet 1 43,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
SPARK 375 ASTON MARTIN DB7 ZAGATO 2003 - GREEN METALLIC 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 19,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
REVELL CREATIVE MASTERS SHELBY COBRA 427 1 20 SCALE IN BOX.,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
Bentley R-type Continental 1955 Red 1 43 Model 436139422 MINICHAMPS,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.1 64 DCP Gleaner - Kenworth T880 Sleeper Cab with Fontain Renegade Lowboy Traile,.Rare Hot Wheels Legend 57 Chevy,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Norev NV 773090 FIAT PANDA 4X4 1 43,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Bitter Sc Coupe (Red) 1984,.
1967 Ferrari 275 GTS 4 NART Spyder Yellow by KK-Scale LE 1 of 250 1 18 Very Nice,.JEEP DE POMPIER EN METAL AVEC REMORQUE LE JOUET FRANCAIS,.ROAD SIGNATURE 1 18 92389 02 PONTIAC FIREBIRD T AM RUST,.WESTERN MODELS 1 43 WP 125 1992 DODGE VIPER RED,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.A28 Handmade Iron Decoration Collectibles Simulation Motorcycle Model K,.
PORSCHE 356 B 356B CABRIOLET 1960 SIGNAL red 1 43 MINICHAMPS 400064331 NEU,.HOT WHEELS P9901 ELITE 1965 65 FERRARI 250 LM 18 DIECAST YELLOW,.Diecast Car Model Citroen C3-XR 1 18 (White) + GIFT ,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Norev SmartFortwo Coupe (W453) orange gra 1 18 B66960298,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Hot Wheels Redline Classic 36 Ford Coupe, 1968 gold Dark interior,.Dinky atlas ford camion baché calberson,.AH820 KYOSHO 1 43 MERCEDES BENZ CLA-KLASSE SHOOTING BRAKE B66960349 EN BOITE,.1 18 Norev Renault Clio Williams 1993 bluee NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.SOLIDO 1 18 CITROEN 2CV SAFARI RAID 66 BOX x,.
Ebbro 45139 HONDA FIT 3 HYBRID Milano Red 1 43 scale, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Ertl American Muscle 1967 Mustang GT blue-metallic 1 18 OVP ,.Chevrolet Camaro Z 28 1978 silver, Modellauto 1 18 Greenlight Collectibles,. The PartridgeMatchbox cars (40) from around the year 1960,.7 VOITURES AMERICAINES SOLIDO L'AGE D'OR ETAT NEUVES EN BOITE,.Barkas B1000 Halbbus Volkspolizei (1970) 1 18 MCG 18097,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Ebbro 1 43 Kosei Spirit MR-S JGTC 2002 M. Matsunaga K.Namekawa from Japan, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.BMW 1er M 1M E82 Frozen Grey GT709 1 18,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.2018 M2 COCA COLA 1958 CHEVROLET APACHE STEPSIDE CHASE LIMITED 500 PCS 1 24,.Onyx 1 24 Scale Model Car 5010 - F1 K-Mart Havoline Lola - Nigel Mansell,PartridgeFord Fiesta WRC n.2 3rd Rally Monte Carlo 2017 O.Tänak S5161 Spark 1 43 New ,.Dinky Toys 216 Ferrari Dino with bluee interior in box all original condition,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, CORGI CC20302 GARRETT 4CD TRACTOR & TRAILER - WAR DEPARTMENT - NEW, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Volkswagen Bulli T1 Samba Fiera Di Norimberga 2019 KK SCALE 1 18 KKDC180153N,; Diecast Car Model Benteng Besturn B70 Sport RS 1 18 (White) + GIFT ,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, BMW M3 E30 DTM Harald Nippel Grohs Team Vogelsang 1987 Minichamps 1 43, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, CORGI VANGUARDS HILLMAN AVENGER TIGER WARDANCE LIMITED EDITION 1 43 USED, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgePorsche 911 Coupe’ 996 Red 1998 Minichamps 1 43 400061181 Model,.
F1 Pit Crew Figurines Jps Lotus 1977 Set Of 6 1 18 True Scale Tsm12Ac08 Model,.NOREV - 1 18 - PEUGEOT 205 GTI 1.9L - 1992 - 184856, Clarke's negligent act.1 18 Norev Citroen 2CV 1979 Club mimosa yellow NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.Dinky toys lot de 3 pièces 405 25D 49A,.Trofeu Ford Cortina Mk1 1st Safari 1964 P.Hughes TR2201 1 43 Diecast,.
Vintage 1974-75 Tonka Toys Pressed Steel Mini Forklift VG,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, MODELLINO AUDI R8 WINNER SEBRING 2002 CAPELLO HERBERT IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,Alter DINKY TOYS - Nr.828 Jeep mit Fahrer und Raketenwerfer SS10 - mit OVP,. In Noska,Ferrari 166 MM Barchetta Avvocato Giovanni Agnelli Personal Car 1 43 Model,.Barkas B1000 Minibus Kundendienst 1956 Red Beige ModelCarGroup 1 18 MCG18104,.Dinky Toys, Ford Sedan 170 red Original from the 1950ties,.RARE, DY018 Nash Metropolitan 19th MicA UK Conven. 2004 , Dinky, Code 2, w.Box, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.BMGL02 - FIAT TOPOLINO VACANZE ROMANE 1953 ED.LIM.PCS 100 1 43 MODELLINO MODEL,.1 18 Norev Citroen DS 19 Cabriolet 1961 pearl grey NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.Herpa 121682 H0 LKW DAF XF Euro 6 SSC Sattelzug Harz,.BIZARRE 1 43 - BZ79 LOLA T286 FISONS 20TH LE MANS 1979,. Id., p 923.
Porsche 911 991-2 Gt2 Rs Coupe 2018 SPARK 1 43 S7624 Model,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Vitesse L081 - Mercedes 600 - Pope Paulo VI - A+ B,NZG No 371 MB Unimog u140 Kipper blue 1 43 OVP å ,.Lexus Lfa 2010 White Top Gear Minichamps 1 43 519431660 Model,.1 43 RL10K Lotus 38 Jim Clark Indy 1967 KIT,.Ixo model RAT43900OR BUGATTI VEYRON 16.4 GRAND SPORT 2012 orange 1 18 Modellino,.Hummer H3T (birch weiss) 2006,.Renault Megane R.S. 2017 Yellow, Model Car 1 18 Norev,.MERCEDES LKW LP608 Renn Service Porsche redhman s Racing Premium Classixx 1 43,. The parties 1 18 Sun Star Citroen Xsara WRC C. Mcrae D.Ringer Rarity §,.
VW T1-Bus, 1963, yellow 1 18, WELLY,.Lamborghini Murcielago LP640 2006 Yellow 1 43 Model 436103920 MINICHAMPS,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Winross Interstate System Tractor Trailer White 5000 Cab MIB 1 64 Diecast,; Norev 1 43 Scale Model Car 517594 - Renault Clio R.S. - Flame Red, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
Revell Filmar Racing Ford Nascar 1998 1 18 Kenny Wallace (MCC),.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 1 43 Land Rover Range Rover 4.6 HSE 1994 1995 AUTOart 54802 Turning wheels RARE,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)LOT OF FOUR NEW COLLECTOR CARS, CITGO, SHEPHERD, RUNABOUT WITH FREE SHIPPING,.VINTAGE FRENCH DINKY CHAR AMX 13 TON PANZER TANK MINT NEW IN BOX,.SCUDERIA FERRARI SF16-H 1 18,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,IXO ALTAYA 1 43 SEAT 131 ABARTH BERNARDO CARDIN RAUL GANCEDO PRINCIPE ASTURIAS,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast - 3090 Porsche 911 Carrera Cabriolet 1994 Brown,.Schuco 1 32 John Deere 3120 m. Dach 450767700,.Vintage Hot Wheels Ferrari 312P Redline bluee Hong Kong Base,.Model Resin Kit Mini Racing Renault 4 GTL Monte Carlo '91 on 1 43 in Box,.POLITOYS 1 43 FIAT 1500 GT GHIA 528 - RARE COLOR - IN NEAR MINT CONDITION,. The ScottsdaleFranklin Mint 1 24 Der Düsenberg J Victoria bluee 1933 A 295 Neuwertig,Bizarre BZ431 1 43 Resin Talbot Lago T26 GS, '51 LeMans, Team Eugene Chaboud,.MINICHAMPS 1 43 MASERATI GRANTURISMO MC GT4,. Id.,1957 STUDEBAKER goldEN HAWK ARCTIC WHITE 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY SUNSTAR 6152,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, UNIVERSAL HOBBIES UH5342 1 32 AMAZONE CATROS 6002 2TS COMPACT DISC HARROW,; FERRARI 250 BREADVAN 1000KMS PARIS 1962 GRAND PRIX MODELS 1 43 MONTAGE PRO,Diecast Car Model KIA RIO 1 18 (Red) + GIFT ,.1 43 F1 FERRARI WITH DRIVER SF-71H SEBASTIAN VETTEL SF71-H 2018 ,. The Scottsdale1 18 FERRARI 3.2 MONDIAL HOT WHEELS ELITE 8 SCAGLIETTI FF LUSSO GTC4 F1 SUPER,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Hot Wheels 1 18 Scale Diecast - 25732 Ferrari Testarossa 1984 Red,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Weise-toys Red SAME Fortis 190 Infinity Tractor Vehicles Collection 1035 1 32,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Polistil S31 Jaguar XJ6L - 1 25 scale - maroon - NEAR MINT in VG early card box,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, NOREV CITROEN 22 CV ROADSTER 1934 - 8 CYLINDERS - blueE 1 43 - EXCELLENT IN BOX,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Mercedes 11 40 1924 black Rio 1 43 Rio4353 Model Diecast,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, AUTO ART PORSCHE 911 ( 997) CARRERA S 1 43 YELLOW ART.57882 .., (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, 2006 HOT WHEELS SUPER TREASURE 1940 FORD COUPE RARE SHORT CARD NEW, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, 1932 Ford AA Open Cab Fire Engine—YFE09,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeFDS 1 43 scale White Metal - 23may2018D Ensign N177 -1977 Racing car,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Lot of 18 Matchbox Models of Yesteryear Vehicles,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in Huyghe1 18 Road Signature - 1958 PONTIAC BONNEVILLE red white - RARITÄT ,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.1986 BMW E28 M M535I White 1 18 Norev 183260,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,TW Collection 1 43 Scale White Metal Kit 19 - Alfa Romeo 158 1950 - Red,1968 Fiat 500 Giardiniera Estate Positano Yellow 1 18 Norev 187724,.MINICHAMPS 1 43 BMW M3 ( E92 ) 2008 MATT GREY réf 436026321 ,.ISUZU BELLETT 1600GT type R (1969) 1 24 Die-cast Model Hachette Japan Cars (14),. The HuygheOpel Kadett C 40 Jahre Red Prasentation Iaa 1973 Minichamps 1 43 436045620 Model,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheVW Volkswagen Tiguan II SUV L Allspace silver 2. Generation Ab 2016 1 43 Paudi..,.
Vanguards 1 43 Scale Triumph Stag Tahiti bluee Hard Top TGC 19R Diecast Model Car,.Norev Peugeot 205 GTI 1.9 1992 Miami bluee 1 18 184856 9 12 15,.
Norev Jet Car Serie P Citroen GS Camargue Bertone vintage France 1 43 MIB,.DATSUN 240Z 1971 orange MAISTO 1 18 1 18 JAPAN MODEL CAR MODELE REDUIT NISSAN,. Nonetheless, on the facts of 1 20 SIGNATURE MODELS DONG FENG goldEN DRAGON SEDAN RED yd,.
Next, it is important to clarify that Partridge1 18 GAC Mitsubishi 2019 Eclipse Cross Red Diamond Dealer Edition,.Norev 181564, Citroen DS 19 Cabriolet, 1961, royalblue, 1 18, NEU&OVP,.
For example, in Partridge,Minichamps PM437106715 PORSCHE GT3 997 N.15 NURBURGRING 2010 1 43,. In Jorgensen, supra,OPEL 4 PS LAUBFROSCH - 1 18 MCG,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.PORSCHE 935 Turbo 80 24h Daytona Momo 24h Daytona 80 Moretti Canep Trofeu 1 43,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,1 43 Spark - S5163 Toyota Yaris WRC Monte Carlo 2017 J.-M. Latvala,. That is the same situation in this case.RARE - Vintage Matchbox Superking K35 Massey Furgeson Traktor + Trailer,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Porsche 911R 2017 Grey Metallic Porsche Promo 1 43 SPARK WAX02020050,. Detroit Edison, supra.
1 24 Dub City Bigtime Muscle 1970 Dodge Charger R T CC Candy bluee Diecast Rare ,.1954 Corvette Pennant bluee 1 18 Ertl American Muscle 33178,.Smart ForTwo Cabrio A453 blue mit silver Ab 2015 1 18 Norev Modell Auto mit od..,.
Ford Mustang II Stallion 1976 - 1 18 - Greenlight,.