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Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
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Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Spark 1 43 Oreca 03R Nissan KCMG LeMans 2014 S4224,.Matchbox Superfast No 57 Trailer Caravan Yellow with Dots Hollow Wheels Rare,.Art Model AM0401 FERRARI 857 S N.7 5th 1000 KM PARIS 1956 A.DE PORTAGO-P.HILL 1 ,.AUDI RS5 MIGUEL MOLINA AUDI SPORT TEAM DTM 2016 1 43 SPARK SG296,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Spark 1 43 Scale Model Car S2906 - 1959 Chevrolet Impala El Camino - bluee White,.ERTL AMERICAN MUSCLE CHEVROLET CAMARO - JIM DUNN RACING K&N FILTERS- 1 18 - NMIB,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.715D Rare Norev Bus Saviem SC 10U RN Rodoviária Nacional 1 43,.Kyosho Ky5091rb Ferrari F50 Rossa con interni neri 1 43 Nuova,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Trax TR20 Holden FB Special Sedan - Twilight Turquoise Grecian White,.BBR 1 43 Scale Unbuilt Kit - MET62 McLaren MP4 11 Mercedes GP Australia 1996,.1 43-TRON BEE BOP-1990 LANCIA HYENA LUSSO-RED-NEW MIB, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

SPARK MERCEDES-BENZ SLS AMG GT3 Martini Winner 12H Zandvoort SP054 1 43,.Norev 1 43 Scale diecast - NORUNA Renault Laguna c w Turntable Display,.POLYTOYS PENNY 1 66 ALFA ROMEO GIULIA SS UNPLAYED NEAR MINT IN BOX,.Peugeot 504 Cabriolet 1970 Capucine Yellow 1 18 Model 184826 NOREV,.

Weise Toys MB-trac 1000 'Family' (W441) (1987 - 1991) Tractor,.Mercedes Benz E class 320CE Coupe W124 1 43 Minichamps Limited Facelift,.Spark Model S5809 ORECA 07 GIBSON N.22 40th LM 2017 ROJAS-HIRAKAWA-GUTIERREZ 1 4,.Spark Model S5092 PORSCHE 935 N.45 13th LM 1979 A.PLANKENHORN-P.GURDJIAN-J.WINTE,.Old Vtg Lesney Matchbox Unimog Made In England W Intact Box,.

1967 Austin Powers Shaguar 1 18 Ertl 33543,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.VOLKSWAGEN T1 MICROBUS 1962 AUTOHAUS GREENLIGHT 1 18,.SPARK - ASTON MARTIN VIRAGE 1989 - 1 43 S0599,.1938 Cadillac V-16 Presidential Limousine ROAD SIGNATURE Diecast 1 24 Scale,Ebro 1 43 JAPAN GP Series NISSAN R380 II 1967 No12 finished product,.1 18 BBURAGO FERRARI FORMULA 1 F1 SF70H SEBASTIAN VETTEL DIECAST MODEL,.

Porsche 911 993 Turbo 1995 - Minichamps 1 43 in Box 30341,.Dinky Rover 75 - Light Dark Green - C NB,.CORGI 1 50 - HERITAGE EX70905 RENAULT JL20 FOURGON - WAGNER & BONNEFOIS,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Pan American Boeing 727 Schuco 335 786 Å,.

Matchbox Lesney No.7-1RW, Horse-Drawn Milk Float,. We agree in part.

SUNSTAR - 1 18 - CHEVROLET CORVAIR - 1963 - 1486,.Venturi America (2013) Resin Model Car S2248,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.MAISTO FORD GT 1 18 Scale Model Toy Gift DieCast Sports Race Play Car blueE,.NOREV185260 - Voiture break RENAULT Juvaquatre Elfenbein de 1951 de color crèm,.MICRO RACER JET SUPER SABRE BAUSATZ 01782,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Spark 1 43 Scuderia Tgold red STR9 Renault N.26 Australia GP2014 S3084,.Neo Opel Kapitan 2.5L Red 1 43 Scale Neo43942,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, 6x Triple9 1 24 black Showcase Klarsicht Box Vitrine - Mercedes BMW - Neu,; Top Model 1 43 Scale TMC120 - Gordini T24S - Le Mans 1954,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

21 Hot Wheels Matchbox vehicle 1970s collection & 1980 Official Collector Case,.1 87 Herpa MB SK AMG Sonax-UPS-Tabac 1995 Sattelzug 178440,UT MODELS MERCEDES BENZ SLK KOMPRESSOR - RED 1 18 - VERY GOOD CONDITION,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Dinky Toys GB SB 1 43 - F1 BRM Racing Car 243 with box,.

Burago Ferrari Collection of 11 Boxed,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Corgi 1 50 Scale CC20514B - Burrell Showmans Dragon Diving Dolphins,.Mercedes 3000 D Carro Funebre 1960 Rio 1 43 Rio4278 Modellino Diecast,.1 43 Ixo Ferrari 360 Spider,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, JAD97179 by JADA TOYS MITSUBISHI BRIAN S LANCER EVOLUTION VIII 1 18,; LANSDOWNE 1 43 LDM109 1966 FORD ZODIAC AMBER Mk4 METALLIC gold SUPERB MODEL,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Mclaren Mp4-12C Roadcar 2011 orange Autoart 1 43 AA56006 Model,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

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PEUGEOT 401 D Limousine 1 43 (CCC - KIT MONTE),. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Maisto Chevrolet NOVA SS 1970 chevy 1 18 ProRodz Fast drift speed gt r cars dub,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

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This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Hot Wheels Vinyl 48 Car Carrying Case Red Lines 1969,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.1970's Tonka Mini Winnebago Camper, Nice with Original Box,.NEO 44150 BENTLEY CONTINENTAL CONgreenIBLE 1985, RED,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.TOYOTA Celica ST205 GT Rallye Boucles de Spa 1996 Verreydt NIGHT Trofeu 1 43,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.CORGI 1 50 - 80307 GARRETT ROAD TRACTOR & FLATBED TRAILER - ANKER VALLEY,.

Burago 1 18 Scale diecast - 3025 Dodge Viper RT 10 1992 Red,.Mercury Cougar Coupe (Green Metallic) 1971,.Lot of 3 1969 Hot Wheels Mercedes Benz 280SL cars Purple 2x Olive,.RENAULT 12 R12 GORDINI blue de France 1 18,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.bluem P009 Mini Car 1 43 Ferrari 312B Mexico GP 1970 Finished Goods JAPAN NEW,.

Norev CIJ 1 43 - Berliet Stradair Benne Tilting,.RENAULT MEGANE coupé GENDARMERIE 2001 1 43,.PARPA-97094 - Voiture berline BMW X4 color black - 1 18,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, EAGLE RACE 1 18 3815 1940 FORD COUPE HIGHWAY PATROL CAR GREY,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.1 18 Revell Fiat Abarth 1000 TC white red NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.DINKY SUPERTOYS MODEL No 958 GUY WARRIOR SNOW PLOUGH,.Meri Models 1 43 1990 Lola Lamborghini Aguri Suzuki British Grand Prix,.Kyosho 1 43 Diecast Car Lexus Is 350 F Sport White Nova GF. Japan 193781,.VINTAGE DINKY TOYS MODEL No.35d AUSTIN 7 OPEN TOURER (Yellow Version) RARE ,.

Citroen SM green 1970-1975 1 18 Norev Modell Auto mit oder ohne individiuellem .., the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Norev 183451 Mercedes-AMG GT C Roadster 2017 -  Yellow metallic,.Opel Kapitan P 2.6 Coupe Autenrieth 1963 Dark Red NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO47030 Model,. The PartridgeVolkswagen Baja Bug 1969 Yellow 1 43 NEO 45896,.Boxed Matchbox No. 34a Volkswagen Microvan 1958-62,.A Franklin mint scale model car of a 1964 1 2 Ford Mustang congreenible,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 530 784307 - F1 McLaren Ford M26, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Cadillac Series 75 Long Limousine 1959 Haze bluee Met Kess Model 1 43 KS43020003,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Matchbox Superfast No34 Formula 1 Racing Car Rare Amber Windows & Decals,.Vitesse Models 1 43 Scale 34510 - Riley Kestrel - Arianca Beige Sandy Beige,PartridgeSIKU 2821 - White Oldtimer Getränkewagen - Coca-Cola - NEU in OVP - 1 55,.Kamaz 5320 red bluee SSM1284 1 43,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Spark 1 43 Lotus XI n.41 16th Le Mans 1957 A. Héchard - R. Masson S4401, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Mattel T6939 FERRARI 126C2 ITALY 1982 1 43,; 1 76 Hong Kong Model bus 3M Scotch ADL Enviro500MMC - Double side tape (yellow),; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Feuerwehr-Modell Mercedes Pullmann DLK 30 (wahrsch. Gollwitzer), 1 87, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 1963 Chevrolet Corvair Coupe Laurel Green 1 18 Sun Star 1483, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeVintage Corgi Toys Routemaster Bus No. 469; BTA Welcome to Britain,.

LESNEY MATCHBOX MB58B YELLOW WOOSH-N-PUSH w Flower Label Red Seat NEW MINT BOXD,.POLISTIL 2215 FIAT CROMA METALLIC GREY MINT BOXED RARE SELTEN, Clarke's negligent act.Ferrari 290 MM 1958 by leader kit bar made in italy 1 43,.Rio 4356 FIAT 1100 YV TAXI DI BERNA 1955 1 43,.RENAULT CLIO WILLIAMS 1993 blueE 1 18 185230 NOREV,.

SOLIDO 1 18 METAL PANHARD PL17 1961 CABRIOLET whiteHE Ref 8174,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, SCHUCO 1 32 Lanz Bulldog D 9506 with carburettor red 450769800,Minichamps Audi TT RHD V6 3.2 Bj. 2006 Sportwagen in silver, 1 18, OVP, K013,. In Noska,Renault R 4L Jogging 1981 118483 1 18 Solido,.Best Model BT9001 FERRARI 275 GTB 4 COUPE' 1966 RED 1 43 Modellino,.Peugeot 206 RC red 3 Türer 1998-2012 1 18 Norev Modell Auto mit oder ohne indi..,.SCHUCO 1 43 02266 - MERCEDES 170V PLANE - LOWENBRAU, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.ERTL 1 50 SCALE JOHN DEERE 470 GLC EXCAVATOR MODEL BN 45335,.VW TRANSPORTER T3 B32 PORSCHE blue 1 43,.Ferrari 512 Bb 1976 Giorgio Armani bluee 1 43 Model BEST MODELS,.DORNIER,PFEIL DO33A-1GERMANY,1945 aircraft miniature 1 72 collection,. Id., p 923.

Classic Tank Trailer Italeri Kit 1 24,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, VARI. ERROR-NO TAMPO-PTD. ENGINE- '64 PONTIAC GTO-HOT WHEELS- 2011-TREASURE HUNT,BMW 3.0 CSL CSI CS Alpina Tuning E9 Coupe 1973 orange Resin Highend Spark 1 43,.Spark Model SG334 SCG SCG003C N.704 NURBURGRING 2017 WESTPHAL-MAILLEUX-SIMONSEN-,.Vintage -DINKY TOYS - Nash Rambler - 173 -,.Hot Wheels City Lot of 25 Cars 2014 2015 NIB Sealed NOS Mustang Charger,.Matchbox Lesney Ford Zephyr With Original Box,.F1 LIGIER JS31 Judd V8 3.5 Japan GP 1988 Johansson Gita n es Loto Spark 1 43,.CHEVROLET Camaro Z28 Chaparral Trans Am 1970 Ed Leslie V8 Resin Spark 1 43,. The parties QSP Model Collection Toyota Cgoldlla E30 Sedan 1974 1 43 Metallic bluee,.

Franklin Mint 1955 FORD FAIRLANE Cars of the 50's Collection B11UK08 w Box,.LLEDO THE goldEN DAYS OF FILM MODEL SET 24K gold PLATED OVP,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, 1 43 Spark - S5846 Aston Martin Vantage GTE No.9 LMGTE AM 2017,; DIE CAST FRANKLIN MINT 1 24th 1967 VOLKSWAGON BEETLE, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

CITROEN GS 1971 Erable Beige 1 18 Norev 181623 Grande Serie GSA,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, HOT WHEELS 2012 13th ANNUAL COLLECTORS NATIONALS VOLKSWAGEN DRAG BUS 791 3000,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Porsche 911 Turbo Cabriolet Anno di Costruzione 1987 Avorio 1 18 Norev,.MATRIX Binz MB W186 300C Kombi 1 43 MX51302-022,.Renault KZ fourgon Postes Retro 87 SAI COLLECTION - SAI 7415 Echelle 1 87,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,D.B.G.M. Baukran 421 made in germany . EXTREMELY RARE,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.MEGA RARE Ford escort Van 1 43,.CORGI TOYS VW VOLKSWAGEN T1 PRITSCHE 1 43 PATROL SERVICE CODE 3,.Very Rare Neo 1 43 Mercedes Benz Hamann Volcano Red Ltd. Ed. 300 New,.Lancia Beta Monte Carlo in 1 43 Scale Model by Spark,.ZC510 Provence Moulage K744 Resine Vehicule 1 43 Ford RS Cosworth Monte Carlo 93,. The ScottsdaleBest Model BT9552 FERRARI 330 GTS 1966 GREEN METALLIC 1 43 Modellino,CORGI GMC BREAKDOWN DONE IN ARMY COLOURS A TERRIFIC MODEL REALLY HEAVY SEE PICS,.MATCHBOX RARE '99 LIM EDN MIDWEST REGIONAL CONVENTION goldPrint MB51 AMBULANCE,. Id.,Nissan Datsun 240 Z Corgi 1 43,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, NOREV - 1 18 - CITROEN C4 CACTUS - 2018 - 181660,; Spark 1 43 BMW 6-series M6 Team Schubert Winner Round 3 VLN 2016 Art. SG370,Bitesu Vitesse 1 43 Fiat 124 Abarth Monte Carlo 1973 New F S,.FORD Mustang Coupe Boss V8 302 Racing Follmer Muscle TransAm GMP Welly 1 18,. The Scottsdale1 18 LAMBORGHINI GALLARDO LP600+ GT3 2011 GT MASTERS, LTD ED MINICHAMPS,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Chevrolet Impala Sedan Four Windows 1959 Lobster Red 1 43 Spark S2903 Modellino,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; CHEVROLET CORVETTE COUPÉ 1982 silver 1 18 WELLY,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, DIECAST CAR & DISPLAY CASE 2000 CHEVY MONTE CARLO SS TORCH SUN STAR 1987 1 18,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Ferrari 250 Gtl Coupe 1964 Personal Car Jamiroquai bluee BEST-MODEL 1 43 BE9725,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, VW SCIROCCO R 1K8 2.0T 2017 RISING blueE 19” CADIZ 1 43 SPARK (OEM DEALER MODEL),; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Conrad 1 50 Scale - 3064 Mercedes Benz MEWA Model Van, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, New Ferrari FXX Evoluzione bluee 1 18 Diecast Car Model by Hotwheels T6922, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Fiat 1100 Es Pininfarina red 1950 Neoscale 1 43 NEO45100,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeHot Wheels Redline CREW CAR Mattel 1971 NICE,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Petite voiture, Majorette, Mercédès 280 SE orange, 1 64,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheAlfa Romeo 2600 Sprint Zagato 1967 Red 1 43 Neoscale NEO45600,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.MARK43 PM4311R 1 43 HONDA Integra Type 98 Spec DC2 Milano Red,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Team Caliber 2001 Dewalt redY Matt Kenseth Ford Taurus 1 24,1 18 Norev Mercedes-Benz 300 SL R107 1986 red red Nr. 183467 in OVP,.WSI 03-2003 SCANIA S HIGHLINE CS20H 4X2 - WHITE,.Neo Maserati Quattroporte IV - metallic-dunkel-red - 1994 - 1 43,. The HuyghePEUGEOT 202 MICHELIN PARAD CAR grey 1 43,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheVintage 1960s Tonka Toys Turquoise Willy's Jeep Dispatcher EX,.

NIB Days gone Lledo Un-Openned Diecast collection miniature Cars Made In England,.First Gear 10-4084 1 34 1953 White 3000 COE Delivery Van,.

Schuco 7377 AUDI TT RS RED MISANO 1 43,.Bburago 1 18 Ferrari 70th Anniversary California T The Hot Rod,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Barkas B1000 Minibus Wolks Polizei 1965 White Green MCG 1 18 MCG18097 Model,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeMATCHBOX LESNEY a CATERPILLAR BULLDOZER RESTORED ,NEW GREEN TREADS NEAR MINT,.Norev Renault Frégate 1959 blue 1 18 185280 11,.

For example, in Partridge,Mikansue 1 43 Scale Built Model Car Kit 22 - Adler Racing Car White Unboxed,. In Jorgensen, supra,Minichamps minicar BMW320i World limited 2352 cars 1 43,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Bentley S2 Standard Saloon 1960 Red 1 43 Minichamps 436139951 NEW,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Conrad 1 35 Scale Vintage Diecast - 3065 Mercedes Benz 230T Yellow,. That is the same situation in this case.Maxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940 023701 - 1960 BMW 700 LS - Red,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.ROUTEMASTER LONDON MODEL BUS 1 50 SCALE CORGI CC25910 RED ROUTE 11 LIVERPOOL K8,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Mercury 1 43 - Mercedes 230 Sl East African Safari,.1 50 THAMES TRADER BOX VAN (LUCOZADE) Corgi 30306,.Minichamps DP 1 12 Kawasaki 900 Z1 Super 4 1973 Candy Green yellow,.

1 43 Ferrari F355 Spider Kyosho,.