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Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Polistil Porsche Porsche Porsche 911 Carrera Waldegard Rallye Martini 1 24 S.22 Metallmodell 253bdf
Last One - Alfa 155V6 TI () -- Bosch Livery -- HPI 43,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Matchbox No.73C Ford Model A Van spare wheel filled in casting mint boxed,.SIKU 4014 PETERBILT YACHT TRANSPORTER SEyellowOOT BOAT NEAR MINT CONDITION RARE,.Maxichamps 1 43 Scale 940 053061 - 1972 Volkswagen T2b Delivery Van - bluee,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Opel Rekord D Saloon 1975 Jude Green 1 43 Minichamps-Diplomat,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.SAMSUNG SL150-2 WHEEL LOADER - YELLOW 1 40 - VERY GOOD CONDITION,.Spark 1 43 Zytek 09SC No. 20 Quifel - ASM Team LM 2011 S2532,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.MERCEDES BENZ AMG GT3 Abu Dhabi 2016 Sonic Haupt Engel Qubais Minichamps 1 43,.Volkswagen T1 Samba (1962) 1 18 KK Scale KKDC180153,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.1 43 IVECO SCUDERIA FERRARI FORMULA 1 F1 ALTAYA IXO,.ALFA ROMEO SPIDER V6 JTS blue 1 18,.RIO RI4364P FIAT BALILLA AUTOCARRO 1935 PUBBLICITA' BALILLA W FIGURE 1 43, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Vintage Lesney Matchbox C-1 Triumph Motorcycle & Sidecar Loose Mint,.UT MODELS 1 18 PORSCHE 911 TARGA TYPE 993 red,.AUDI R8 WHITE 2008 HARD TOP MAISTO 1 18 PREMIERE EDITION SCALE 1 18 WEISS white,.(A) triang minic SALOON CAR No 2 rare with self steering action,.

Corgi Oldsmobile Super 88 235 near mint,.Citroen 2CV 6 Coca Cola 1 18 Solido 421184060 neu & OVP,.Studebaker golden Hawk 1957 greyblue metallic, Modellauto 1 18 Sun Star,.Citroen C4 Cactus SUV blue green Metallic 2. Generation Ab 2018 1 18 Norev Mode..,.Lancia Delta Hf Integrale 16v 1989 Red 1 18 Model TRIPLE 9,.

1 43 Minichamps BMW M3 E30 Laffite Fahrer-Training NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Ktm X-Bow Gt 2016 bluee SPARK 1 43 S5663 Miniature,.Fiat 238 Ambulanza Pesaro Volontari Del Soccorso 1969 1 43 Model RIO,.2001 Welly Cheverolet Avalanche 1 18 NIB,WESTERN MODELS 1 43 WP 108 1983 CHEVROLET CORVETTE ORAN,.Ferrari FXX K RED SCALE 1 18 Von Bburago,.

TW Collection 1 43 Scale White Metal Kit 32 - Delage 1.5 Litre 1951 - bluee,.Ebro 1 43 NISSAN GT-R LM NISMO 2015 Launch version finished product,.1 43 Minichamps Ford Mustang 1968 Bright bluee NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

BBurago (3011) Diamonds 1 18 Ferrari 250 GTO 1962 Red Die-cast Model Car Boxed,.

1996 Ertl Peachstate Muscle Car '1970 Red Ford Mustang Boss 429' 1 18,. We agree in part.

1 18 Revell Fiat Abarth 1000 TC white red NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.NOREV maxijet 180011 1 18 RENAULT 5 white NEU OVP,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.1 18 Burago Ferrari LAFerrari F70 Signature Series Red Diecast Car Model,.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM26 - 1953 Jowett Javelin Deluxe - Athena Grey,.GMP Corvette Racing Transporter & Shop Set 1 18th scale set Limited Edit,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Corgi 1 50 Scale 31003 - AEC Articulated Scammell Highwayman & Low Loader,.Jaguar F-Type Svr Adw Caldera Red TRUE SCALE MINIATURES 1 43 TSM430147 Model,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Corgi 1 50 Scale CC12907 Scania Topside Curtainside D.Curran & Sons Ltd. Co.Down,; PAZ 3205 SSM 4002 1 43,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Toyota 2000 GT Baujahr 1967 red 1 18 Triple 9,.Diecast Masters Int'l HX520 Day Cab Tandem Tractor White 1 50 Trailer Head 71001,REVELL KIT 7490 VW VOLKSWAGEN BEETLE KAFER SUN ROOF MINT BOXED SEALED,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Ros RS00198B RULLO COMPRESSORE AMMAN ASC 110 PARATIE GIALLE 1 50 Modellino,.

1 18 Hot Wheels Ferrari F2001 Schumacher 52th GP Sieg NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.MATCHBOX 2008 Ford Transit TranSport Mega rare,.Williams FW12C nd US GP 1989 Riccardo Patrese S4321 Spark 1 43 New in a box ,.Ford Gt 2017 bluee White, Model Car 1 18 Maisto Exclusive,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, True Scale 1 43 Alfa Brabham BT46 S. Africa GP Niki Lauda 144301,; Triple9 18100122 Opel Kadett C2 Facelift 1977 2 door - red,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Hot Wheels Super Treasure Hunt '70 Ford Escort RS1600 And The Regular Escort,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Polistil Porsche Porsche Porsche 911 Carrera Waldegard Rallye Martini 1 24 S.22 Metallmodell 253bdfPolistil Porsche Porsche Porsche 911 Carrera Waldegard Rallye Martini 1 24 S.22 Metallmodell 253bdfPolistil Porsche Porsche Porsche 911 Carrera Waldegard Rallye Martini 1 24 S.22 Metallmodell 253bdfPolistil Porsche Porsche Porsche 911 Carrera Waldegard Rallye Martini 1 24 S.22 Metallmodell 253bdfPolistil Porsche Porsche Porsche 911 Carrera Waldegard Rallye Martini 1 24 S.22 Metallmodell 253bdfPolistil Porsche Porsche Porsche 911 Carrera Waldegard Rallye Martini 1 24 S.22 Metallmodell 253bdfPolistil Porsche Porsche Porsche 911 Carrera Waldegard Rallye Martini 1 24 S.22 Metallmodell 253bdf

Hot wheels ex mebetoys fiat uno 1 25 brown,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Matchbox Superfast Nr. 46B Stretcha Fetcha red Unfallrettung dt. Modell in Box,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Nsu Prinz 4 Polizei Streifenwagen 1964 Ed.Lim.Pcs 156 1 43 Kess Model KS43023001,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

BRK 7 BROOKLIN 1934 CHRYSLER AIRFLOW 4 DOOR SEDAN 1 43,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.DCP SPECCAST 1 64 FARMALL IH PETE 579 WITH SLEEPER AND RED RENEGADE LOWBOY,.DV7653 NOREV 1 43 RENAULT LAGUNA ESTATE 2005 500ex 7711419460 NB,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Dcp 1 64 60-0439 First Gear Western Dist Peterbilt 351 w reefer trailer nib,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.McLaren MP4 6 Japan GP, 2nd Place, A. Senna 1 43 Scale by TSM,.

1 18 Road Signature Aston Martin Db4gt Zagato Red -,.Xonex Columbia RX7 Limited Edition Die Cast Metal Bicycle 1 6 Scale Newspapers,.SCHUCO BMW Isetta Export mit Anhänger 60 Jahre BMW Isetta 1955-2015 1 43,.Ixo 1 43-OM Leoncino Van Anno 1966 - Trasporto Vermouth Martini-Pezzo Unico ,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Neo Pontiac Grand Am 2 door Coupe 1 43 mit Box Unbespielt,.

Mercedes Benz C Class Estate 2014 Norev green 1 18,.CITROEN SAXO 3 Portes blue MINIROUTE 27 1 43,.Peugeot 309 Gti 16 1992 bluee, Model Car 1 18 Norev,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Minichamps 940069300 1999 Porsche 911 Turbo 996 Die-Cast Model, Red, 1 43 Scal,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Rio RI4148 ALFA ROMEO GIULIETTA REPARTO MOBILE 1 43 Modellino,.1 43 CL51K Aston Martin V8 Vantage Oscar India KIT BY SMTS,.1968 Corvette bluee w tools 1 18 Ertl American Muscle 33176,.Porsche 924S Coupe 1988 White SPARK 1 43 S4460,.METAL BUILT KIT K&R REPLICAS ACE 31 MG TD MIDGET - 1 43 - RARE SELTEN - IN BOX,.

Daihatsu Mira Walk Through Van 1986 White Spark 1 43 SJ032 Model, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Citroen SM Bonneville Land Speed Record 1987 NEO resin model 1 43 46605,.MATRIX Cisitalia 33DF Volo Radente 1954 1 43 MX10307-011,. The PartridgeSolido 1 18 Scale - 11801500 Citroen C4 WRC Red Bull 2008,.Aston Martin V8 Vantage 1 18 Die-cast model.,.Best Model BT9610 ABARTH 1000 SP N.4 BASSANO-MONTEGRAPPA 1970 M.BALDO 1 43 Model,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, 1995 Ferrari F50 Coupe yellow 1 18 Bburago 16004, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.NOREV - 1 18 - MERCEDES-BENZ 300 SL CABRIOLET - 1986 - 183467,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.NEO Fiat 1100 ES Pininfarina 1950 1 43 45100,.Polistil ca. 1 60 Nr. RJ 19 Ford Escort Limousine silvermetallic,PartridgeCITROEN AMI 8 BREAK POMPIERS D’AIX en OTHE PARADCAR 133 1 43 résine,.1 18 Revell NSU TT bluee NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 2013 Ferrari 458 Speciale red 1 18 Bburago 16002, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, NEO SCALE MODELS 1 43 Saab 95 Station Wagon 1959 NEO49521,; 1960 Moon Equipped VOLKSWAGEN T1 Van 1 24-25 NO Burago-Mebetoys-martoys-politoys,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Mercedes Benz S-Class Amg S65 (V222) 2016 Grey Met SPARK 1 43 S4916 Model, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Mercedes 300 1955 Light Grey 1 18 NOREV 183578, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying Partridge(Go) 1 18 Norev Citroen 2 Cv Dolly New Sealed,.

Resin Car Model TSM Model Pagani Huayra Pacchetto Tempesta 2016 1 43 (Red) +GIFT,.Spark S3127 1 43 Resin McLaren M7B, 5th Place 1969 French GP, Vic Elford, Clarke's negligent act.Maxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940 081001 - 1974 Ford Escort - Red,.MINICHAMPS Ford Taunus Turnier im Maßstab 1 43 - OVP,.Spark Model BeatriceLola THL2 Alan Jones 1 43 S1788,.

CORGI 1 50 COLLECTION HERITAGE 73005 - BERLIET 60 FOURGON - ROQUEFORT,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Spark Model S5957 TOYOTA YARIS WRC N.7 3rd MONTE CARLO 2018 J.M.LATVALA-M.ANTTIL,Kibri H0 13014 Demag HC 665 m. Superlifteinrichtung Scholpp NEU OVP,. In Noska,New 1 43 Racing43 Car Model Ferrari FXX N30 MS Monza 2006 EL112,.Revell 08466 1 18 BORGWARD ISABELLA COUPE RACING 1957 LIGHT blueE WHITE,.SSM LKW 1 43 GAZ 53A Pritschen-LKW,.1 18 MINICHAMPS BAR Honda 03 O.Panis white - RARITÄT §, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Honda Civic Type R Aegean bluee Metallic Lhd TRUE SCALE MINIATURES 1 43 TSM430271,.Brand New Speed Racer Mach 5 Racer X Special Edition 1 18 scale Die Cast Metal,.WESTERN MODELS 1 43 WP 121 1990 FERRARI 348 TB YELLOW,.Herpa Scania Ristimaa Schwedenzug Zorro,. Id., p 923.

Hotwheels Ford Mustang '92 TH bluee - Teasure Hunt,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, PORSCHE Cayenne Turbo Limited Edition Model Alu 1 43 Modell,PORSCHE 956K – JOEST RACING LINDSAY SAKER MOTORS WOLLEK 18 Minichamps,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale 403651203 - 1965 Alfa Romeo Giulia TZ 2 - Red,.MINICHAMPS 1 43 430 033106 MERCEDES-BENZ 180 1953 RED,.PredAR 202 KIT (unbuilt) FERRARI 156 85 or RED 1 24 - UNBUILT IN BOX,.ALFA ROMEO GTV6 2.5L black 1 18,.OXFORD 76SET57 - 1 76 10 PIECE LAND ROVER MILITARY SET,.Vintage Roadmaster IMPY Super Car Yellow TAUMUS 12 14 Doors won't close + Box,. The parties LANCIA DELTA HF INTEGRALE 8V DE 1989 AU 1 18 SUN STAR 3151,.

Spark 1 43 Aston Martin V8 Vantage No 98 LMGTE AM Le Mans 2015 S4675,.FORD P2 Kombi Turqoise 1957-1960, model cars 1 43,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Trofeu TF0824 ALPINE A 110 N.43 48th MONTE CARLO 1968 G.LARROUSSE-M.CALLEWAERT 1,; Schuco 2350 BMW 3.0 CSL YELLOW 1 43, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

1 43 Neo BMW Z4 M Coupe red 44466,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, CITROEN DS 21 Break 1970 1 18 Norev 181592 BORDEAUX DS21 Kombi,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Hotwheels Elite F1 Ferrari F2003-GA M. Schumacher 2003 World Champ. 1 43 X5514,.1 50 International HX620 bluee Tridem Tractor Diecast Masters 71010 Trailer Head,.Minichamps PM400861322 ROVER VITESSE N.22 CHAMPION DTM 1986 K.THIM 1 43 Modellin,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Hot Wheels LDC92408BU SHELBY COBRA DAYTONA COUPE' 1965 N.11 GULF VERSION 1 18 Mo,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Land Rover Defender Diecast Toy Axle Trailer JCB Micro Excavator Worker Figure,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale 400 092992 - BMW M3 GT2 ALMS 2009 - Muller Milner,.DINKY - 437 - MUIR HILL 2 WL LOADER - MINT & BOXED (1) - 1962 TO 1970 VINTAGE,.Porsche 997 GT3 Winner Carrera Cup Asia 2011, Keita Sawa in 1 43 Scale by Spark,.Porsche 911 (991II) GT3 Rs Weissach-Paket 2018 silver con Llantas Doradas 1 43,. The ScottsdaleNEO MODELS Saab 99 4door (dark green) 1 43 43677,GREENLIGHT 1 18 ARTISAN FAST & FURIOUS 1995 MITSUBISHI ECLIPSE GREEN 19039,.SPARK - 1 43 - PORSCHE 911 GT2 RS 2018 - S7624,. Id.,Welly WE18040GR VW CLASSIC BEETLE SOFT TOP 1950 PASTEL GREEN 1 18 Modellino,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Motormax 1 18 Scale 73133 Pontiac GTO Judge 1969 Green Diecast model car,; Matchbox Lesney Nº8e FORD MUSTANG, Regular Wheels (MIB),Chevrolet Corvette Grand Sport Admiral bluee in 1 43 TSM TSM430230,.1 43 Mark43 Resin Model Mugen Honda S660 Carnival Yellow II PM4331Y,. The ScottsdaleRARE HOT WHEELS NISSAN Skyline GTR Error Wheels Card Variation 1 Of A Kind ,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, 635D Vintage Politoys M 518 Rolls Royce Coupé 1 43,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Red Line Hot Wheels Lot 12 cars all vintage 1968 thru 1990,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, NEO NEO45760 1 43 LA SALLE SERIES 50 COUPE 1937 DARK RED,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, WIKING 1 87 SCALE MERCEDES-BENZ CUBE SHAPED CAB SET MERCEDES-BENZ LP 809 099079,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, NEO 43671 Resin; 1984 Saab 90 Sedan; Metallic bluee Green; Excellent Boxed,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, FORD MUSTANG 1 2 HARD TOP 1964 whiteHE WELLY 1 18, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, AUTOWORLD AMM993 1 18 1967 FORD SHELBY MUSTANG GT500 GT 500 DIECAST LIGHT GREEN, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Uh 4891 Fendt 716 Vario Generation 2 2004-2007 1 3 2 New Boxed,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeMinichamps Mercedes Benz 300 Cabriolet 1 43 437032130,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, 1 18 KK-Modell Audi 80 GTE green green Limited Edition in OVP,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheRenault Alpine A310 1981 Weiss 1 18 Norev Modell Auto mit oder ohne individiue..,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.SNJ-3 Texan Quantico 1942 First Marine Aircraft Wing HOBBY MASTER HA1512 1 72,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Best Model BT9233 FERRARI 330 GT SPIDER 1966 GREY 1 43 Modellino,Minichamps 1 43 - Jaguar XJS Cabriolet whitehe,.1968 Ford Mustang GT Red 1 18 Ertl American Muscle 33210,.Fiat 238 Ambulanza Croce white Milano 1 43 Model RIO,. The HuygheFirst Gear Peterbilt 351 Burgermeister Beer 1 64 Fallen Flag Series 60-0492,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheNorev Citroën 2CV AZL Malle Bombée 1957 1 18 grey,.

Spark Aston Martin DB3 S 43 S2411,.Trofeu TF1813 FORD ESCORT N.43 12th RS 2000 R.A.C. RALLY 1977 M.WILSON-R.PALMER,.

1 18 MAISTO SPECIAL EDITION LAMBORGHINI SE PURPLE bd,.Rio 4283 FIAT 128 QUATTRO PORTE '69 blue SCURO Modellino,. Nonetheless, on the facts of 1 18 Norev GT by Citroen Salon de Paris 2008 white NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeVOLKSWAGEN TOUAREG W12 METALLIC blueE NOREV 842060 1 43,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale 400 882031 - BMW M3 Eifelrennen DTM 1988,.

For example, in Partridge,Corgi CC05901 Bullitt Set 1968 Ford Mustang & Resin S McQueen figure 1 36 Scale,. In Jorgensen, supra,DODGE ARIES K-CAR red AMERICAN EXCELLENCE NEO 1 43,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.2005 Lamborghini Murcielago Roadster Diecast Car Maisto 1 18 Special Edition,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,ELIGOR 1 43 Mercedes-Benz SK Powerliner 480,. That is the same situation in this case.MCG - 1 18 - CADILLAC FLEETWOOD SERIE 60 SPECIAL - 1941 - 18072BL,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.EBBRO 44471 1 43 Honda City Turbo R 1982 Suzuka S.Johansson White Pink Japan,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Greenlight 1983 GMC Vandura White 1 18th scale,.Trofeu TF1428 FIAT 131 ABARTH N.7 10th SAFARI 1979 MUNARI-MAIGA 1 43 Modellino,.Tin s Manufactured 75602 FORD MUSTANG BOSS 429 302 RACER n.02 1 24,.

Rio RI4161 FIAT 128 2 PORTE 1969 green 1 43 Modellino,.