Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals NEO VOLKSWAGEN KARMANN GHIA TC silverINA 1970 - blueE 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 38 37,.BORGWARD B4500 TANKWAGEN SHELL red - yellow 1 43 MINICHAMPS 439017070 NEU,.Herpa 306232 Mercedes Benz Arocs Container LKW mit TU3 Gabelstapler Scholpp 1 87,.Minichamps Japan Gp 2002 Jordan Honda Ej12 Takuma Sato,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.Alfa Romeo Alfa 6 2.5I V6 Quadrifoglio gold 1983 1 43 Kess Model Ks43000150 Min.,.Lamborghini Murcielago LP640 2006 Yellow 1 43 Model 436103920 MINICHAMPS,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.GT SPIRIT - 1 18 - PORSCHE RUF TURBO R - 1998 - ZM110,.Mercedes Typ Nürburg 460 1928 red black - 1 18 MCG NEW,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.1 18 Novelty Norev - Renault Alpine A110-50 Year 2012 in bluee orange,.ALPINE RENAULT A110 vainqueur Rallye Tour de CORSE 1973 1 18,.DIECAST MASTERS- 85278 CATERPILLAR TH407C TELHANDLER 1 32 SCALE, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
Vintage - JAGUAR-E Type - 1 43 Joal,.2015 FORD MUSTANG 1 18 MIT LED-BELEUCHTUNG(XENON) MAISTO TUNING red,.Lot Of 65 + Hot Wheels Lot B,.GENDARMERIE Batiment, grillage et miniature Peugeot 206 SAI 1 87 Ref 232,.
Atlas Editions Dinky Toys Diecast Model Car 507 - Break Simca 1500 MIMB,.Nissan Skyline GT-R KPGC10 white 1 18 Triple 9,.Welly NEX 1 18 2012 VW The New Beetle Red Display Mini Car,.Dinky Toys F n° 24T Citroën 2 CV un feu,.Matchbox Lesney 1969 - 24 Car Official Collector’ Mini-Case + 24 cars (( N )),.
Rio RI4564 FIAT 128 RALLY 1971 GREEN 1 43 Modellino,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Vitesse Models 1 43 Scale Diecast 29112 - MGTC - Cream,.NEW 1 43 MAKI F101 Test Car 1974 Resin Model Fomula Hiroshima figure hayami,.Original Jaguar Modellauto I Pace Photon Red 1 43 50JEDC280RDY I-Pace red,Camion Scania Trasporto Bestiame con Mucca,.1 43 Mercedes-Benz E-320 Elegance HERPA USED see photos,.
NEO NEO46070 1 43 PONTIAC GTO CONgreenIBLE 1966 METALLIC LIGHT GREY,.New Greenlight Fast and the Furious 1 43 Nissan Skyline GT-R R32 1989 Japan,.Vintage - CUB DE LEYLAND FIRE ENGINE FK-7 1936 - Matchbox YS-9 Mint Caja,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
Maisto 1 18 VW Volkswagen Cabriolet 1951 (31826 ) mit OVP (OR8,.
Ferrari 275 GTB 4 NART Spyder 1967 mit Stahlfelgen red - 1 18 KK-Scale NEW,. We agree in part.
Takuma Sato Indy 500 Winner Greenlight 1 18 2017 Indianapolis,.Vintage Moko Lesney Matchbox A MG-TD SPORTS CAR CREAM, ORIGINAL TOUCH-UPS nm,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Solido 1 18 Scale - 8162 Aston Martin DB9 2004 Dark green,.Predar PR0181 LANCIA STRATOS HF PredOTYPE 1971 WHITE 1 43 Modellino,.1 18 Norev Audi A4 DTM 2008,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Die Cast TV Show The Dukes of Hazzard 1 18 Cooter's Ford Mustang bluee Model Car,.Universal Hobbies Porsche 917K Gulf 24H Le Mans 1971 , OVP, 1 18, K033,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Vintage Matchbox Turbo Racers 5 High Powered Competition Racers 1985 RARE,; Trough 1 43 Subaru Impreza Fujitsubo,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
Herpa (Germany) Dark Red Porsche Boxster (Tech. By Siemens) Plastic 1 87 NIB,.Fiat 519S Limousine 1929 Rio 1 43 Rio4382 Modellino Diecast,Tonka Good Original 1973 Road Paver Good Fully Working old Toy 9 3 4 Long,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.1970 DODGE CHALLENGER R T RED HAWAII FIVE-0 1 18 MODEL BY GREENLIGHT 13516,.
Minichamps 1 43 minicar Kyosho Super Aguri F1 Honda 2006 out of print,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Uh 5342 Amazone Catros 6002 2TS 1 3 2 New Boxed,.NOREV 181623 Citroën GS 1971 - Erable Beige1 18,.FERRARI 275 N.A.R.T.SPIDER KIT 1 24 SCALE,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, SSM LKW 1 43 KAMAZ 53501 Militärfahrzeug (camouflage) 83SSM1303,; All 10 species Kyosho one sixty-four scale British car minicar series,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, ERTL AMERICAN MUSCLE 1967 CHEVROLET CORVETTE COUPE 427 HOBBY EDITION 1 OF 5000 ,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
Modellauto Opel Ascona B 2,0 S R green Maßestab 1 43 11156,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
1 43 Scale Trax Top Gear Holden HQ Monaro GTS 350 Coupe Cyan bluee TR18D,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
Minichamps 1 43 - VW Volkswagen 1302 cabriolet 1970 blue métallisé,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
Hot Wheels Looney Tunes 2 Kind Minicar Character,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Ferrari 400 Superamerica 1962 Red 1 18 Model KK SCALE,.Hot wheels splittin image 1968 red line,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.DANBURY MINT NIB 1958 CHEVROLET IMPALA blueE NEVER DISPLAYED,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.NEW IN BOX Holden Monaro HK GTS 1 32 Diecast Model McPhee Racing Series,.
1969 Hot Wheels Redline Grand Prix Chaparral 2G PRETTY pink TR2 KEEPER READ SC,.Carrera Digital 132 - Porsche 911 Carrera S Cabriolet Exklusivmodell, 20030762,.Corgi Gb n° 30 Land Rover animal Trailer Cirque Pinder Jean Richard jamais joué,.1 18 Norev Mercedes 300SL Cabrio R107 gold 1986 NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Landsdowne LDM 15 1965 Rover P5 dark green MB,.
1 18 Hot Wheels Jordan EJ13 Fisichella Winner Brazil NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.Ferrari California T The Hot Rod 1 18 18-76103,.IXO VOLKSWAGEN POLO R WRC MIKKELSEN-JAEGER T.DE CORSE 2016 1 18,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Corgi 1 50 Scale US55103 Diamond T980 Girder trailer & Transformer load Gepink,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Ziegler Z8 Alarm Airport Leipzig 1 87 Herpa 090766 Model,.Porsche 911 Carrera Rsr Mid-Ohio 3 Hours 1977 1 18 Norev 187427 Follmer,.Fiat 18Bl Croce Rossa Eser.Italiano 1915 1 43 Rio4320 Modellino Diecast,.NEO MODELS Mercedes-Benz 500 SEC Koenig Specials 1 43 46600,.CC13769 Corgi Scania Highline Feldbinder Tanker Dowse Haulage Diecast HGV Model,.
CORGI 1 43 COLLECTION HERITAGE 70508 - RENAULT 1000KG - EVIAN, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.PORSCHE 911 GT3 (991.2) 2017 PURPLE METALLIC 1 43 MINICHAMPS 410066027 NEU,.SCALEXTRIC SLOT.IT SICA02C PORSCHE 956C LE MANS 1986 FOLLMER-MORTON-MILLER N°8,. The PartridgeKess Alfa Romeo Alfa 90 Quadrifoglio Dark Grey Metallic 1984 KE43000190 Ltd 250,.Norev 183578 Mercedes-Benz 300 1955 - hell grey 1 18,.Spark 1 43 Scale S4502 - Volkswagen Polo R WRC nd Monte Carlo 2015,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Eagles Eagle's Race Universal Hobbies Ford GT40 Le Mans 1 18 diecast model Boxed, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.POLITOYS 530 ALFA ROMEO 2600 SZ - METALLIC RED 1 43 - GOODCONDITION,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.ERTL 1 18 1969 Chevrolet Camaro Z 28 Red 7455 American Muscle 69 Die-cast NOS,.1 43 Kyosho Shelby Cobra 427,Partridge1 18 Mazda MX-5 MX 5 Roadster Diecast Metal Car Model Toy Boy Girl Gift Red,.JOAL 112 ALFA ROMEO GIULIA SS RARE SELTEN IN EXCELLENT CONDITION,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, DV7190 MINIRACING FORD CAPRI SILHOUETTE GR5 ZAKSPEED MAMPE 1 43 REF 28, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 1973 Mercedes 220-8 (W115) Policia Alemania 1 18 MC Group 18054,; Mint Minichamps Dp 1 43 Mercedes 190E 2.3,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Vintage 1950's Red Willys Marx Lumar Jeep CJ-5 Pressed Steel Very Nice , (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Diecast Masters 1 50 Trailer Head 71004 Day Cab Tandem Int'l HX520 Tractor bluee, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeMinichamps 1 43 Scale 430 882056 - BMW M3 DTM 1988 G.Muller,.
VINTAGE DIECAST--1954 CHEVY CORVETTE CONV--1 18 SCALE--9 LONG--by CARMANIA,.NOREV184716 - PEUGEOT 302 Darl'Mat Coupé (1937) blacke et yellow - 1 101, Clarke's negligent act.Ertl 1 18 Scale American Muscle Grease The Movie 1932 Ford Roadster NIB,.Dinky Toy MG Record Car 23P 1946-47,.Pagani Huayra - 1 43 - AUTOart,.
Art Model AM0193 FERRARI DINO 206 S N.111 SCCA SELMA IN ALABAMA 1967 LEE CUTLER,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1960’s Bentley S2 Cabriolet HJ Mulliner 1 18 Diecast Car Classic Concours Show,Neo Bentley T2 Saloon - metallic-grey mattblack - RHD - 1977 - 1 43,. In Noska,GREENLIGHT 1 43 DIECAST 1958 PLYMOUTH FURY CHRISTINE RARE GREEN BODY CHASE CAR,.Holland-Oto MB Actros MP2 Sattelzug Ekol Türkei Turkey 1 50 HO12,.SPARK - 1 43 - ALPINA CSL (E9) - S2811,.Nikko 1 16 Scale RC Radio Control James Bond 007 Aston Martin Vanquish, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Porsche 911 Turbo S 3.6 1998 bluee Anniversary Model 1 43 Minichamps 436069270,.Porsche 924 Carrera GTS 1980 white white 1 43 Minichamps,.Dinky Toys England - 216 Dino Ferrari - With original Display Box - MINT NEW,.Chevrolet Camaro Offical Pace Car 51Th Indianapolis 500 Mile Spark 1 43 S2613,. Id., p 923.
NOREV - 1 18 - CITROEN GT BY CITROEN - SALON DE PARIS 2008 - 181610,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, 1 18 SIGNATURE MODELS 1917 REO TOURING blueE yd,1 43 BMW CSL Elf Beaumont France Production 1976 Spark Resin Model SF038,.1958 58 Studebaker Hawk Yatming 20018 Road Signature Series 1 18 very detailed,.Motormax 1 18 Scale - Maserati Gran Turismo White diecast Model car,.Studebaker golden Hawk 1957 greyblue metallic, Modellauto 1 18 Sun Star,.Franklin Mint 1 43 Scale B11PW43 - 1939 Mercedes Benz - Maroon,.Porsche 911 Turbo S Exclusive Edition Spark 1 43 achatgreymetallic Ltd.Edition,.Majorette 1 60 Nr. 235 BMW 3,0 CSI dunkelgreenmetallic,. The parties PORSCHE 911 TARGA 964 1991 Grand Prix weiss white & jante black MINICHAMPS 1 43,.
Franklin Mint 1 24 Der Düsenberg J Victoria bluee 1933 A 295 Neuwertig,.1 24 GAMA BMW 325I COUPE E 36 IN RED NEAR M BOXED RARE SELTEN ,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, SPARK Lotus 18 No.9 2nd British GP 1960 John Surtees S1825 1 43,; NOREV181633 - Voiture de rallye CITROEN C3 WRC N°9 rallye de Corse de 2017 équip, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
ART MODEL AM0325 FERRARI 250 CALIFORNIA 1957 red SCURO 1 43,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Spark 1 43 Pagani Huayra Supercar Yellow 2012 S3564,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Minichamps 430032160 1 43 1995 Mercedes-Benz C36 AMG W202 Diecast Model Car,.MERCEDES BENZ GT-R AMG 2018 1 18 NOREV (183452) red,.Porsche 911 991 Turbo Safety Car WEC 1 43 Minichamps WAP Dealer,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Fiat 519S Ambulanza 1930 Croce Rossa Italiana 1 43 Model RIO,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Renault Alpine A110 1600S Coupe Gendarmerie 1971 NOREV 1 18 NV185301 Model,.Minichamps F1 minicar 1 43B.A.R Honda 006 Takuma Sato,.Auto World 1 18 1971 Plymouth Duster 340 Limited 1002 pcs AMM1154 Green Model,.Dinky Dublo 072 Bedford Articulated Lorry - Excellent In Original Box,.Spark Models 1 43 Scale S1956 - Porsche 997 GT3 RSR Flying Lizard LM 2009,. The ScottsdaleModelauto Shell Tankwagen 1953 White 3000 First Gear 1 34 - OVP,SPARK 1 43 S0059 DOME S101H MUGEN JIM GAINER INTERNATIONAL LM 2005,.Johnny Lightning Super Magmas 1 24 Die-Cast Hemi Express Wheel Stander,. Id.,Ford Falcon XA 351 GT Ute 1 32 Scale Aussie Classic Diecast Car Yellow Fire,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, WEISE-TOYS 1058 MB-trac 700 (W440) 1 32,; Corgi US50305 Vietnam War M48 A3 Patton Tank from US Army 69th Armor 1 50 Scale.,Kode 9 GULF Ken Okuyama Cars Design 1 43 SPARK SJ034,.Volkswagen Beetle Baja Bug 1970 Yellow White NeoScale 1 43 NEO45896 Miniature,. The ScottsdaleRuf Rt12R 2011 gold Met.1 43 Spark S2175 Model,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Minichamps 430019428 Audi Quattro (B2, Typ 85Q, Baujahr 1981) 1 43, OVP,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Fiat 519S Limousine 1929 Rio 1 43 Rio4382 Model Diecast,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Lote 3 Camiones Pegaso Mofletes Forestal +1060L Campofrio + 1231T 310 - 1 43,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1989 Hot Wheels LIGHT SPEEDERS CHALLENGE No. 3277 NOS NIB Unopened Vintage,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Hobby Master 1 48 Scale HA8004 - Hawker Fury Mk. I K5674 43 Sq. RAF 1930s,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Penny die cast made in italy 1.66 set of four dino fiat alfa maserati, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Minichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 400 120325 - 2003 Alfa Romeo GT Champagne Metallic, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, PEUGEOT 3008 DKR 2ND DAKAR 2017 LOEB 1 43 spark,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeUniversal Hobbies 1 50 DOOSAN DX160W Wheeled Excavator Diecast Model UH8134,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, ART MODEL AM0203 FERRARI 340 MEXICO SPIDER 1952 RED 1 43,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheVw Touareg Homologation Version 2003 436035300 1 43 Model,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.MINICHAMPS VALENTINO ROSSI AGV HELMET 1 8 MOTOGP 2007 mugello,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,NOREV183419 - Fourgon MERCEDES BENZ L 319 marquage Fruba - 1 18,Spark 1 43 Scale S4502 - Volkswagen Polo R WRC nd Monte Carlo 2015,.BMW M4 Congreenible F83 Yas Marina bluee 1 18 Scale Paragon 2339612,.AUTO WORLD 1 18 1971 PLYMOUTH SATELLITE SEBRING PLUS DIE-CAST PURPLE AMM1146,. The HuygheBMW 530i Estate E39 (2002) Resin Model Car 43301,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuyghePorsche 911 (996) GT3 RS 1 43 white with bluee stripes Dealer-Box WAP 020 112 14,.
Neo Porsche 911 (930) Turbo USA - metallic-blue - 1979 - 1 43,.AUTOWORLD 1 18 1971 PLYMOUTH DUSTER 340 DIECAST MODEL CAR GREEN AMM1154,.
Modelcar Group 18046 Rover 3500 V 8 Beige 1 18 Schönes Modell,.Hot Wheels Redline 1971 HK Green Sugar Caddy with Tough White Interior,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Coffret de 5 voitures de tourisme 24 55 Atlas Dinky Toys 1 43 MB102,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgePARADCAR 025 RENAULT ALPINE GT4 1962 - LIGHT GREEN METALLIC 1 43 - EXCELLENT 11,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale 12030 - BMW M3 Sport Evo Team Unitron Zakowski,.
For example, in Partridge,HOT WHEELS STAR WARS GRATEFUL DEAD FLASH GORDON DRAG BUS FLINTSTONES REAL RIDERS,. In Jorgensen, supra,█► BMW 328 transparent Wiking Vorserie 1 87,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Politoys no.107 Lancia scala 1 45,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Bachman Ho Scale Highlights Lighted Landscape Accessories, LOT OF 6. NIB (12D),. That is the same situation in this case.Solido 190 Ford Capri 2900 Injection Rallye car made in France 1 43 scale rare,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Corgi CC13219 DAF XF Crane Trailer & Pallets TARMAC Ltd Edition of 1796 New,. Detroit Edison, supra.
Volkswagen Beetle 1303 1972 Green Metallic 1 18 -188523 NOREV,.World Cup 32016 Drive D 400 1 3 2 NEW BOXED,.Lotus Elan Sprint Fhc 1971 Red 1 43 Spark S2228 Model,.
Ebbro 1 43 Eneos lexus SC430 Super GT500 2008 from Japan,.