1 1 1 50 Char Blinde AMX-30T France Vehicle diecast model Solido 209 1 1965 19c1fd

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
1 1 1 50 Char Blinde AMX-30T France Vehicle diecast model Solido 209 1 1965 19c1fd
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Original boxed and condition TRI-ANG WIZARD STOP.ON CAR,.Norev 188521 1 18 VW VOLKSWAGEN 1303 CABRIOLET 1972 orange,.MINICHAMPS 3x BMW 507 CONgreenIBLE - 1957 RED 1 43 - RARE SELTEN - EXCELLENT,.Red Line 1 87 Spark Ferrari F430 Scuderia Very Rare,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.NEW DIECAST TOYS CAR NOREV 1 18 MERCEDES-BENZ C-CLASS DTM 2011 J. GREEN 183583,.VOITURE TINTIN CAR ATLAS L'AMILCAR,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Aston Martin Vantage GT3 , 24H Nurburgring 2015 , Sparkmodels,.Best Model BT9266 FERRARI 250 LM N.81 ACCIDENT 24H DAYTONA 1968 PIPER GREGORY 1 ,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Renault Alpine A110 - Premiere Edition 2017, black, 1 18 - NOREV,.1 18 Sunstar Mercedes Benz 220SE 1958 red mit OVP,.NEO MODELS 44741 FORD GRAND TORINO COUPE SPORT - YELLOW 1 43 - EXCELLENT IN BOX, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Universal Hobbies - Renault 5 Turbo Red Scale 1 18,.Minichamps Porsche 962C bluepunkt 43 400866801,.New LOT of 8 Hot Wheels Drag Strip Demons '65 Mercury Comet Cyclone Car Culture,.BMW X6 M grey metallic 1 18 Norev,.

Maisto 1 18 Scale Diecast - 31638 Lamborghini Murcielago Metallic Grey,.Volkswagen VW Action Figurerica Korps 2 Figures Rommel + Driver 1 43 Model RIO,.UNIVERSAL-HOBBIES 4901 New Holland T7.225 1 32,.KK-Scale Porsche B32 - metallic-grey - 1984 (VW T3) - 1 18,.1 43 MB Mercedes Sprinter Deutsche Post EDITION James Rizzi Metalbox NEUWARE,.

1 18 KK-Modell Alfa Romeo Spider hellblue light bluee Limited Edition in OVP,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.± LION CAR DAF 400 BUS VAN BRITISH GAS VERY NEAR MINT BOXED,.NOREV184826 - Voiture Cabriolet - Peugeot 504 1970 de color yellow Capucine - 1,.Danbury Mint Pewter - approx 1 43 scale - 1935 Jaguar SS1 Saloon,CHEVROLET IMPALA COUPE 1959 bluee White 1 43 Spark,.LOTUS 72D AUSTRIAN GRAND PRIX WINNER 1972 FITTIPALDI 1 18 QUARTZO,.

Minichamps 540854312 1 43 LOTUS 97T AYRTON SENNA 1985,.Nissan Patrol Geländewagen Bj.1984 - Scheunenfund Diorama im Maßstab 1 43,.INTINITY FX50 VERSION 2 2010 PEARL 1 43 Neoscale NEO44541 Model,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

TSM Model 1 43 Scale TSM144345 - 2013 Mini Countryman All4 Racing,.

Jada 97168 - 1 24 Scale Model Car Fast & Furious - Brian's Toyota Supra,. We agree in part.

SPARK 1 43 S1492 SALEEN S7-R LARBRE COMPETITION LM 2008,.Maserati 3500GT Coupe - Politoys 501 1 43 34096,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.SPARK Lotus 24 Jim Clark Winner BARC 1 43 S2137,.Premium ClassiXXs 18430 1 43 VW VOLKSWAGEN T3A WEINBERGER SCHALKSMUHLE HEARSES,.DINKY TOYS 1 43 ENGLAND LINCOLN CONTINENTAL,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; JL Greatest Generation WWII Allied Victory Ver B M3 Grant Tank CHASE WHITE,.CORGI 486 KENNEL SERVICE WAGON(with four dogs) NEAR MINT.,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Bruder Dodge Power Wagon with Horse Trailer RAM 2500 1 16 Toy Vehicle 02501,; Mint Bike 1 18 Scale Model Real Motor Cycle,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

NEO MODELS Volkswagen T5 Hornis NEO-45453,.2001 MAC Tools US Nationals NHRA Fuel Dragster By Action NIB Mint,Mercedes-Benz SSK Count Trossi Der blacke Prinz Baujahr 1930 black 1 18 KK-S,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.FORD 1949 cabriolet blue 1 18,.

(36) Hot Wheels Volkswagen Lot New Free Ship HW3,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.GMC Vandura Van A-Team Bj.1983 - Oldtimer Scheunenfund Diorama im Maßstab 1 43,.1 18 Welly Volkswagen VW T1 Samba Bully Bus 1962 green,.BURAGO 1 18 3012 ALPINE A110 1600S 1971 RED,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Ford 999 72Hp World Speed Record 147Km H Henry Ford RIO 1 43 RIO4589 Model,; 1976 Chevrolet Monza No.14 Campione Imsa Al Holbertr in 1 43 Scala da Spark,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, WOW EXTREMELY RARE Alfa Romeo 115 Giulia Nuova 1600S Ochre 1970 1 43 Minichamps,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

1 1 1 50 Char Blinde AMX-30T France Vehicle diecast model Solido 209 1 1965 19c1fd1 1 1 50 Char Blinde AMX-30T France Vehicle diecast model Solido 209 1 1965 19c1fd1 1 1 50 Char Blinde AMX-30T France Vehicle diecast model Solido 209 1 1965 19c1fd1 1 1 50 Char Blinde AMX-30T France Vehicle diecast model Solido 209 1 1965 19c1fd

Ferrari 512Bb Shilhouette Prova 1978 Be9275 1 43 Model Car Diecast,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Edmonton Transit New Look Fishbowl Bus 1 87 Rapido 701023 Stand. (2018),


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

CITROEN DS3 DS 3 Rallye WRC Monte Carlo 2015 Loeb Abu Dhabi SP Norev 1 18,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Hot Wheels REDLINE Sir Rodney Roadster 1974 Yellow w Flames ENAMEL,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.bluee Kenworth T660 Cab with Anhydrous Tanker by Die-Cast Promotions 1 64th Scale,.Opel Manta B Matting Yellow bluee 1 18 Model MODELCARGROUP,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Minichamps Mercedes-Benz 350 SEL 1974 1 43 Grey Helmut Schmidt (JS),. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Lot of 11 Vintage Lesney & Lesney Matchbox Series Cars,.

REVELL 1 32nd SCALE AUDI QUATRO SLOT CAR RE 08399,.FERRARI 348 TS - 1 43 Provence Moulage montata (NO BBR - AMR - TAMEO),.Dinky Toys vintage rare Dino Ferrari,.DAYS - GONE Lledo COLLECTION 'Job lot' of Cars,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.CORGI 75606 Renault Premium Curtainside James Irlam & Sons Ltd,.

UNIVERSAL HOBBIES UH4925 1 32 CASE IH MAXXUM CVX 145,.Porsche 962C Le Mans Winner 1986 1 18 Norev 187400,.44 hot wheels cars nip artistic license tropicool 2001 collector tech tones,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, KK-Scale Ferrari 275 GTS Pininfarina Spyder - silver - 1 18,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Mercedes W123 AMG metallic-dunkelred 1980 - 1 43 Neo Scale Models 45538 NEW,.1 18 Dealer Edition Cadillac CTS Rally die cast model,.JEM METAL MINIATURES 1 43 MG MIDGET - S WINDOW - RARE SELTEN - GOOD CONDITION,.DISM 1 43 MITSUBISHI STARION 2600 GSR-VR 1988 BRAND NEW IN A BOX,.Somerville Models 1 43 Scale 102 - Mercedes Benz 260D - bluee Unboxed,.

Maisto 1 18 Scale Diecast Model Car 31386 - Lamborghini Centenario - Grey, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.ERTL 1 64 SCALE JOHN DEERE AIR SEEDER PLAYSET BN 45555,.Aston Martin Vantage GT3, 24H Spa 2014 , Sparkmodels,. The Partridge5x Wiking HO 1 87 SHOVEL DIGGER + UNIMOG TRACTOR LORRY Construction Site Lot NM ,.Citroen C4 Cactus 2014 1 18 Norev neu & OVP 181650,.1 50 CATERPILLAR Diecast Model 924G Versalink Wheel Loader with Work Tools,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Spark 1 43 Scale SF039 - Mini John Cooper Works WRC France 2012, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Matchbox Super Kings Motor-Cycle Transporter Team Honda in bluee in Box,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.First Gear International TD-25 Crawler Dozer w Ripper 1 87 FG 80-0303 Yellow,.PORSCHE 911 TURBO S 3.6 964 30 YEARS 911 1993 MINICHAMPS 1 43,Partridge1 43 Mitsubishi Galantupe Ftogsr 1973,.Solido 1 21 Prestige Bugatti Royale black in OVP (J293,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1 18,  1957 Studebaker golden Hawk, a rare color, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Renault R20 Ts 1978 Light Green Met NOREV 1 18 NV185265 Model,; Diecast Car Model Hot Wheels Aston Martin DB5 1 18 + GIFT ,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Mercedes Sauber C9 Winner Le Mans 1989 1 18 Norev 183442, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 1 87 Herpa 120296 MAN TGA XXL Kühlkoffer-SZ Schober Transport Ferrero Kinder, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeFiat Ritmo Abarth 130 Tc 1984 grey Quarzo (639) 1 43 Kess Ks43010011 Model,.

LOTUS ELAN S3 FHC coupé blue 1 43,.Lotus Type 79 1979 Martini KIT DI MONTAGGIO 1 20 20061 Tamiya, Clarke's negligent act.Maxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940 120101 - 1972 Alfa Romeo Alfasud - White,.BROOKLIN BRK.136 1947 CHEVROLET STYLEMASTER SEDAN DELIVERY, 1 43, MIB ,.Dinky Toys 1940's Mercedes Benz W25 Formula 1 Racing Car - 1940s Dinky Toy,.

Porsche cayman e - mobility ltd. Edition 1 2000 Spark 1 43 WAP0204030F Neu,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Johnny Lightning Commemorative gold Chrome 8 Car Set (BH011),SAAB 92 B 92B 1958 black 1 43 NEO 44621 NEU,. In Noska,Rastar Bentley Mulsanne 1 18 Scale Diecast Car 43800 Champagne color,.NEO BMW M535i (E12) metallic 1 43 49540,.RENAULT R.S. 01 RS01 Interceptor 01 Sport Jean Ragnotti 1 300 Spark 1 43,.Rare Dinky 132 Ford 40-RV Diecast Model in goldigiinal Dinky Viewcase box., necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.1955 MERCEDES 300 SLR MILLE MIGLIA MOSS - 1 43 WESTERN MODELS WHITE METAL,.GREENLIGHT 12879 1978 FORD MUSTANG II KING COBRA 1 18 DIECAST RED WITH gold,.1 32 Schuco Pro.R VW T1 Kasten Persil 450892900,.1 43 Hi Story Resin Model SUBARU LEGACY TOURING WAGON GT-B E-tune II 2001 orange,. Id., p 923.


In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Collection 1955 Mercedes Benz 300S Car Welly,1 43 Truescale TSM Model Mclaren 650S GT3 H Spa 2017 TSM430344,.Vanguards 1 43 Scale Diecast VA10705 - MGB Open Top - Pale Primpink,.LEGOLAS LORD OF THE RINGS RTOTK 12 DELUXE ACTION FIGURE SET BXD ISSUE K8967Q ,.1 43 TSM Truescale Mercedes Benz Pullman 600 1972 Red Baron Hilton Family NEW ,.Alfa Romeo 1750 1932 Grey 1 43 Model RIO,.Eligor-Surber S.A 1 43 Ref 11196 - Mercedes - Booker - Search Impex,.Matchbox Superking K-100 Ford Sierra white top in Sierra Box Made in England,. The parties Dinky Toys 178 Mini Clubman Bronze perfect mint in box,.

NEO MODELS Saab 99 4door (dark green) 1 43 43677,.Best Model BT9359 PORSCHE ABARTH N.36 10th LE MANS 1961 H.LINGE-B.PON 1 43 Model,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Om Leoncino Pianale Carroattrezzi 1959 + Ferguson TE-20 1947 DIE CAST 1 43,; 1 43 Premium Classixxs MB L 3000 Pritsche mit Ladegut 12650, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Kit Ferrari 365 GTB 4 Pininfarina 1969 - Tron Models kit 1 43,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, FERRARI 360 SPIDER Hotwheels Ferrari Red 1 18 Mint BOXED,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Fiat 500 F 1965 blue Notte 1 43 Spark S2692 Model,.Old Vtg Antique Diecast Matchbox MG 1100 Toy Made In England Lesney,.Matchbox Series Lesney Jumbo Crane Kran 11 Vintage Old,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,AH276 SOLIDO 1 43 PEUGEOT 403 CABRIOLET ref 108,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.UNIVERSAL-HOBBIES 4956 New Holland T6.145 with 740TL frontloader 1 32,.1974 DODGE MONACO PURSUIT MASSACHUSETTS STATE POLICE 1 18 AUTOWORLD AMM1023,.Maxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940 020101 - 1991 BMW Z1 E30 - Metallic bluee,.410066028 MINICHAMPS 1 43 Porsche 911 GT3 2017 Green,.Trofeu Ford Sierra Cosworth Tour de Corse 1987 D. Auriol 1 43 TRLMA07,. The ScottsdaleMinichamps 410170033 1 43 RED BULL RACING TAG-HEUER RB13 MAX VERSTAPPEN AUSTRALI,GMP 1 18 SCALE 1970 CHEVROLET YENKO NOVA IN CRANBERRY RED - CASE NEW,.MG Models Kit monté Métal 1 43 - Ferrari 512 BB NART N°111 Sebring 1975,. Id.,Spark Model S4361 MC LAREN M23 J.MASS 1976 N.12 5th MONACO GP 1 43 Modellino,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Minichamps McLaren Mercedes MP4 10 1995 1 43 Nigel Mansell (GBR) (JS),; 1 43 NEO Resin Model Audi RS2 80 B4 Avant Red 1994,Porsche 911 Targa Politie Netherlands 1991 1 43 MINICHAMPS 400061391,.Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG GT3, 24H Spa 2015 , Sparkmodels,. The ScottsdalePORSCHE 911 TURBO green Olive 1977 1 18 930 933,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, 65 Nova Gasser Hot Wheels Redline Spoiler-ized Yellow Deep Dish,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Mercedes Classic Collection 1 43, 50 Jahre SL in OVP,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Spark Model S5272 BRM P153 R.WISELL 1972 N.4 RETIRED silverINIAN GP 1 43 Modelli,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Fiat 238 Ambulanza Croce Gialla Ancona Rio 1 43 Rio4216 Model Diecast,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Nissan Skyline 2000GT-R PGC10 JAF GP 1969 1 43 ignition HPI Resin IG0172,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG GT3 no. 36 Nürnburgring 2011, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, SPARK S1220 LOTUS SPORT EXIGE 2005 1 43 SCALE MODELCAR sold out at Spark, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, AUDI V8 Quattro Limousine 1988 weiss whit D11 4C Minichamps PMA NEU RAR 1 43,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeSpark - 1 43 - Porsche 911 GT3 Cup PCCA Champion 2014,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Premium Classixxs 18202 Mercedes L319 Abschleppwagen Isetta Service,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheNorev Renault Frégate 1959 blue 1 18 185280 11,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Autoart 54671 - 1 43 Lamborghini Sesto Elemento (2010) - Carbon Grey - Neu,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,NEO SCALE MODELS NEO45100 FIAT 1100 ES PININFARINA 1950 RED 1 43,Vintage Ford GT40 Street Rare Green 1 18 Die Cast Model Eagles Race Original Box,.Neo 1 43 Osca 1600GT Zagato, silver Limited 300 pcs,.HOT WHEELS RED LINER FORD J-CAR 1967,. The HuygheOLD VINTAGE LESNEY MATCHBOX B BEDFORD REMOVALS VAN,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheZIL 111A limousine 1962 NOREV for VVM (L.E. 1000 pcs) 1 43,.

Spark 1 43 ALFA ROMEO 33 2 'facetti - Dini' 5th PL Le Mans 1968 S4367,.NOREV185138 - Voiture sportive ALPINE A 110 Première Edition de 2017 - 1 18,.

RED BULL RACING TAG-HEUER RB12 RICCIARDO 2016 417160003 Minichamps 1 43 New ,.Hot Wheels Redline 1971 HK Green Sugar Caddy with Tough White Interior,. Nonetheless, on the facts of 1 18 Ford MUSTANG II MACH 1 año 1976 Greenlight 12868 blue,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeFerrari 308 Gtb 1978 Be9314 1 43 Model Car Diecast,.Renault Megane Trophy Team Oregon Winner 2012 - 1 18 - Norev,.

For example, in Partridge,1 43 Minichamps BMW 328 CI Coupe E46 - 431028326 VERY RARE ,. In Jorgensen, supra,NOREV 1 18 1970 CITROEN DYANE 6 181620,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Spark Model S5198 PEUGEOT 208 WRX N.21 WINNER WORLD RX OF FRANCE 2016 TIMMY HANS,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,GAZ VOLGA M24 1967-1985 TAXI White - 1 18 - MCG,. That is the same situation in this case.Corgi 1 50 Scale 31007 Diamond T Ballast With Girder Trailer & Locomotive Annis,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Ferrari LAFERRARI 1 24 RED KIT DI MONTAGGIO 24333 Tamiya,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Spark Model S5231 SUNBEAM TIGER N.9 36th LM 1964 J.blueMER-P.PROCTER 1 43 Modelli,.Rare Danbury Mint 1949 Jaguar XK120 Diecast Model in 1 24 Scale.,.Mercedes-Benz 230 SL (W113) Pagode , 1963, green, Norev 1 18, OVP,.

JAMES BOND 007 CORGI COLLECTION - 007 The Definitive Collection,.