1969 Dodge Charger Daytona in in in bluee by Greenlight Diecast Model f356a3

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
1969 Dodge Charger Daytona in in in bluee by Greenlight Diecast Model f356a3
Vintage Lesney Matchbox Lot of 20 Played With Regular Wheels 1960s DieCast,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals WELLY 1 18 - 12519W 1964-1 2 FORD MUSTANG - RED,.1 24 Scale Japanese Cars Collection Honda City (1981) Diecast Model Magazine,.PORSCHE 911 2.4 S Coupe 1972 green green F Modell Resin Spark 1 43,.Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast - 3051 Porsche 356B Cabriolet 1961 Flat bluee,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Vitesse Models 1 43 Scale Diecast 29112 - MGTC - Cream,.2013 Aston Martin DB9 6.0 V12 Coupé black Mate 1 18 Welly 18045,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.SPARK MODEL S4997 PORSCHE 911 CARRERA 2.7 1974 WHITE 1 43,.1 43 SRC40K 1966 LOTUS 43 H16 CLARK KIT BY SMTS,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Scale Racing Cars Kit à Monter 1 43 - Ferrari F1 156 1961,.Lamborghini Countach LP500S 1 43 KingStar KS101,.Schuco Deutz 8.30 with Twin Tyre 1 32 450768700, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

NOREV - 1 18 - PEUGEOT 404 COUPE - 1967 - 184831,.Moskvich 422 Van Post 1954 (DiP 1 43 140102),.Scale model 1 18 2000 Chevrolet Monte Carlo SS (Navy bluee),.1955 BelAir Chevrolet Exact Detailed Replica - Solid Metal Design,.

Ferrari 166 MM Spider Targa Florio 1952 E. Giletti 1 43 Model 0238 ART-MODEL,.GAZ 47 GT-S All-terrain khaki 1954 SSM 3003 1 43,.MATCHBOX SUPERFAST No.17 THE LONDONER BUS 'DEUTSCHLANDS' 'V RARE' MIB,.VW Polo V (Typ 6C), 2014, white, VW-Dealer (Schuco) 1 43, OVP,.SPARK HILL GH1 th British GP 1975 - Alan Jones S5675 1 43,.

KK-SCALE 1 18 ALFA ROMEO SPIDER 4 1990 NERA MODELLINO,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.LLOYD LS 300 1951 1 43 Neo scale models NEO43960,.1 18 Sun Star Opel Ascona 400 Rally Bastos NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.RACING 43 BUILT F1 FERRARI F92 ALESI ITALIA GP 1992 43,Burago 1 18 Porsche 911 Carrera 4 1998 gold edition,.Mercedes Sprinter GLS 1 43 Model 1098 UNIVERSAL HOBBIES,.

Corgi No 304S Mercedes 300SL Hardtop - Chrome Plate (Boxed Original 1960's),.Rio RI4465 CITROEN DS 21 1967 PERNOD 1 43 Modellino,.blueE MAX NHRA 1971 Mustang Funny Car Auto World Collectible,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

NEO Chevrolet Corvette C1 1959 1 43 45997,.

Minichamps 400120431 Alfa Romeo 6C 1750 GS 1930 blue,. We agree in part.

Norev 183635 Opel Manta green metallic 1970 Maßstab 1 18 Modellauto NEU °,.1957 Chevrolet Corvette Congreenible 1 18 Die-Cast Model by Burago,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.PORSCHE 911 TURBO Type 993 1995 Yellow yellow MINICHAMPS 1 43,.Minichamps 436014207 Horch 855 Special-Roadster - 1938,.Norev 181632 1 18 CITROEN C3 WRC MEEKE NAGLE WINNER RALLY MEXICO 2017,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; FERRARI 290 MM MILLE MIGLIA 1956 E. CAS 1 43 art.335 ARTMODEL Made in ,.Tonkin Precision Series Peterbilt 379 Patriotic w 53' Dry Van 1 53th Scale.,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Neo Koenig Ferrari Testarossa - weiss - 1 43,; Corgi Classics No 11910 ERF EC series Crane trailer and scrap car load Harris NM,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

NOREV CADILLAC XLR 2004 - GREY METALLIC 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 21 39,.Brumm BM0268CH FERRARI 126 C2 D.PIRONI 1982 WINNER SAN MARINO GP N.28 W PILOTE 1,Minichamps 400 130420; 1980 Jaguar XJS Coupe; Red Metallic; Excellent Boxed,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.LOT DE 8 PEUGEOT au Choix DIVERS NOREV ALTAYA ATLAS 1 43,.

UAZ 3163 Patriot Russian Police 2010 (DiP 1 43 231632),.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.CAT 85294 High Line Series Caterpillar 910K Wheel Loader - High Line Series 1 32,.Handarbeitsmodell Porsche 935,Martini Racing,T.van Dalen,9 6,1 43,Minichamps,.SPARK LM S4552 Oreca 01-AIM Team Oreca Matmut n°6 4th 24h Le Mans 2010 1 43,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, NEO MODELS MITSUBISHI Sappgold Coupe Red Metallic 1 1 43 43443,; JC RUSSIAN DIECAST ALFA ROMEO GIULIA-SS,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, 1 24 Burago RANGE ROVER 0104 MILITAIRE COMPLEET VERY NEAR MINT RARE SELTEN ,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

1969 Dodge Charger Daytona in in in bluee by Greenlight Diecast Model f356a31969 Dodge Charger Daytona in in in bluee by Greenlight Diecast Model f356a31969 Dodge Charger Daytona in in in bluee by Greenlight Diecast Model f356a31969 Dodge Charger Daytona in in in bluee by Greenlight Diecast Model f356a3

1 43 Trofeu Audi Sport Quattro Winner Welsh Rally 1986 Mikkola RRUK01,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Mercedes Benz Gla-Class Gla45 Amg 2016 Light bluee Met SPARK 1 43 S4912 Miniature,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]


This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

UT Models Porsche 911 996 GT1 LeMans 1 18 1997,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.DANBURY MINT ASTON MARTIN DB5 JAMES BOND 007 CERTIFICATE AND INSTRUCTIONS,.BMW 2000A 1962 silver 1 43 Minichamps neu + OVP 437023000,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.SUBARU IMPREZA RALLY PORTUGAL 1995 C. SAINZ RACING 43 ESCALA 1 43,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Die Cast TV Show The Dukes of Hazzard 1 18 Cooter's Ford Mustang bluee Model Car,.

0 MOTO FLOWER POWER 29030,.Renault 30 TS 1978 blue 1 18 Norev,.Dinky Toys Hillman Imp Rally Car Excellent condition.,.S2811 Spark 1 43 1972 BMW Alpina 3.0 CSL (E9) orange Chrome Trim on Fenders,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Volga M24-10 Red 1 18 Model MODELCARGROUP,.

Porsche 968 Turbo S Yellow 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,.MATCHBOX REGULAR WHEELS LONDON TROLLEYBUS - BPW - BOXED -,.EMEK 82099 1 25 DHL LKW MAN TG - A BOX VAN Deutsche Post Express Logistic OVP,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, NOREV184826 - Voiture Cabriolet - Peugeot 504 1970 de color yellow Capucine - 1,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Fiat 238 Ambulanza Croce Gialla Ancona Rio 1 43 Rio4216 Model Diecast,.RIO RI4239 FIAT 238 ASSISTENZA FIAT 1971 1 43,.Corgi 1 50 Scale CC12907 Scania Topside Curtainside D.Curran & Sons Ltd. Co.Down,.Schuco 1 43 450370900 Porsche 914 6 Clubmodell 2013 Marathon 1970 s.Foto (B1232),.New 1970 Dodge Charger Elite Edition \The Fast & Furious\ Movie 2001 1 43 Diecas,.

Ford P2 Combi - tuqoise 1957 1 43 NEO 44550, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Pegaso Z-102 B Touring 1956 Metallic Grey 1 43 Neoscale NEO43790 Model,.MINICHAMPS Mercedes Benz SLS AMG GT3 Basse 1 43 437123238,. The PartridgeMcLaren 675 LT Spider 2015 silicia white 1 43 Minichamps neu & OVP 537154432,.Hot Wheels Redline Hot Pink Ferrari 312P USA Grand Prix Decals,.Brumm BMS1735A FIAT 500F BABBAZZA NATALE AUTOSTOP 2017 (MORA) 1 43 Modellino,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Diecast Car Model Almost Real Land Rover Range Rover 1970 1 43 (Dark Green)+GIFT, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Japanese famous car collection vol.33 1 24 Toyopet Cgoldna Mark II Magazine,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.RARE Mercedes G Wagon LWB 80-90`s Auto Art 56113 Met. Red 1 43,.FORD MUSTANG cabriolet black 1964 1 2 1 18,Partridge2013 Pagani Huayra RHD - 1 43 scale - Spark - NEW,.Mathis PY 1930 Vroom 1 43,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, NEO MODELS Mitsubishi Lancer Turbo 2000 1 43 45256, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, MICRO RACER JET SUPER SABRE BAUSATZ 01782,; Kyosho Original 1 18 Toyota Crown Hybrid Athlete S Bright Green Resin KSR18001GR,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Norev 187752 2010 Fiat 500C Cabrio 1 18 Model Car Pink, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, MULLIN AUTO MUSÉUM 1931 BUGATTI TYPE 54 ROADSTER MINICHAMPS 1 43, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeLesney Matchbox Superfast Vntg 1969 Lamborghini Miura P400 Mint w Orig. Box,.

KK-Scale 1 18 Porsche B32 gebaseerd op Volkswagen T3 bus 1984 lichtbluew metalli,.Tekno 70276 Reefer Trailer Thermoking SLX Plain White 1 50 Scale, Clarke's negligent act.CORGI 1 50 COLLECTION HERITAGE 73701 BERLIET GLR AVEC SEMI-CITERNE - SHELL,.LION TOYS 1 50 GINAF 4-Axle Tipper BOXED,.1 18 AUTOart Toyota Harrier RHD red NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.

LESNEY Matchbox 1-75 COLLECTION 16 CARS lot 2,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Minichamps F1 Mercedes W06 Lewis Hamilton 1 43 Winner USA GP 2015,ERTL TEXACO - WINGS OF TEXACO MODEL BN 20684P,. In Noska,2013 Ferrari 458 Speciale red 1 18 Bburago 16002,.CIJ Norev 1 43 - Unic Transport de Pipe Lines Saharien,.Porsche Panamera Gts 2016 Carmen Red HERPA 1 43 WAP0207310J,.Prodrive 1 43 - Coffret 2 Subaru Impreza WRC Rallye 2003 New Zealand, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.MINICHAMPS MODELLINO AUTO PORSCHE 911 TURBO S 993 JUBILAUMSMODELL 1998 GIALLA,.Mattel 1 18 Ferrari F2007 Raikkonen Cherry Red 2007,.Hot Wheels ‘67 CHEVY CAMARO Red W flames 1967 Hong Kong Base Pre-owned 1982 NM,.185271 Norev 1 18 Renault 30 TX 1981 bronze brown,. Id., p 923.

Damon Hill 1 8 Helmet 1996,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, CLASSIC METAL WORKS 1969 CHEVY CAMARO SS396 HARDTOP w DISPLAY CASE 1 24,Nissan 1971 DATSUN 240Z 1 18 Maisto Diecast Allory Force Control Car Vehicle Mod,.NZG 1 35 Scale Vintage Diecast - 281 Mercedes Benz 280 W126 Dark bluee,.Spark - 1 43 - Lola T370 Britisch GP 1974, Peter Gethin,.WSI DAF - EUROPE FLYER - 1 50 SCALE - NOT TEKNO.,.RARE DINKY TOYS MECCANO FRANCE B-H PUEGEOT D.3.A. LAMPES MAZDA RESTORED MINTY,.MNC400088946 - Voiture de rallye FORD Focus RS WRC Beta rallye de Monza de 2008,.1 18 Norev Renault 5 SuperCinq GT Turbo Tour de Corse 1989 185215,. The parties 1 18 Die Cast Collectors Edition American Muscle Ford Legends Series Shelby,.

Spark Model S5812 ORECA 07 GIBSON N.25 DNF LM 2017 GONZALES-TRUMMER-PETROV 1 43,.DINKY Forward Control Lorry (rare colour combination),

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, NORTHCORD GO-AHEAD LONDON ALEXANDER DENNIS E400H MMC UKBUS 6501,; 03167 Schuco 1 43 Magirus S6500 Pritsche Porsche Diesel 2x Porsche Junior Rumpf, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Jada 1972 Pontiac Trans Am 1 24 scale nib CC edition 2010 2065 of 7500 made,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Ebbro EB44021 ZYTEK 07S N.33 LE MANS 2007 1 43 Modellino,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Ferrari 308 Gtb 1978 Be9314 1 43 Model Car Diecast,.Rare White Metal Brooklin BRK 30A, 1954 Dodge Royal Congreenible in 1 43 Scale.,.Vitesse 1 43 Scale VCC99065 - 1997 Austin Mini Moke Cagiva - Yellow,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,JadaTOYS 1 24scale FAST & FURIOUS 7 Dom's '70 Dodge Charger R T (OFF ROAD,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.1 43 NEO FORD 17M (P2) Turnier 1957,.SSM LKW 1 43 MAZ-5550 Baukipper red-orange,.AC GREYHOUND 1959 GREEN MET Neoscale 1 43 NEO45015,.Jada 1 24 Scale Radio Control Car 2.4GHz RC 97044 - Dom's Dodge Charger R T,.UH Renault 5 Turbo No. 20 Rally Monte Carlo 1981 B. Saby - D. Le Saux 4548,. The ScottsdaleBROOKLIN MODELS 1935 STUDEBAKER COMMANDER ROADSTER - YELLOW 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 6,2017 Porsche 911 991 Turbo S Exclusive Series achatgrey metallic 1 43 Spark WAP,.Neo Opel Manta B i200 - silver Dekor - 1984 - 1 43,. Id.,1 18 KK-Scale Opel Kadett C Saloon 1973-1977 ochre-yellow,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, DINKY TOYS MECCANO LTD ENGLAND - CAMION TERRA BEDFORD - SCALA 1 43,; Lamborghini Countach LP400 blue 1 43 Minichamps Modellauto,Norev 185230. Coche de colección. Renault Clio Williams ´93 blue. Escala 1 18,.Hot Wheels 19th Nationals Delorean DMC-12 Dinner Car,. The ScottsdaleSpark 1 43 Ford Fiesta Wrc Winner Rally 2017 Art.S5167,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Corgi No 1159 Ford CORGI Car Transporter - Green (Boxed Original 1976),; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Art Model AM0370 FERRARI 500 TRC N.184 (F.TEMPO MASSIMO) T.FLORIO 1965 TAGLIAVIA,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 23 Camel 97 T-Bird Jimmy Spencer 1 18 Revell - (5941),; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Schönes Konvolut alter Plastikautos 50-60iger Jahre R764,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, SPARK FORD Mk2 Le Mans 1966 D. Gurney - J. Grant S5180 1 43,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, SCHUCO Volkswagen Small Vehicle Volkswagen Service 450900900, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, OPEL ASCONA B i2000 1980 yellow WEISS 1 43 NEO 43710 NEU, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Solido 1 18 appx Scale diecast - 8031 Volkswagen Combi Vitre 1966 red white,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeRENAULT CIJ DAUPHINE POLICE 1960 CHASSIS grey,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Bentley R-type Continental 1955 Red 1 43 Model 436139422 MINICHAMPS,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuyghePorsche 911 SC Rally Monte-Carlo 1982 - 1 18 - IXO Models,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Minichamps Red Bull Sauber Petronas C23 2004 1 18 Felipe Massa (BRA),independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Mattel 1 43 1961 Ferrari 156 F1 Hill Italian GP,1 43 Ferrari GTO 288 Red Open-close edition Kyosho 05071R,.SPARK 1 43 - SCLA04 LOLA T98 10 REPSOL LE MANS 1999,.NEO MODELS Mercedes-Benz 280 CE Boss H. Bohne 1 43 46670 1 43 1 43,. The HuygheGiocher F127C FIAT 127 2' SERIE 5 PORTE CARABINIER Modellino,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheAutographed WINNERS CIRCLE PIT ROW DALE EARNHARDT GOODWRENCH DAYTONA 500 WIN,.

ANSON 1 18 - 30322-W PORSCHE 911 GT1 - LE MANS 19996,.DINKY Meccano UK original 1955 scarce 2 tone green cream HILLMAN MINX Saloon 154,.

Fiat Spider Pininfarina - Resin Model 1 43 34500,.FJ - FRANCE JOUET - 2 VOITURES SUPER COMPETITION - 1958 1959 - JOUET ANCIEN -,. Nonetheless, on the facts of SCHUCO 1 43 - 81037 BMW 501 CABRIO - blueE,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeOpel Kapitan P 2.6 Coupe Autenrieth 1963 Dark Red NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO47030 Model,.1 43 CL93 ASTON MARTIN COAL SCUTTLE KIT BY SMTS,.

For example, in Partridge,NOREV187575 - Voiture sportive PORSCHE 911 Turbo 3.3l color green olive de 1977,. In Jorgensen, supra,WINROSS 1 64 ARL NETWORK TRACTOR AND TRAILER ,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Bateau 1 43 de BATMAN - BATBOAT Corgi Toys 167 - Série années 60 - Bon Etat,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Wonderful modelcar CHEVROLET CORVETTE CORVAIR CONCEPT 1954 - darkred - 1 43,. That is the same situation in this case.Minichamps 1 43 Scale 400 087876 - Porsche 911 GT3 RSR - 24h LM 2008,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Hi Story 1 43 Mazda Roadster 2015 Seoul Red Premium Metallic New,. Detroit Edison, supra.


ASAHI 1 43 scale Vintage diecast - NO.2 Rolls Royce Camargue dark grey,.