Herpa Actros 10300 Willi Betz Nooteboom Nooteboom Nooteboom Teletrailer Werbemodell be018a

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Herpa Actros 10300 Willi Betz  Nooteboom Nooteboom Nooteboom Teletrailer Werbemodell be018a
Schuco Porsche 356 A Cabriolet with surfbo 1 43 450256900,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Corgi 1 36 Scale CC99101 - 007 The Difinitve Bond Collection 3 Model Set,.Rio RI4561 VW MAGGIOLINO 1953 W SKIS 1 43 Modellino,.Simca 1000 LS 1974 darkred 1 18 Norev,.Soviet russian heavy Scooter Vyatka VP 150 + figurine 1962 USSR Universal 1 43,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Minichamps 410026105 - BMW M2 Coupe Bj. 2016 Presentation in Alpinwhite 1 43,.Porsche 930 911 3.0 Turbo Model Car (1 28 Scale),. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Pokemon Center Original Stuffed Christmas 2017 Arorarokon,.First Gear Collector Club White 3000 Tractor Trailer & 16' Pup 1 34th,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Hot Wheels Leo Mattel India Chevy Monza in bluee in blisterpak,.Schuco Piccolo 3er-Set 90 Jahre Audi 0053 DKW 3 6 Auto Union Typ C DKW Transp.,.EBBRO 44472 1 43 Honda City Turbo R Suzuka 1982 T.Boutsen White Red Japan, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Porsche 911 (996) GT3 RS 1 43 white with bluee stripes Dealer-Box WAP 020 112 14,.NEO- 44825- PONTIAC Bonneville Special,.Fiat 508 Balilla Ambulanza Military Africa 1935 Cream RIO 1 43 RIO4594 Model,.PORSCHE 917 PA Spyder Laguna Seca 1969 Jo Siffert Audi Resin Muse Spark 1 43,.

Ertl Peachstate 1969 Shelby Cobra GT-500 1 18 Scale Diecast '69 Mustang Car,.635D Vintage Politoys M 518 Rolls Royce Coupé 1 43,.Early Dinky Toys London Taxi Cab with Driver - Dinky Toys Public Transport (2),.SPARK Eagle Mk3 Bobby Unser 1 43 S4257,.Renault Alpine A110 Premiere Edition • 2017 • NEU • Norev • 1 18,.

Brumm BM0447CH FERRARI 126 C G.VILLENEUVE 1980 PROVE IMOLA W PILOTE 1 43 Modelli,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Takara Chgold Q 10 units,.MRF Kit to assemble 1 43 - Ferrari 365 GTS,.Mercedes Benz 300CE Cabriolet 1990 1 18 Bornite met. 1 18 Norev,1973 Mercedes 220-8 (W115) Policia Alemania 1 18 MC Group 18054,.SCALEXTRIC C7014 DIGITAL PitStop Entrée Gauche – Left Hand Pit Lane,.

1 43 NEO Resin Model Jaguar MkV 2 tone Dark bluee White 1950,.WSI17-0002 - Remorque fourgon 3 Essieux - 1 50,.BMW 5er Reihe 535i M M535i 535 E28 1986 grey grey Norev RAR 1 18,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Minichamps 1 43 Scale 091118B - 1994 5 Alfa Romeo 155 V6 Ti - Green,.

PREISER 1 87 4x Tractor Tug Boat Agricultural Circus R55 (57042),. We agree in part.

Matcbox Lesney Superfast Sleet N Snow Preproduction Bare metal casting,.DAF 55 red 1971 NEO 43341 1 43,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Mercedes-Benz 320 CLK, A 209, 18 Brabus-Felgen, Classic Tuning, JM,,.PORSCHE 911 - 964 TURBO 3.6L yellow 965 1 18,.1965 Pontiac GTO Capri gold 1 18 Sun Star 1809,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; NOREV 1 18 2008 CITROEN GT DIECAST CAR MODEL 181613 blueE COLOR,.Best Model BT9267 ALFA ROMEO TZ 1 N.44 20th LE MANS 1965 KOOB-FINKELSTEIN 1 43 M,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Matchbox Superfast No 68 Porsche 910 68 Hood & Side Label Wide Hollow Wheels,; 1960 Chevy Impala Congreenible Promo,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Courier Express International Semi with Trailer by DCP 1 64th Scale ,.NEO SCALE MODELS NEO45100 FIAT 1100 ES PININFARINA 1950 RED 1 43,Ferrari 250 Gtl Jay Kay Personal Car bluee 1 43 Model BEST MODELS,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.New 2005 Peugeot 407 Coupe bluee 1 18 Diecast Model Car by Norev 184764,.

Matchbox Lesney No.7-1RW, Horse-Drawn Milk Float,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Trofeu 821 ALPINE REANAULT A110 1600S WINNER R.,.FERRARI F2004 Schumacher 1 18 Hot Wheels Racing World Champion,.DIECAST MASTERS 1 50 SCALE CATERPILLAR 980K WHEEL LOADER MODEL BN 85289C,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, NOREV 1 18 2014 MERCEDES-BENZ C-CLASS ESTATE DIE-CAST GREY 183475,; Ferrari 308 Gts 1978 White 1 43 Model BEST MODELS,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Simba toys GmbH & Co Mini Metalls Concept-Car Set of 4 Cars New in the box,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Herpa Actros 10300 Willi Betz  Nooteboom Nooteboom Nooteboom Teletrailer Werbemodell be018aHerpa Actros 10300 Willi Betz  Nooteboom Nooteboom Nooteboom Teletrailer Werbemodell be018aHerpa Actros 10300 Willi Betz  Nooteboom Nooteboom Nooteboom Teletrailer Werbemodell be018a

1989 Sauber-Mercedes C9 No.63 Winner Le Mans Model Car in 1 43 Scale by Spark,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Schuco Piccolo Magirus Feuerwehr gold Weihnachten 1996 ,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

HOT WHEELS 1 18 B3243 BMW 645CI GREY gold,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Saab 96 V4 Limousine Beige 1960-1980 1 18 Model Car Group Modell Auto mit oder..,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.NEO 44790 CHEVROLET MONTE CARLO, 2-TONE blueE,.Ford Shelby Mustang 1967 GT500 purplet mit blacken Streifen 1 18 Shelby Coll..,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Diecast Car Model Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution X EVO X RHD 1 18 (White) + GIFT ,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Franklin Mint 1 24 Duesenberg J 1935 New NOS Mintnoboxed Worldwide shipping,.

KK-Scale VW T3 Multivan - metallic-blue - 1992 - 1 18,.El Viento (Sega Mega Drive Japan),.FIAT 500 L pink 1 18,.RARE KIT RESINE PARADCAR PEUGEOT 202 MICHELIN PredO REF 102 1 43 IN BOX,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.TW Collection 1 43 Scale White Metal Kit 43 - Connaught B Type STRM 1955 Green,.

Herpa 1 76 Scale Model V207B - Leyland Atlantean - Hong Kong Bus,.Rio RI4461 VW BEETLE SWISS POST 1963 1 43 Modellino,.Büssing D2U DD-Bus der Berliner Verkehrsgesellschaft,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Neo Opel Diplomat Cabriolet 1971 1 43 Scale Neo46135,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.BURAGO 1 18 - COD 3350 PORSCHE 911 CARRERA - YELLOW,.Dinky Toys 137 Plymouth Fury made in England 1 43 scale EXC,.Porsche 911 993 Carrera Coupe 1994 Iris bluee Met NOREV 1 18 NV187593 Model,.SUN STAR 1 18 1954 CHEVROLET BEL AIR CONgreenIBLE DARK blueE CAR RARE F S,.Burago 1 18 Scale diecast - 3007 Ferrari 250 Testa Rossa 1957 Red,.

MD43224 MODELER'S 1 43 TOYOTA 86 meets New Theatrical Version Initial D, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model MIN 052003 - VW Der Millionste Beetle - gold,.Nissan Skyline Gt-R KPGC10 red 1 18 Triple 9,. The PartridgeTW Collection 1 43 Scale White Metal Kit 56 - Cooper Bristol Mk1 1952,.Corgi Heavy Haulers 1 50 US55702 Kenworth W925 Low Loader With Load MIB,.Tarmac Works 1 64 Honda Civic Type R,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, 1 18 Minichamps Mercedes SLS AMG GT3 ADAC GT Masters NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.ACME 1 18 1968 JERRY TITUS SHELBY GT-350 RED COLOR 12988,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.1 18 Display case, Mahogany wood colour base Hand made, scratch resistant acryli,.EMEK 820921 MAN TGS LX Kühlkofferauflieger 1 25,PartridgeFirst Gear Peterbilt 351 West Coast Fast Freight 1 64 Fallen Flag Series 60-0491,.Minichamps DP 1 12 Kawasaki 900 Z1 Super 4 1973 Candy Green yellow,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, CHEVROLET Corvette Z06 R GT3 GT Masters Roller Keilwitz 2011 Minichamps Res 1 43, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, CORGI TOYS 492 VW VOLKSWAGEN BEETLE KAFER POLITIE DUTCH POLICE EXCELLENT RARE ,; Britains 1 32 Scale Model Plough 9546 - Ploughs Charrues Pfuge,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, KS03634K15 KYOSHO 1 43 TOYOTA 86 K One Raing Shizuoka Hobby From japan, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Porsche 911 (930) Turbo 3.0 - minervablue - Minichamps - 1 of 200 - car.tima EXC, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeCreative Master 1 76 Scale UKBUS 1019 - Alexander Dennis Trident ALX400 - R6A,.

UH 4890 Fendt 716 Vario Generation 1 Tractor 1 3 2 NEW BOXED,.Honda Civic Ef-9 Sir Año Fabricación 1990 red 1 18 Triple 9, Clarke's negligent act.Mga Mkii A1600 Aperto Congreenibile Anno di Costruzione 1961 Bianco 1 18,.MARCH 731 HUNT GP MONACO 1973 1 43 SPARK S5366,.MINICHAMPS 1 43 HISPANO-SUIZA (15-45CV) 1911 TYPE ALPHONSO XIII VOITURETTE,.

LESNEY Matchbox 1-75 COLLECTION 16 CARS lot 2,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Schuco Volkswagen Typ 38 (grey) 1 43 450889100,MMP EBBRO 1 43 LOTUS EUROPA S2 Type 65 1969 BROWN,. In Noska,Lancia Aurelia B24 Spider (1955) Resin Model Car S2440,.1962 Aston Martin DB4 Congreenible Resin Model Car in 1 43 Scale by Spark,.Citroen Cx Taxi Paris 1975 Car Miniature 1 43 Collection Passionauto09,.True Scale 1 43 Alfa Romeo Tipo 33 3 Le Mans 24Hr. 144312, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Spark Model Porsche 993 Turbo 1996 1 43 S4476,.735E Vintage Dinky 36C Humber Vogue Saloon Repeint 1 43,.Precision Models Mazmanian 1961 Blown Corvette NHRA 1 18 Scale Die Cast EXC ,.NEO MODELS Honda Prelude Mk IV 1992 1 43 44509,. Id., p 923.

Corgi 1 50 Scale Diecast 98427 - MCI-102 DL3 - Peter Pan Birthday Bus,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Mercury Toys Chaparral 2J CAN-AM made in 1 43 scale EX-NM,Maxichamps 1 43 Scale 940 063201 - 2014 Porsche Cayenne - Yellow,.red FERRARI 643 - F1 JEAN ALESI RED 1 43 - EXCELLENT CONDITION IN BOX,.Matchbox Superfast Nr.02A Mercedes Trailer goldmetallic top in H Box,.DANBURY MINT 1957 CHRYSLER 300C..1 24..NOS...UNDISPLAYED..BRAND NEW..NO DOCS,.SCHUCO 02568, VW BREZELKAEFER, DARK RED, 1 43 SCALE,.CITROEN DS3 WHITE BOTTICELLI blueE 2010 NOREV 181540 1 18,.Audi SQ5 Modellauto Miniatur 1 43 Daytonagrey limitierte Auflage 5011815631,. The parties MADE in FRANCE NOREV LIGNE blackE CITROEN 2CV PredOTYPE CYCLOPE 1948 1 43 JOURNAL,.

Jada 1 24 Scale 97603 Fast & Furious - Brian's Mitsubishi Eclipse,.Norev NV183419 MERCEDES L319 VAN 1957 FRUBA 1 18 Modellino,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Triple 9 - Honda S800 yellow - 1 18 - T9-1800191,; Herpa Scania CS 20 HD V8 Müller Platinum (CH) 1 87, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Corgi Plough - Red Yellow - A+ A,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, RIO 4114 CITROEN DS 19 (General De Gaulle 1960) SCALA 1 43 ORIGINAL BOX,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Museum Porsche 911 RSR Sunoco 1973 Experience Center Atlanta L. A. Spark 1 43,.1 24 Japanese Cars Collection Vol.56 Mazda RX-8 [2003] Die-cast Model Hachette,.CORGI TOYS OLDSMOBILE SOLO FÜR U.N.C.L.E CODE3 UNIKAT,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Matchbox Preproduction Grand Prix Racing Car,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.OPEL Ascona B 400 Rallye Monte Carlo 1982 Bastos Colsoul Vitesse RAR 1 43,.Yellow Lamborghini Gallardo Superleggera Diecast Model Sport Car Maisto 1 18,.RARE MERCURY AERO N°41 MADE IN ITALY 1 86 1 87 Ho METAL REPEINTE REPEINTED,.Neo Hamann Guardian - Porsche Cayenne - yellow carbon - 2011 - 1 43,.Corgi 336 James Bond Toyota 2000 GT w figs & Missiles original ,. The ScottsdaleRIO 4173 FIAT 128 - Taxi Milano 1969,Lamborghini Silhouette 1976 White Museum Series 1 43 Model MINICHAMPS,.Ferrari 250 California 1957 red Scuro 1 43 Art Model ART325,. Id.,Märklin 8018 Ford Taunus 15M Weltkugel Limousine 2,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Politoys 530 - Ferrari 275 GTB - Scala 1 43 Die cast,; Action 1 24 NASCAR Dale Earnhardt Jr. Budweiser Born on Date Daytona Win,FORD USA - C100 N 6 LE MANS 1982 BZ339 Bizarre 1 43 New IN A BOX ,.Porsche GT3 Cup ,24H Nurburgring 2015 , Sparkmodels,. The ScottsdaleBorgward Hansa 2400 Red-Grey 1955 NEO43450 1 43,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Corgi Toys England RENAULT FLORIDE 2-Door Coupe Sedan Model Car 222 Repro Box`60,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; NEW Hot Wheels Race Aces Stunt Jump Duel with Exclusive Car Included Toy Game,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, ALFA ROMEO 6C 2500 FRECCIA D'gold 1947 RED Minichamps 403120484,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, MITSUBISHI PAJERO 1998 SunStar AMARANTO 1 18,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Spark 1 43 Audi RS 5 DTM - 2017 - Müller,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Fiat 238 Tetto Alto 1970 White 1 43 Model RIO4519 RIO, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, ERTL AMERICAN MUSCLE 1967 CHEVROLET CORVETTE COUPE 427 HOBBY EDITION 1 OF 5000 , (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Rietze MB Travego Weltmeisterbus 2014 Fußball Manschaftsbus DFB (R1_5_25),; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeBQ221-2x Märklin Spur 1 Oldtimer (aus Set 85837 und 80013) MAN etc, 2. Wahl,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, DINKY TOYS 516 MERCEDES BENZ 230 SL - RED 1 43 - PERFECT RESTAURATION - CODE 3,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheBMW E30 M3 1989 Nurbruring Ravaglia 1 18,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Mercedes-Benz 230SL Pagode Roadster gold W113 1963-1971 1 18 Norev Modell Auto..,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,DISC 1 43 VODAFONE McLAREN MERCEDES MP4-26 - J P530114314,Mazda RX-8 [2003] 1 24 Die-cast Model Hachette Japanese Cars Collection Vol.56,.Mint Mini Champ 1 43 Car Maserati Mark 1974 World Limited 2,592,.ROVER Vitesse V8 ICS British Champion Rouse 1984 BTCC NEW NEU NEO Resin 1 43,. The HuygheNOREV183450 - Voiture MERCEDES GLA Classe blacke 2014 - 1 18,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheSpark 1 43 Scale Model Car S0348 - WR Peugeot Le Mans 2004,.

Rare Maserati 3500 GT 1 43 USSR Mebetoys Remake Novoexport,.Ferrari 275 Gtb 4 Safety Car Goodwood Revival 2013 Yellow BEST 1 43 BE9718 Model,.

Paul's Model Art 1 43 Minichamps Rover Vitesse Team ATN Kurt Thim Champ...,.Rare modele résine predotype PEUGEOT 504 1 43 Heco modeles véhicule FE',. Nonetheless, on the facts of 1 18 REVELL Wiesmann MF3 MF4 GT Coupé orange yellow 08882 OVP Rare,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeJadi 1 18 Scale - FOX5 Mini Cooper Foxton Mayfair,.Ferrari 308 Gtb America 1976 Red BEST 1 43 BE9721 Model,.

For example, in Partridge,Spark Lotus 24 Jim Hall Monaco GP 1 43 S2141,. In Jorgensen, supra,1970 PLYMOUTH HEMI BARRACUDA 1 24 2005 Johnny WHITE WHEELS & INTERIOR Lightning,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.COFFRET TOYOTA CgoldLLA TROPHEE ANDROS 2006 1 18 Alain PROST,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Ixo model TRU005 RENAULT FAINEANT 1955 LAIT MONT white 1 43 Modellino,. That is the same situation in this case.MINICHAMPS PORSCHE 911 CARRERA RSR 2.8 (CHASSIS 911 360 0307 R7) OSSIB 430736904,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Corgi Classics Showmans Range 15901 Scammell Highwayman Generator Trailer Dodgem,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Matrix MX30602-081 Fiat 600 Viotti Coupé 1959,.Schuco Mercedes-Maybach G650 - white (09005) - 1 43,.2000 chevy impala taxi cab yellow 1 18 maisto special edition,.

MINICHAMPS - 1 43 - PORSCHE 911 (991 II) GT3 RS - 413067035,.