Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Minichamps 1 43 F1 McLaren Ford M23 Japanese Gp 1976 J. Hunt Art. 530764391,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Very Rare Matchbox Superfast MB40 Corvette T Roof Made in England,.NOREV - 1 18 - BMW M535I (E28) - 1986 - 183261,.2010 Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG Gullwing red Metalizado 1 18 GT Autos 11002,.FORD Sierra Cosworth RS Rallycross 1991 Hansen Winner Portug 1 100 Scala43 1 43,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Minichamps 1 43 - Citroen SM greene,.BARLUX 73055 FIAT CAMPAGNOLA POMPIERI VIGLI DEL FUOCO - FIRE BRIGADE 1 25 - NMIB,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Dinky toys 955 Commer Fire engine 1954 boxed,.MINICHAMPS - 1 43 - PORSCHE 911 (991 II) GT3 RS - 413067035,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Spark Models 1 43 Scale S1427 - Courage-Oreca LC70-Judd Team Oreca LM 2008,.MINICHAMPS Porsche 908 02 Spyder MC-437692001,. BROOKLIN BRK 8A 8 A 1941 CHRYSLER NEWPORT INDY PACE CAR WHITE MINT BOXED, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Norev 187574 Porsche 911 930 Turbo 1977 olive green 3,3L 1 18,.Fortschritt ZT 303 - NVA Traktor Militär Begleitwagen DDR 1 32 Schuco 450775000,.1986 Wartburg 353S brown 1 18 MC Group 18078,.Norev France miniature Coupé SIMCA 1000 N°73 1 43 D'origine Plastique,.

Minichamps 1 43 Audi R8 ALMS PETIT LE MANS 2002 Limited Edition from Japan,.LAMBORGHINI MURCIELAGO orange 1 18,.1986 Wartburg 353S yellow 1 18 MC Group 18077,.Corgi US54018 GM 4503 Old Look Bus - Corgi City 1 50 NIB RARE ,.1 18 UH Eagle Ferrari 250 GT Le Mans 1961 white NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.

BMW M535i 1980 gold metallic NOREV - NO 183268 - Echelle 1 18,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.1 18 red 1969 Dodge Charger R T , in the box,.NOREV 183451 2017 MERCEDES BENZ AMG GT C ROADSTER 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR YELLOW,.1986 Wartburg 353S brown 1 18 MC Group 18078,HOT WHEELS SUPER TREASURE HUNT TREASURE HUNT BONE SHAKER SHORT CARD,.1963 Chevrolet Corvair Coupe Laurel Green 1 18 Sun Star 1483,.

1 18 KYOSHO MORRIS MINI COOPER DIECAST MODEL IN RED,.Mercedes C-Klasse DTM 2011 G. Paffet 1 18 Norev neu & OVP 183584,.FORD 1949 cabriolet blue 1 18,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Porsche Panamera Gts 2016 Carmen Red HERPA 1 43 WAP0207310J Model,.


MCG - 1 18 - LADA NIVA - 1976 - 18111G,.Kado 14 1 43 1959 Toyota Toyopet Crown RS 1500 Handmade White Metal Model Car,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.HOTWHEELS - ELITE (MATTEL) - 1 0 - STAR WARS TIE FIGHTER FALCON - THE EMPIRE STR,.1 43 i-Scale Audi A8L Die Cast Model,.Trofeu TF0718 TOYOTA CELICA ST205 3rd BOUCLES DE SPA 1996 VERREYDT-JAMAR NO LIGH,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Maxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940 113601 - 1971 Renault Alpine A110 - Yellow,.Volkswagen VW T3 Doka Pritsche 1983 orange 1 43 Model 400055261 MINICHAMPS,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Rio 1 43 - Citroen DS 21 Sedan 1969 Green,; 1 43 Mini Champs Bentley Arnage R bluee Metallic,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Minichamps Sauber Petronas C24 2005 1 18 Jaques Villeneuve (CAN),.PORSCHE 914 6 LARROUSSE RALLY MONTE CARLO 1971 1 43 SPARK S5583,2012 Hot Wheels 12th Nationals Convention Volkswagen Drag Beetle VW,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Norev 184880 PEUGEOT 309 Gti red 1987 scala 1 18 MODELLINO AUTO NUOVO °,.

Mint Mini Champs 1 43 Sauber Petronas C21,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.ERTL AMERICAN MUSCLE 1970 CHEVELLE SS 396 L89 1 1 18 SCALE,.Schuco 1 43 VW Volkswagen Käfer Ovali Beetle 1 Million Käfer goldmet. OVP,.Schuco 1 43 Porsche 356A,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Marklin Gernany No.8008 Volkswagen Type 2 Split Screen Transporter Van,; Neo DKW Meisterklasse Universal Typ 89S - hellgreen - 1951 - 1 43,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, NOREV - 1 18 - PANHARD 24 CT - 1964 - 184501,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

BENTLEY CONTINENTAL SUPERSPORTS COUPE GREY 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR WELLY 18038,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

1 43 Neo Scale Models, BMW Z4 M Coupe, Red, NEO44466,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Corgi Scania R & C S Trailer - Eddie Stobart Ireland,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

2011 HOT WHEELS JAPAN COLLECTORS CONVENTION '66 DODGE A-100 1 of 1500 1 64,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.AUDI Quattro Sport Rallye DRM Metz 1984 Röhrl Geistdörfer NEU Trofeu 1 43,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 400 120325 - 2003 Alfa Romeo GT Champagne Metallic,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Elliott Sadler 38 M&M’s 4th of July 2005 Elite Autograph Signed 1 24 CWC Diecast,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.1958 Studebaker golden Hawk RED 1 18 Road Legends YatMing 20018,.

Spark 1 43 Scale S1009 - F1 Mercedes AMG W03 Brazilian GP 2012,.Citroën Break 21 1970 Bordeaux NOREV - NO 181592 - Echelle 1 18,.Porsche RS Spyder n° 7 Rennsport Reunion VI Laguna Seca 2018 1 43 Spark MAP02014,.Diecast Car Model for All New Q5L Q5 L SUV 1 18 (Red) + GIFT ,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Dinky Toys F 24F Peugeot 403 Familiale rarement joué,.

Norev Serie Promotion Peugeot 204 made in France 1 43 NMIB vintage rare,.NOREV 1 18 2015 SMART FORFOUR DIECAST CAR 183435,.TYRRELL A.PRESENTI-ROSSI 1976 1 43 Spark SP1648,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Ferrari 330 P Sebring 1964 1 43 Model 0177 ART-MODEL,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Jaguar E Spyder Cantagiro 1962 Adriano Celentano Best 1 43 BE9618 Model,.Bn183-0, 5 X HighSpeed H0 1 87 Metal Car Vintage ALFA ROMEO etc. , MINT,.DINKY TOYS Ford Cortina Mk1 Rally, 1 43, am,.CORGI 282 MINI COOPER S ORIGINAL AND BOXED,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Opel Rekord D Caravan 1975 Yellow 1 43 Minichamps-Diplomat,.

Maisto Humvee Mobile Forces 1 18, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.TYRRELL 006 GP ITALIA 1973 TAMEO KITS SERIE WCT SCALA 1 43,.Corgi 164 Ison Bros Wild Honey Dragster In Its Original Box - Near Mint Vintage,. The Partridge1963 FORD FALCON CONgreenIBLE SUN STAR 4533BK 1 18 DIECAST,.Lote 2 Camiones Pegaso 1231 T 310 Campsa + Mofletes Forestal Mazo 1 43,.Hot Wheels Sweet Rides Complete Set 6 6 Valentines Day Mattel 2013,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Dallara Lmp Judd Le Mans 2004 1 43 Model S0155 SPARK MODEL, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.MODELLINO VOLKSWAGEN 1200 BROWN 1953 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.RENAULT ALPINE A 442 H LE MANS 1978 RAGNOTTI FREQUELIN NOREV 1 18,.OXFORD 76SET57 - 1 76 10 PIECE LAND ROVER MILITARY SET,PartridgeSchuco Piccolo Henninger Limited Edition of 2222 VW Mercedes 2005 FREE US SHIP,.Anson 1 18 Scale Diecast - 30325-w Porsche 911 GT1 Le Mans 1996,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Ebbro 1 43 KURE Skyline GT-R R33 JGTC 1996 M. Kondo T. Suzuki from Japan, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Minichamps 410170077 1 43 MERCEDES AMG PETRONAS FORMULA ONE TEAM F1 W08 EQ POWER,; SS3407 - CHEVROLET IMPALA OPEN CONgreenIBLE 1961 TWILIGHT TURQOISE 1 18 MODELLINO,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, 1 18 Maisto Diecast 1969 Dodge Charger RT Car Modified Vehicle Green Toy BOX, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Minichamps 1 43 Mercedes Benz E-Klasse ( S 211 ) T Modell, black, Die Cast, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeINFINITI FX50S 2010 blueE MET Neoscale 1 43 NEO44542,.

Simba Toys 9251661 Fireman Sam Wallaby Helicopter Playset,.Fiat Abarth 1000 GT Monomille (red) 1963, Clarke's negligent act.Solido Citroen Traction 11 B 421184950 1 18,.Williams Ford FW08 K. Rosberg 1982 1 43,.Guisval Porsche Skis n°101 ,avec catalogue 1980 neuf en boite 1 37,.

Jaguar D n.4 6th Le Mans 1957 D. Hamilton - M. Gregory by Spark S4389,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1 18 BBURAGO SIGNATURE SERIES FERRARI CALIFORNIA T RED NEW,Vintage Dinky 25Y - Jeep - Red - Model Supplied In Collectabox NOT Original,. In Noska,FERRARI F430 SCUDERIA Shell V-Power 1 38 Diecast Car NEW,.Nissan GT-R R35 2008 red Norev 1 18 SCALE New in box,.Spark 1 43 BMW 635 CSI N.1 winner Macau Guia race 1983 SA052,.CAT Caterpillar 1 50 Diecast 140M3 Motor Grader High Line Series 85544 Vehicles, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Fire Rescue Wirginia Beach 1 64 Model CODE3,.2016 Hot Wheels HWC RLC Real Riders Drag Dairy Delivery Redline LOW 6000,.CORGI 77601 2000 DC COMICS BATMOBILE - 1 18,.Corgi 60th Anniversary OM46613 New Routemaster NBFL London United LT71 Rt 9,. Id., p 923.

1 43 Neo Ford Taunus P2 Kombi white green 44550,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Revell 1 20 Dodge Viper RT 10 red,Citroen Cx 25 Trd Turbo 2 Break 1986 Gun Grey Met.1 43 Kess Model Ks43011020,.DINKY TOYS - VINTAGE METALLMODELL - CITROEN SERVICE - NO REPLIKA (DINKY-T-64),.Matchbox Series Moko Lesney Berkeley Caravan in original B4 type box,.Fiat Ritmo Abarth 130 Tc 1984 grey Quarzo (639) 1 43 Kess Ks43010011 Model,.1 43 LAMBORGHINI GALLARDO 2004 LINEA BIANCO L.E. 2008 pcs 436103500 Minichamps,.Welly Chevrolet Fleetmast 1948 black Holz 1 18,.Eagle 2.5 (Version 2) bluee 1937,. The parties Schuco Mercedes L322 & Ford FK 1000 Gaffel Kolsch Beer Delivery SHU05817,.


Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, 1998 Mitsubishi Pajero RED 1 18 SunStar 1211,; Set of 2 Matchbox Yesteryear Y16 Mercedes SS 1928 lime green 1972 1 46 OVP MIB, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Spark 1 43 Scale Resin S1524 - Ginetta Zytek 09S 2 Quiffel-ASM Team LM 2009,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Hot Wheels HWP9887 FERRARI 575 GTZ 2006 RED FOUNDATION 1 18 Modellino,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982) MINT BOXED EAGLES RACE PORSCHE 971K 1970 24H GULF DAYTONA WINNER ,.Hot Wheels LDC92608R JAGUAR E TYPE SPYDER 1971 RED 1 18,.Hot Wheels Redline Magenta AMX 2,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,SUNSTAR 1 18 1984 FORD ESCORT RS TURBO DIE-CAST WHITE 4961R,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Bentley Continental Gt Speed Cabrio St.James Red 2012 Minichamps 1 43 436139061,.Scalextric C2606 Dallara Indy Collectors Club 2004 Edition In Display Case MB,.Volkswagen T3 Multivan 1992 bluee Met KK SCALE 1 18 KKDC180141,.HOT WHEELS RED LINE CLUB EXCLUSIVE 55 CHEVY SANTA'S SPEED SHOP 2009 HOLIDAY CAR,.James Bond - The definitive Bond Collection Film Canister,. The ScottsdaleALFA ROMEO JUNIOR Z 1300 WHITE 1 43 SP0611,MOKO LESNEY MATCHBOX A London Trolley Bus Very Scarce SPW Excellent.,.AUSTIN HEALEY SPRITE LE MANS 1966 BIZARRE BZ466 1 43,. Id.,Spark 1 43 Scale Model Car S2901 - 1959 Chevrolet Impala Congreenible - bluee,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Porsche 911 991 4S Cabriolet 2015 Yellow HERPA 1 43 WAP0201090G Model,; Ses Modelltec Robur Ld 3000 Fortschritt Cosechadora Service Medio Bus 1 87 , Rda,Minichamps 400 130420; 1980 Jaguar XJS Coupe; Red Metallic; Excellent Boxed,.Citroen T45 France 1934 IXO FOR Hachette 1 43 New Boxed GA2 µ,. The Scottsdale007 goldfinger Corigi & Bond 40th Anniversary Limited Edition Certificate Boxed,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Spark Model S5259 BRABHAM BT44 J.WATSON 1974 N.28 5th ITALIAN GP 1 43 Modellino,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Rare 1 43 FOXToys FOX 009 Tatra 77 brown metallic 1936 MIB,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 18 Artisan Collection The A-Team 1967 Chevrolet Impala Sedan,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 18 Revell NSU TT bluee blue Selten Rare in OVP,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Porsche 917K Kyalami Adamowicz Casoni 1 18 187580C,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Peugeot 504 Break 1976 1 18 Modelcar Group Mcg18035 Familiar Crema, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Chevrolet Impala Station Wagon 1959 Red White 1 43 Spark S2905 Model, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Best Model 9437 PORSCHE ABARTH TARGA FLORIO '63 1 43 Modellino,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeDIECAST CAR & DISPLAY CASE 1970 DODGE CHARGER SUPERNATURAL GREENLIGHT 19046 1 18,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, 1 43 Minichamps Bentley Continental SC 1996 dunkelblue 436 139990,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheMini Champs Takuma Sato Darala Infinite Honda F301,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Porsche Macan II + Dachbox Mambagreenmetallic Limited 800 Spark 1 43 WAX02020096,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Bugatti Type 57S Roadster 1936 Derain Spark S2717 resin 1 43,Sunstar 1 18 American Collectible 1948 CHRYSLER TOWN AND COUNTRY CONV SS6140,.1969 Chevrolet Camaro ZL-1 427 Dover WHITE American Muscle “ Clean Body “,.EBBRO 1 43 MAZDA redARY COUPE RACING 1970 SPA FRANCORCHAMPS 24 HS 43537,. The Huyghe1 18 BBURAGO 2018 FERRARI FORMULA 1 F1 SF71H SEBASTIAN VETTEL DIECAST MODEL,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheProvence Moulding Kit Assembled 1 43 - Peugeot 206 WRC Tour of Corse 2000 N°10,.

Lot of 81 Hot Wheels No other brands,.1 18 Norev Mercedes-Benz 300 SL R107 1986 red red Nr. 183467 in OVP,.

LAND ROVER DISCOVERY (L462) 2017 1 43 TSM MODEL (FUJI WHITE),.MINICHAMPS Jaguar XK COUPE GREEN 2006 ART.150130500 NEW DIE-CAST 1 18,. Nonetheless, on the facts of LINDBERG HL105 KIT 1 32 CHEVROLET RAGTOP 1957 MONTADO,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeMattel Elite High Detail 1 18 Ferrari 250-LM Le Mans 1965 Dumay Gosselin,.Minichamps 1 43 - Citroen CX break 1980 green métallisé,.

For example, in Partridge,BEST MODEL BT9245 FERRARI 308 GTB QV 1982 RED 1 43,. In Jorgensen, supra,Renault Caravelle 1965 whitehe 1 18, 7711419276,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Toyota Yaris WRC 1st Rally of Sweden 2017 Latvala 1 43 Spark S5165,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,NEO SCALE MODELS NEO44351 FORD P7A LIMOUSINE 1967 LIGHT blueE 1 43,. That is the same situation in this case.1 43 Premium Classixxs MB Lo 2750 Pritschwagen red 12600,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Russian Made 1 43 Scale diecast - R5 Moskovitch 412 bluee USSR Car,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Ixo 1 43 Scale GTM096 - BMW 3.5 CSL gr5 1st Nurburgring 1000km '76,.NOREV - 1 18 - CITROEN C4 CACTUS - 2018 - 181660,.Matchbox RW 31A Ford Station Wagon yellow Plastikräder runde Achsen,.