Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
EMEK 71683 Scania CR730 V8 6x4 Holzhängerzug 1 25,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Signature 1 43 Scale - PM43706 Mercedes Benz G4 6 wheel top up bluee,.1 18 Kyosho BMW 330i Touring 2005 lightbrown-metallic,.Norev Renault Super 5 GT Turbo Tour de Corse 1989 A. Oreille 1 18 185215 10,.DINKY No 164 VAUXHALL CRESTA SALOON IN EXCELLENT ORIGINAL CONDITION + BOX,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Mercedes AMG GT3 no.89 - Akka Asp (d.Perfetti - L.CAZENAVE - M. Lyons - M.M,.1 43 Minichamps Mercedes Benz W196,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.49. Ford Landau Presidencial Federal scale 1 43 - Service Vehicles of Brazil,.Matchbox Superfast No 68 Porsche 910 68 Hood & Side Label Narrow Hollow Wheel,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Brumm R260CH FERRARI 312 PB 6H DAYTONA 1972 1 43,.Schuco 5545 OPEL MANTA B400 n.153 1 43,.Fujimi model 1 24 inch up series No.14 Wagon R RX '93 Model Car ID14, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

DINKY TOYS 70 REMORQUE BACHEE - GOOD CONDITION - IN BOX,.Motormax 1 18 Scale Diecast - 73174 Aston Martin DB9 Coupe - Red,.Bentley SIII Continental Park Ward Pewter FHC 1963 44160 Neo 1 43 New in a box ,.Ferrari FF Coupe silver Ab 2011 1 18 Mattel Hot Wheels Modell Auto mit oder oh..,.

Best Model BT9288 FERRARI 275 GTB N.53 14th 1000 KM MONZA 1967 VESTEY-GASPAR 1 4,.Wonderful modelcar PORSCHE WAIBEL SPEZIAL SPORT CABRIO 1948 - blueemet. - 1 43,.Audi A3 S3 8V Limousine red Ab 2013 1 43 Minichamps Modell Auto mit oder ohne ..,.Corgi 1 50 Scale 31003 - AEC Articulated Scammell Highwayman & Low Loader,.Rio 4267 VW BEETLE MONTE CARLO 1956 n.5 1 43,.

1 18 Scale 1936 Mercedes 500K Type Classic Car Collection Roadster Car Modle Toy,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Durham Classics DC-4d 1938 Lincoln Zephyr Cream 1 43,.REVELL 1 32nd SCALE SHELBY GT-350 JERRY TITUS SLOT CAR RE 08371,.683H Jouet Mont white Bus Saviem E7 L 1 43,Western Models Kit à Monter 1 43 - Jaguar XK120 Fixed Head Coupe 1951,.Ferrari Collection No.37 Die Cast Model 1 24 2013 ITALIA 458,.

Ferrari 250 Testa Rossa 1958 - Shell,.DIE CAST IVECO STRALIS 2002 PACONSA SCALA 1 43,.Honda RC211V 2005 1 12 Alex Barros MotoGP,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Cp 43 alfa romeo romeo2 gelati cazzaniga sc1 43,.

1 12 Diecast Masters 85139 Caterpillar Cat C15 ACERT Diesel Engine Core Class,. We agree in part.

MINICHAMPS MCLAREN MP4-5B HONDA V10 GERHARD BERGER 1990 1 43,.Meri Models 1 43 1990 Lola Lamborghini Aguri Suzuki British Grand Prix,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Guiloy 13138 1 10 Garelli Angel Niero Racing Bike Motorcycle Diecast Model Toy,.Lesney Match Box bluee Ford FairlanePolice Car White Interior in Box,.Mercedes- Benz 250 T S123 (W123) 1978- 1982 red - 1 18 KK-Scale,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Sun Star 1 18 European Collectibles 1957 Porsche 356A 1500 GS Carrera GT SS1342,.Hikosebun Rais 1 43 Nissan Teana L33 2016 Ibaraki Prefectural Police Regional,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Matchbox by Lesney Superfast Modellauto No.67a VW 1600 TL 1969-73 mit H-OVP KULT,; Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale BRK86 - 1938 Cadillac 60 Special - Green Unboxed,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Citroen Cx Break Loadrunner 1989 Ed.Lim.Pcs 492 1 43 Matrix MX30304-011 Model,.Ebbro Symmetry Skyline Gr.A 1993,VW Kombi Bus T4 t 4 Caravelle anthrazit metallic, Schabak 1 43 DEALER innen yellow,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.1 18 Volkswagen Microbus Combi Type 2 T1 año 1962 Yat Ming 92327cm Crema-whiteo,.

TW Collection 1 43 Scale White Metal Kit 66 - Ferrari 125 GP 1949 - Red,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Lancia Delta HF Integrale 16v 1990 Red, Model Car 1 18 Triple9,.2017 Sdcc Exklusive Mattel Hot Wheels Dc Justice League Batman Batmobile,.BMW M535i 1980 gold Metallic Model Car 1 18 Norev,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, AUTOWORLD AMM1094 1969 69 DODGE CgoldNET SUPER BEE 1 18 & 1 64 2 CARS SET CREAM,; 1 18 Hot Wheels Williams F1 FW28 Rosberg 2006 Bahrain NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Maserati Mistral Spyder 1964 red, Modellauto 1 43 Minichamps,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

CORGI 318 LOTUS ELAN S2 1965-67 ORIGINAL NICE CAR IN WORN ORIG BOX MISSING FLAP,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.



This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Schuco 3364 VW KAFER PTT GREEN 1 43,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Ebbro 1 20 2015 McLaren Honda MP4-30 F1 Early Season Race Car Plastic Model Kit,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.DUGU MUSEO CISITALIA mod 202 PINIFARINA - RED 1 43 - VERY GOOD CONDITION 25 4,.BURAGO 1 18 - COD. 3021 PORSCHE 356B COUPE 1961 - DARK RED,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Fujimi model 1 20 Grand Prix Series SPOT-No.24 Sauber C30 Japan GP driver with,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Limousine Nissan Skyline 2000 GT 1972 white DISM 1 43,.

USSR RUSSIAN FIGHTER PLANE MODEL - N-16 - MADE IN RUSSIA,.Stunning Brass FAL Model Volkswagen 1935 Congreenible Beetle Car RARE,.Wonderful SCHUCO-modelcar MERCEDES-BENZ 200 (W123) HEARSE VOGT 1980 - 1 43,.LOT 3 Vint. Hot Wheels Real Riders Jeep Scrambler 4370 & 57’ T-Bird 4357 SEALED,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.1 43 FERRARI 166 MM 1948-1953 PROVA VERSION RED RHD AMAZING WHEELS ART MODELS,.

TOP MODEL gold 015 1 43 Resin Porsche 935, 8th '79 LeMans, Hawaiian Tropic,,.1 43 Premium Classixxs VW Käfer grey limitiert,.PREMIUM CLASSIXXS Tatra 111 Beige Red Flatbed platform 1 43 47029,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, BMW 750LI F02 1 43 Minichamps,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.1 18 1971 Mustang Sportsroof , ,,.1 43 Schuco Setra S6 Reisetraum lightbluee bluee ltd. 1000 pcs.,.Maisto 1 18 scale Diecast - 31804 Ferrari 348ts red Red model car,.Porsche 935 K3 Sieger Le Mans 1979 n° 41 1 43 Spark MAP02027913,.Norev Renault Alpine A110 1600S 1 18 Model Car 185300 Metallic bluee,.

Audi 90 Quattro Type 85 Treser Hunter 1986 White NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO47025 Miniatur, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Diecast Car Model Hot Wheels Aston Martin DB5 1 18 + GIFT ,.1986 BMW E28 M M535I White 1 18 Norev 183260,. The PartridgeSpark 1 43 Scale Resin S2553 - Radical SR9 Judd Race Performance LM 2010,.BEANSTALK 10011 ASTON MARTIN VANQUISH- V12 1 18 - 007 JAMES BOND NM BOX,.BMW M3 E30 DTM Harald Nippel Grohs Team Vogelsang 1987 Minichamps 1 43,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Truescale TSM144321 1 43 Resina Corvette Grand Sport,1963 Nassau,R Penske, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Corgi 23501. Leyland 6 Wheel Tipper - Cadbury's Cocoa. MIB.,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 30718A - BMW M3 Sport Evolution,.ALEZAN MODELS .1 43 NSU TRAPEZE .CONCEPT BERTONE . 1973 .,PartridgeDINKY TOYS NO 240 COOPER RACING CAR; Yellow helmet; Original box,.2003 Corvette Gloss Red 1 18 Ertl American Muscle 33149,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, BMW E21 323i Gr.2 Youngtimer Trophy Munhowen Moutarde NEO Resin 1 43, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, NOREV 184826 Peugeot 504 Cabriolet 1970 Capucine Yellow 1 18 OVP,; Saure 163 Wiking 1 87 Krupp Titan Pritsche mit Anhänger 529 ohne Box 512257,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, CORGI - CC06001 blueES MOBILE WITH JAKE AND ELWOOD FIGURES, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Ebbro 1 43 KURE Skyline GT-R R33 JGTC 1996 M. Kondo T. Suzuki from Japan, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeSSM LKW 1 43 GAZ-52 Koffer-LKW Bred (späte Version),.

1 18 Top Speed Jaguar F-Type T Congreenible in Polaris White. TS0038,.CITROEN C4 CACTUS 2014 1 18 NOREV (PEARL WHITE CHOCOLATE AIRBUMP), Clarke's negligent act.Aston Martin P214 Coupe 1963 Red Jolly Model 1 43 JL06026 Model,.NEW 1 43 MAKI F101 Test Car 1974 Resin Model Fomula Hiroshima figure hayami,.OXFORD DIECAST 1 76 LONDON FIRE ENGINE APPLIANCES ANNIVERSARY MODEL SET 76SET31,.

HONDA CRX del Sol bluee Metallic 1992 - 1998, model cars 1 43,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Hot Wheels Redline 1967 Job Lot,Schuco 1 43 VOLKSWAGEN VW T1 splitscreen 13 window bus ADAC STRASSENWACHT,. In Noska,1953 Ford Crestline Sunliner Coupe red-black 1 18 Welly 12525,.TROF 43 Scale Diecast Model - 624 SUBARU IMPREZA WRX HUMBERSIDE POLICE GB,.Norev 188523 Volkswagen VW Käfer 1303 1972 green metallic 1 18 Modellauto,.Provence Moulding Kit à Monter 1 43 - Mazda 757 Le Mans 1987 No.201 202, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.CORGI TOYS CHEVROLET VAN COCA COLA OVP ORIGINAL 1978,.SPARK MODEL S4977 PORSCHE 911 TARGA 4 S 2017 blueE 1 43,.Simca Aronde 1953 black 1 18 Norev Modell Auto mit oder ohne individiuellem ..,.Hot Wheels 1 24 Scale - 24623 McLaren MP4-14 David Coulthard + Fuel pump diorama,. Id., p 923.

Audi RS6 (C5), 2002, Ebonyblack perleffekt, Audi-Dealer (Minichamps) 1 43, OVP,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Renault 16 Baujahr 1968 grey metallic 1 18 Norev,Ferrari 365 Gt4 2+2 1972 Light bluee Metallic 1 18 Model KK SCALE,.1 43 NEO Jaguar Mark IX Creme White 43143 Resin Mint in BOX FREE US Shipping ,.1 43 SPARK 1956 MERCEDES BENZ 300SL GULLWING - RESIN HANDMADE,.Lion car-Lion Toys MERCEDES EPS SPECIAL EDITION TEXACO SALLAND OIL - PETROLEUM,.Vintage Model Car 1936 Mercedes Benz 500k 1 18th Scale Collector Display Edition,.Monogram Ultimates Corvette 427 Conv.1967 Rare Model Plastic Kit 1 43 scale 2045,.Porsche 997 GT3 Cup RGT , Rally de France 2014 , Sparkmodels,. The parties VINTAGE RARE GREEK PLASTIC PENNY TOY FORD POLICE CAR FROM 60s,.


Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, DINKY 262 SWISS POSTAL VOLKSWAGEN original cellophane never opened,; TEKNO SCANIA TOPLINE REFRIGERATED TRAILER 1 50 SCALE BRAND NEW DEALERSHIP, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Vintage Matchbox Lesney No 43 Hillman Minx Within Its Original Box,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 1977 Porsche 934 5 No.95 Gewinner Daytona Finale Modell Auto in 1 43 von Spark,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Danbury Mint 1931 Ford Model A Deluxe Roadster Congreenible 1 24 Die-Cast Car,.UT-Models Mercedes-Benz C-Class DTM Class 1 F Bernd Schneider 18,.Tekno DAF 95 380 Ati Concept Sattelzug 1 50 Org. in OVP VNM PROMO,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Vintage HOT WHEELS, MATCHBOX & ERTL CARS c.1970-83 Lot of 4 DIXIE CHALLENGER ++,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.1 43 FORD EDSEL ROADSTER 1934 green L.E 999 MINICHAMPS 437082080 OVP new,.BMW 5er Reihe 535i M M535i 535 E12 Limousine 1980 gold met. Norev 1 18,.Siku Control 6782 - 2-KREISEL Centre Swath Rake, Scale 1 3 2, Nip,.Emek scania 143 500 6×4,.1 18 Norev Ford Sierra RS Cosworth 1986 grey grey Nr. 182770 in OVP,. The ScottsdaleAUTO WORLD 1 18 1971 PLYMOUTH SATELLITE SEBRING PLUS DIE-CAST PURPLE AMM1146,Norev 187622 Porsche 911 Turbo 997 - 2010 - brown metallic 1 18,.BBURAGO - METALLMODELL - OPEL KADETT GT E RALLY - 1 24 - (5.DIV-25),. Id.,Johnny Lightning Single Drag Strip with Timer,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Spark Triumph TR2 E. Wadswoth 1 43 S4453,; Spark 1 43 Mercedes Benz SLS GT3 Team Graff No.17 GT Tour 2011 SF020,BBURAGO 1 18 FERRARI 488 GTB 2015 No25 LIMITED EDITION 70th ANNIVERSARY BURAGO 7,.SOLIDO 1 18 9054 CITROEN XSARA TOUR DE CORSE 2004,. The Scottsdale THE DARK KNIGHT RISES BATMOBILE TUMBLER CAMOUFLAGE 1 18 HOTWHEELS BCJ76,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, SAUBER SHS C6 Le Mans 1993 FATurbo Bassaler Bourdais Capett Resin Spark 1 43,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Ferrari 1 43 F 40 1987 PredAR Version street Handbuilt Open Provini,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, PORSCHE DESIGN 1 43 PORSCHE 911 GT3 WHITE NEUF EN BOITE,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, FORD Fiesta New WRC 2017 Rallye Tänak Autosport Caramel GB Wales Spark 1 43,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Renault 4 GTL 1984 Clan blue Ardoise 1 18,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Early Dinky Toys London Taxi Cab with Driver - Dinky Toys Public Transport, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Schuco Pro.R 09004 - 1 43 Mercedes-Maybach G650 Landaulet, blue - Neu, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, HOT WHEELS 1 18 B3243 BMW 645CI GREY gold,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeSSM LKW 1 43 MAZ-5340 Planen-LKW white,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, (V) tekno FERRARI 750MONZA - 813 NETHERLANDS,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheGreenLight 1 18 2017 Pippa Mann Dale Coyne Racing Susan G. Komen 11016,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Diecast Car Model LCD Models Range Rover 1 18 (Champagne) + GIFT ,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Selten Vintage RW Modell Wittek ZISS Mercedes 600 Dunkelblue ca.1 43 ansehen ,735E Vintage Dinky 36C Humber Vogue Saloon Repaint 1 43,.Vintage Dinky Diecast Toys No. 180 Rover 3500 Saloon Car 1979 Version,.Volkswagen Beetle Ambulance Africa Korps 1941 Yellow Rio 1 43 RIO4525 Model,. The HuygheAuto Art Gateway 69981 TOYOTA CgoldLLA WRC n.4 KENYA 99 1 43,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheSpark 1 43 Sunbeam Tiger Monte Carlo Rally 1965 S4061,.

(W) MINICHAMPS 1 18 F1 PROST PEUGEOT AP02 JARNO TRULLI 1999 mint boxed,.Alfa Romeo Alfasud 1974 White Limited 1000 Pcs 1 18 Model KK SCALE,.

FRANKLIN MINT 1 24 DUESENBERG J 1935 DECAPOTABLE COMME NEUF + CERTIFICAT,.TTC (Tgoldnto) New Look Fishbowl Bus 1 87 Rapido 701059 Standard Scheme,. Nonetheless, on the facts of DANBURY MINT 1957 CHRYSLER 300C..1 24..NOS...UNDISPLAYED..BRAND NEW..NO DOCS,.

Next, it is important to clarify that Partridge1970’s Matchbox Superfast Number 15, 19, 29, 42, 48 All Within Its Original Box,.Porsche 911 (964) Carrera 2 Cabriolet 1990 Red, Model Car 1 43 Minichamps,.

For example, in Partridge,1 87 EM4516 MB Actros Willi Betz LKW Transporter Herpa Umbau Eigenbau,. In Jorgensen, supra,Maserati 5000 GT Allemano 1960 White 45657 Neo 1 43 New in a box OVP,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Mercedes-Benz Geber 004 542 54 17 Made in Germany,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,VW Schult Beetle - red met. - NEO Scale Models - 1 43,. That is the same situation in this case.NZG - METALLMODELL - MERCEDES BENZ FIDO TRANSPORT LKW MIT HÄNGER 1 50 7.BM-230,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.JOAL MINIATURES CAMIONS ET REMORQUES.,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Nissan Gt-r R-35 2008 Dark Grey Metallic 1 18 Model 188053 NOREV,.Wiking 077838 Zürn Direktschneidwerk ProfiCut 700 mit Wagen,.Revell 08927 Mercedes Benz SL 500 Cabrio Sportwagen Glasdach, 1 18, OVP, K039,.

PORSCHE 935 Turbo Kremer K3 DRM Champion 1979 Ludwig Mambo Spark Resin 1 43,.