Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Vintage - CITROEN SM - 1 43 Auto-Pilen M-339,.KIBRI Nr.10868 Bergefahrzeug-Set mit vier Modellen - ungebaut OVP,.Lesney Matchbox Volkswagen Caravette No. 34 Loose EM0830,.Ferrari 488 GTB 70th Anniversary Green Jewel 1 18 Diecast Model by Bburago 76101,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.JEEP WRANGLER 2014 RED MAISTO 31676R 1 18 red red red 31676 SPECIAL EDITION,.Scottoy 38 BENTLEY S3 COLORI VARI,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.PREMIUM CLASSIXXS PREMIUM CLASSIXXS Merced es-Benz L 3500 PRE-12403,.RENAULT Alpine A110 Rallye Monte Carlo 1977 Nahon Dinin Edition Trofeu 1 43,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.1969 Chevrolet Camaro ZL-1 427 Dover WHITE American Muscle “ Clean Body “,.Maisto 1 18 Scale Metal Model Car - 31865 - 1999 Jaguar S Type - bluee,.KK-Scale KKDC180073 VW Passat B3 VR6 Variant, 1988, darkbluee-metallic, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
1 18 Norev Porsche 911 (997) GT2 white 2007 NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.Alpine A110 - 2017, Test Version, NOREV 1 43,.Corgi CC12110 Renault Premium Slide-o-Flex Trailer Sheeted Load Hingley Transpor,.SIGNED Juha Kankkunen 1 43 Ford Escort WRC 1998 Car Diecast Rallye Monte Carlo,.
SPARK Lancia D20 c Le Mans 1953 J f. Gonzalez - c. Biondetti S4720 1 43,.KB (Greece) gold Porsche 911 Coupe Rally Emergency Plastic Wind-Up 1 23 NIB,.NEO MODELS Austin A60 Countryman 1966 1 43 44458,.ERTL 1 32 SCALE NEW HOLLAND FR850 SELF-PROPELLED FORAGE HARVESTER MODEL 13875,.1 43 Minichamps Mercedes 230E 1990,.
(U) Haji JAPAN TINPLATE FORD STATION WAGON AMBULANCE ORIGINAL BOX ONLY 2705,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Neo Borgward Hansa 1500 Kombi - red - 1951 - 1 43,.TSM 430146 - Jaguar F-Type Coupe Baujahr 2014 in white - black 1 43 Neuheit,.NEO SCALE MODELS 1 43 Bmw Z4 M Coupè 2009 Red NEO44466,Best Model BT9562 FIAT 1500 6 CILINDRI PRESENTAZIONE SALONE DI TORINO 1935 GREY,.1 43 Spark Toyota TS050 Hybrid Le Mans 2018 Conway Kobayashi Lopez S7006,.
1975 Opel Ascona B SR Signalgruen 1 18 Sun Star 5386,.RARE, DY018 Nash Metropolitan 19th MicA UK Conven. 2004 , Dinky, Code 2, w.Box,.Norev NV185261 RENAULT 300 kg 1953 PARFUMS REVILLON 1 18 ,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
1 18 Norev Simca Aronde Monthiery Speciale 1962 grey NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.
Ford Falcon XA GT RPO 83 Hardtop 1 32 Scale Aussie Classic Diecast Model Car,. We agree in part.
1 87 Herpa PC Scania TL Sattelzug Vendel Rio Grande 120531,.Lotus Europa Special 1972-75 with rear wing white white 1 43 Kyosho,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Volkswagen olf GTI 1 - 1 18 - Norev,.Art Model AM0312 FERRARI 500 TRC N.140 ACCIDENT TARGA FLORIO 1959 STARRABBA-LO C,.Vintage diecast vehicles job lot x 43,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Art Model AM0299 FERRARI 290 MM PROVA 1956 RED 1 43 Modellino,.Best Model BT9683 FERRARI 250 LM N.136 14th TARGA FLORIO 1965 A.NICODEMI-F.LESSO,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, 1 18 Norev Peugeot D4A POMPIERS red NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,; Kid Box 20941 Spark 1 43 1979 Lotus 31 H. Rebaque French Gp New,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
2017 Porsche 911 R Resin Model Car in 1 43 Scale by Spark,.Opel Manta B Matting Yellow bluee 1 18 Model MODELCARGROUP,Dinky j - Austin Wagon - Maroon - A NB,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.NOREV 1 18 Renault Dauphine 1958 red corail Neuve en boîte,.
SOLIDO RED AND WHITE PANEL VAN VW Beetle BUS 1 18 SCALE NEW IN THE BOX ,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.MINICHAMPS BENTLEY CONTINENTAL GT RED 436139025,.Jim Beam 1929 Model A Ford Decanter Sealed,.Greenlight Gas Monkey Garage 1968 Chevrolet C-10 only 100 made CHASE Car,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Triple 9 Honda Civic EF9 JTC 1991 PIAA Sug 1 18 1800102,; 1 18 Hot Wheels Williams F1 FW28 Rosberg 2006 Bahrain NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Porsche 718 Boxster GTS 2017 red Limited Edition Spark 1 43 WAP0202070J neu,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
DINKY Meccano England original 1954 BEDFORD CA VAN 'KODAK' excellent yellow,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Best Model BT9200 ALFA ROMEO 33.2 N.22 7th DAYTONA 1968 CASONI-BISCALDI-ZECCOLI,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
1986 Wartburg 353S yellow 1 18 MC Group 18077,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
Citroen DS3 WRC Rallye du Chablais S. Loeb Spark SF068 Scale 1 43,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Norev 181494 - Citroen 2CV Dolly Ente Baujahr 1985 in white-grey 1 18 NEU ,.DINKY TOYS MODEL No.978 BEDFORD REFUSE bin lorry WAGON MINT SEALED BOX 1974,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.FRENCH DINKY TOYS GRAND VUE FIAT 1200 TOY CAR EXC+++ NM UK FRANCE,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements. Siku V Series Model Aral Tankstellen-Bauzug - Hanomag Henschel 355 (8.SI-34),.
NOREV 1 18 1964 CITROEN AMI 6 DIE-CAST CAR MODEL 181536,.1 43 NEO BMW 2002 PNEUHEGE DRM 1970,.BU16904W - FERRARI CALIFORNIA T OPEN 2014 WHITE SIGNATURE 1 18 MODELLINO MODELLO,.Special scale 1 24 domestic great car collection 13 No. 2017 3 7 [magazine] JP,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Citroën GS Club 1972 Camargue bluee NOREV - NO 181625 - Echelle 1 18,.
Kit McLAREN-FORD MP4-1C GP USA WEST 1983 1° J.WATSON Tameo CPK004,.1976 Peugeot 504 Break Gendarmerie blue 1 18 MC Group 18036,.Porsche Cayman GT4 (Yellow) 2016,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, NOREV 1 18 2008 CITROEN GT DIECAST CAR MODEL 181613 blueE COLOR,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.MOKO LESNEY MATCHBOX 1966 C Land Rover Fire Engine BPW Near Mint in Box Wow ,.STARSKY & HUTCH FORD GRAN TORINO MODEL CAR 1 24 SCALE LARGE 1976 GREENLIGHT K8,.SCHUCO 03158 1 43 MB Unimog 406 EKU avec TSA8,.Bourbon France Peugeot J7 CJN Rodez motorisé RARE 11 cm,.Fiat 500 Giardiniera 1968 Positano Yellow 1 18 Norev 187724,.
1955 CHEVY BEL AIR HOT ROD MAGAZINE 50th Racng Champions 24kt gold w Case, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Schuco Porsche 911 Targa Rijkspolitie - 1 43,.1 43 LOT VOITURES MINIATURES X 5,. The PartridgeJOLLY MODEL JL0752 - ALFA ROMEO 1150 CONRERO red 1960 1 43,.Trolleybus KTB-4 KIEV (1963-1969) Soviet Bus 1 43,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK27 003 - 1957 Eldorado Brougham PCTS Special 1 Of 750,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Starter N7 Provence 1 43 - Panhard Junior 1955 bluee, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.MINIACARS 43 1 43 RESIN - 97.01C - SIMCA 1939 8 BERL LUXE - BROWN,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.1 18 Norev Citroen 2CV Fourgonnette Assistance Berliet NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.Vitesse 1 43 Scale VCC99065 - 1997 Austin Mini Moke Cagiva - Yellow,PartridgeSUN STAR Mercedes Benz 220 SE Cabriolet 1958 (me 1 18 3557,.Solido 161 Lamborghini Miura made in France 1 43 scale VG-EXC condition,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 2018 Hot Wheels 50th Anniversary Originals Series (complete set of 5) unpunched, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Mercedes 600 Pullman 1972 Red Baron The Hilton Family True Scale 1 43 TSM154340,; Matchbox Superfast 50th Anniversary Set 5 Modelle in OVP, neu,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, NOREV - 1 18 - FIAT 500 GIARDINIERA - 1968 - 187724, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 1 18 Minichamps, Ligier Honda JS41, O. Panis, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeJoy Toy No 161 Bedford Car Transporter + 4 cars (Made in Greece) NEW ,.
Formula F 1 Surtees T. S. 9 Corgi 1 36,.Corgi 224 Bentley Continental Sports Saloon VnrMint w spare Boxed original, Clarke's negligent act.EBBRO 44115 1 43 Honda CR-X 1983 bluee From japan,.Herpa 049351 Ziegler Z 8 Flugfeldlöschfahrzeug Flughafen Nürnberg 1 87 Spur HO,.WSI08-1113 - Grue LIEBHERR LTM 1750-9.1 Ech 1 87 - 1 87,.
Rio RI4421 VW BEETLE N.53 2nd EIFELRENNEN NURBURGRING 1954 W.VON TRIPS 1 43 Mode,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Porsche 911 S , Targa Florio 1967 , Spark models,ACTION RACING COLLECTIBLES 1999 LIMITED EDITION CHAMP CAR SHELL, 1 18, MIB ,. In Noska,1974 Rover 3500 V8 Beige 1 18 MC Group 18046,.NOREV MADE FRANCE CHRYSLER NEW-YORKER COUPE DECAPOTABLE + REMORQUE BATEAU ROCCA,.1960's Vintage Midget Racing Kart Marx Toys Hong Kong Vintage Boxed Rare,.Schuco 1 43 Porsche Cayman GT4 - yellow, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Kyosho Original 1 43 Lexus Is 350 F Sport Exceed bluee Metallic New,.Trax TRS9 25th Ann Set Ford Falcon XR GT Road Car & 1967 Gallaher 500 Race Car,.Vintage Hand Built James Waters MERCEDES 170 POLIZEI resin model de Lespinay,.Mercedes Tourisme 1909 Yellow 1 43 Model RIO,. Id., p 923.
'32 Ford Coupe, All Pro, Bumper to Bumper, 1 24 Scale Diecast,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Hot wheels redlines 1969 Demon,1 43 CAMION PEGASO COMET 1100L + REMOLQUE CISTERNA INFANTERÍA PALMA 47 1963,.NIB Collector's Millennium 1 18 Ertl American Muscle 1965 SHELBY COBRA Die-cast,.IRON MAIDEN hand created original Eddie - rare Audi RS4 1 24 model- unique,.Dinky Toys no. 522 Big Bedford Lorry,.Corgi Toys Made in Great Britain - Renault Floride,.PREMIUM CLASSIXX PREM12510 MERCEDES LP608 PORSCHE MOTORSPORT 1 43 ,.1 18 SCALE AMERICAN MUSCLE 10 FASTEST WHITE 1969 DODGE SUPERBEE,. The parties Renault Megane Estate Police 3 Choice Car Miniature 1 43 Collection Norev,.
TEKNO MONZA GT Spider Réf 931 white Excellent ETAT D'ORIGINE 1 43 1965,.NZG MODELLE 700 TEREX TL260 WHEEL LOADER - WHITE + GREY 1 50 - VERY GOOD COND,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, OPEL ASCONA B 2.0 S R 1980 green - black 1 43 NEO 43711 NEU,; GORDINI T23S PROVE MILLE MIGLIA 1953 JOLLY MODEL JL6043, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
Marvel Hot Wheels Spider-Man Web-Car Launcher,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Wiking Sondermodell-Set 1 87 blackbau MB NG Tieflader, U 406 und Tankstelle,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)1 43 PREMIUM X 1964 Ford Country Squire Cream,.PREMIUM ClassiXXS 010463 MERCEDES L 911 DEUTSCHE BUNDESPOST 1 43 NEUF EN BOITE,.Cadillac Series 75 Long Limousine 1959 Haze bluee Met Kess Model 1 43 KS43020003,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,2004 Action McDonalds Tony Stewart 1 24th Scale Nascar,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.1 18 Williams FW17 D. Hill 1. 1995 Grand Prix Hungary Quartzo,.Maisto Pro rodz 1 18 1971 Chevrolet Chevelle 454 Congreenible Classic car,.Opel Kadett C Caravan 1978 Brilliant Green 1 43 MINICHAMPS NEW 400048110,.1 43 RL120K Aston Martin AMR1 KIT BY SMTS,.KESS MODEL KS43023001 NSU PRINZ 4 POLIZEI STREIFENWAGEN 1964 ED.LIM.PCS 156 1 43,. The ScottsdaleUniversal Hobbies 1 18 Land Rover Defender 90 Model,Vintage Matchbox King Size K17 Low Loader W Case Bulldozer Lesney Clean Woodrow,.NZG Mercedes-Benz Actros Wensink Aangenaam Semi-Tractor Trailer 1 50 NIB D,. Id.,Citroen SM Opera by Henri Chapron (dark red),.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Mercedes Benz E-Class 300Ce 24V Cabriolet 1990 NOREV 1 18 NV183567,; G3c Kit Assembled 1 43 - Triumph Tr3a Green,Vintage 1934 Tootsietoy Ford Congreenible Coupe 3 Rare color,.Norev 183635 Opel Manta Green Metallic 1970 Scale 1 18 MODEL CAR NEW °,. The ScottsdaleFERRARI 348 TS HIGH TECH COLLECTION HERPA 1 43 RaRE,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Herpa 121903 H0 LKW Scania CS 20 Hochdach Kühlkoffer-Sattelzug Heide Logistik,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; ERTL 1 18 1970 Chevy El Camino SS Fathom blueE Car 7263 NEW American Muscle 70,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Minichamps 43 McLaren M8A, 1968 CanAm Series, Bruce McLaren Ltd Ed,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Dinky Toys 4.5” SAM’S CAR Diecast No 108 VINTAGE Chrome JOE 90 RARE TV Anderson,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, 1 76 TRUX 1972 LEYLAND NATIONAL 11.3 SURFSIDE gold COAST TO TWEED BUS TX11,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Mattel 1 43 1961 Ferrari 156 F1 Hill Italian GP, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, 1 18 Auto World Connie Kalitta 1972 Ford Mustang NHRA in OVP, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Wiking 1 87 610 30A Magirus-Sirius Rundh. Spritzenwagen Feuerwehr o.VP(EC713),; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeCp 43 alfa romeo romeo2 gelati cazzaniga sc1 43,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, 1 43 Russian GAZ-21 Volga 1958 Handmade Kherson-Models,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheHOTWHEELS - ELITE (MATTEL) - 1 0 - STAR WARS NEW STARSHIP 2015 - THE FORCE AWAKE,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.SPARK MCLAREN M23 N°11 2nd South African GP 1976 - James Hunt S4360 1 43,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,Minichamps Mercedes-Benz E-Klasse 320 CDI 2006 1 43 Paris-Beijing (JS),Norev 183451 Mercedes-Benz AMG GT C Roadster 2017 yellow metallic 1 18,.WINROSS 1 64 YOPLAIT YOGURT TRACTOR AND TRAILER ,.Corgi 1 50. CODE 3. TRAILER ONLY IN BULMERS. IRISH ☘️CIDER.,. The HuygheBus GMC Fishbowl TDH-5301 TTC Tgoldnto Transit 1 43 New & Box diecast model,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheSchuco 1 66 - Mercedes Omnibus O303 Bus Autocar red et white,.
Ixo model FER074 FERRARI F599 GTB PANAM 06 blueE 1 43,.Hot Wheels Porsche lot of 25 1 64,.
MONICA green MINISTYLE 1 43,.Tekno Rare Van Rijn BV Holland Daf 95 XF Space Cab with Fridge Trailer,. Nonetheless, on the facts of 1 43 Peugeot 206 CC Paredech Tuning NOREV 472678 1 43 scale siecast car Modified,.
Next, it is important to clarify that Partridge(MA 114) - Bus-Set in 1 60 1 50 von Corgi - Coventry Transport ,.Vintage Johnny Lightning Lot of 7 1970 Boss 302 in Different colors MIP MOC,.
For example, in Partridge,Tokoloshe 1 43 1968 Ferrari 250 LM Le Mans,. In Jorgensen, supra,BBURAGO 0116 BMW 3.0 CSI TURBO - WHITE 1 24 - GOOD CONDITION IN BOX,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Hot Wheels 2014 Collectors Nationals VOLKSWAGEN T1 DRAG BUS Fast Ship 7A,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Ebbro 1 43 Toyota Ts010 Nippondenso 1993 Sekiya Suzuki Irvine New F S,. That is the same situation in this case.Bentley Continental Supersport 2009 Top Gear with The 1 43 MINICHAMPS 519431390,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Bizzare BZ334 NISSAN 24 ORS N.14 M.CARLO 1984 1 43 Modellino,. Detroit Edison, supra.
NOREV - 1 18 - CITROEN C4 CACTUS - 2014 - 181651,.DIECAST CAR & DISPLAY CASE 1963 CHEVROLET NOVA OPEN SATIN SUN STAR 3976 1 18,.A Franklin mint scale model car of a 1935 Mercedes Benz 500k Roadster. boxed,.
Rietze MB Travego Weltmeisterbus 2014 Fußball Manschaftsbus DFB (R1_5_25),.