Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Hot Wheels 1 64 Auto Kultur Team Transport C Datsun Skyline Super Nova Im Lager,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Flossin’ 1970 & 2006 Concept Dodge Challengers NIB Radio Control RARE ,.JL Greatest Generation WWII Allied Victory Ver B M3 Grant Tank CHASE WHITE,.SPARK MODEL S7354 SUBARU LEONE 4WD RX 1980 WHITE 1 43,.BMW M4 F82 Coupe DTM 2016 Wittmann Red Bull Champion Norev 1 18 SP,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.SPARK ENSIGN N176 British GP 1976 Chris Amon S3952 1 43,.Best Model BT9068 ALFA ROMEO TZ1 N.40 ACCIDENT LM F.MASOREO-J.ROLLAND 1 43 Model,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.LR 0 RARE PAIRE D'AIGUILLAGES DANS SA BOITE D'ORIGINE TRAIN ELECTRIQUE 3027 3028,.Matchbox No. 12 Safari Land Rover,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Lamborghini Countach LP500S 1 43 KingStar KS101,.1 18 Scale LED display case+ 2010 Shelby Wheel set{Bulk buy discount available},.UKBUS 0004 BUS EIREANN ENVIRO 200 1 76 SCALE MODEL BUS, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

1 18 Ford Escort Mk1 WRC Colibri Lighters model car Minichamps,.CITROEN CX CABRIOLET ORPHEE CAR MINISTYLE 67 1 43,.Art Model AM0312 FERRARI 500 TRC N.140 ACCIDENT TARGA FLORIO 1959 STARRABBA-LO C,.Art Model AM0401 FERRARI 857 S N.7 5th 1000 KM PARIS 1956 A.DE PORTAGO-P.HILL 1 ,.

Danbury Mint 1948 Chrysler Town & Country congreenible 1 24 scale used no box,.Herpa 121095 MAN TGX XXL Volumen-Sattelzug Steinle Voith -1 87,.1 18 Ertl Auto World Ford Torino GT 1971 greygreen-metallic,.Norev Renault Megane 2012 1 18 Costa winner Renault Megane Trophy 2012 (RB),.Art Model AM0091 FERRARI 500 TRC N.45 4th BRIDGEHAMPTON 1958 G.GEITNER 1 43 Mode,.

Herpa 121354 DAF XF 105 Ssc Moving Floor Semi-Trailer Morning Star II -1 87,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.1 18 ERTL AUTOWORLD PHIL BONNER T BOLT DRAG CAR RARE ,.Lorraine-Dietrich Type B3-6 Roadster 1928, Modellauto 1 43 Minichamps,.Norev Mercedes Benz 280 Ce (L2949),Spark 1 43 Scale Resin S1524 - Ginetta Zytek 09S 2 Quiffel-ASM Team LM 2009,.Herpa 310062 MAN TGX XLX Teletrailer-SZ Windradflügel Gatto Wind Scale 1 87,.

POLITOYS 71 ALFA ROMEO GIULIA TI - LIGHT blueE 1 41 RARE - PLASTIC - GOOD COND,.Bentley Continental Supersport 2009 Satin White Minichamps 1 43 519431390 Model,.BMW 2000 CS 1965 dunkelred KK-Scale 1 18 NEU OVP,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

1967 Peugeot 404 Coupe Apink weiss1 18 Norev 184831,.

1 18 Norev Renault 20 TS 1978 lightgreen-metallic,. We agree in part.

Porsche 996 Gt3 Rs 2003 White W Red Stripes 1 43 Spark S4473 Model,.SCARCE 60,s CHEVELLE UN STATION WAGON, SABRA GAMDA CRAGSTAN, 1 43 ISRAEL, EX,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.AWM MB Citaro 59th UITP World Congress Dubai 2011 Gelenkbus 1 87 PC (R1_4_15),.Matchbox 1992 MB38 Mercedes Benz 600S with Opening Doors MOC,.Norev 1 18 Mercedes Benz A 250 Sport Diecast Model Car bluee 183595,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Hot Wheels Small Scale Diecast B3540 - Batmobile - Batman,.1 43 Minichamps F1 Super Aguri F1 Team Honda SA05 T.Sato 2006,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Minichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast - 400 113902 Mercedes Benz C Class DTM 11 Paffett,; DINKY TOYS 30C COUPE LINCOLN ZEPHYR,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

MATCHBOX N.69 NEW MODEL HATRA TRACTOR SHOVEL (ORIGINAL BOX 1965 66) SCALA 1 75,.VW FAW Volkswagen BORA TSi 1 18 model car,NZG Mercedes-Benz Fuel Duel Semi-Tractor Trailer NIB -Sealed inside 1 50,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Vitesse 283 Cadillac type 62 Le Mans 1950 Model 1 43 mint in box,.


A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Citroen CX 2200 Pallas Limousine grey black Serie I 1974-1985 1 18 Norev Mod..,.1 18 ERTL PEACH STATE MUSCLE CAR 1955 CHEVROLET BEL AIR HARDTOP gold pd,.1 43 Premium X Porsche 924 turbo combi 1981,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Mini-Champs 1 43 Mercedes-Benz 190E 2.3-16,; CC12805 Corgi TINNELLY Bulk Tipper Scalia Topline Scale Model,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, 1965 PONTIAC GTO IRIS MIST COUPE WITH BOX DANBURY MINT 1 24 DIECAST,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).


Schuco Piccolo Magirus Feuerwehr gold Weihnachten 1996 ,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Audi tt roadster (Ferrets Mini Model),


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Ebbro 1 43 Formula Nippon Team Malaysia 2000 A. Yoong from Japan,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

HIKOSEVEN 1 43 Clear Case & Base for Display Base,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Greenlight Kings of Crunch 1 64 Set of 6 inc Bigfoot King Kong USA Gulf Oil,.Peugeot 404 Coupe 1967 white 1 18 Norev 184831 neu & OVP,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.SOLIDO 1 18 8014 VOLKSWAGEN COCCINELLE OPEN BROWN,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Porsche 924 Carrera GTS 1980 white white 1 43 Minichamps,.

RENAULT PRAIRIE Version Civile LUXE blue PRESTIGE Kit Monté 1 43,.AUTO WORLD 1 18 MUSCLE CARS 2016 CHEVROLET CAMARO SS - 50TH ANNIVERSARY AW239,.Alfa Romeo Alfasud 1974 1.3 Red 1 18 Kk Scale Diecast,.Porsche 956 B Long Tail N7 Winner 24 H LM 1984 S0998 Spark 1 43 new in a box ,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Spark Model S5959 TOYOTA YARIS WRC N.9 7th MONTE CARLO 2018 E.LAPPI-J.FERM 1 43,.


The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, MODELLINO MERCEDES BENZ C-CLASS GARY PAFFETT DTM 2010 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Trofeu TF1602 AUDI QUATTRO N.5 RETIRED MONTE CARLO 1981 H.MIKKOLA-A.HERTZ 1 43 M,.MCLAREN F1 GTR LEMANS UT orange 1 18,.Corgi Toys 283, OSI Daf-City Car, Mint in Box ab690,.Wooden Clothes Hangers Men’s Western labels 50s 60s 70s vintage, 10 piece,.COFFRET POMPIERS REF 7002 FIRE VEHICLE SET SOLIDO METAL 1 43 NEUF MINT EN BOITE,.

Lamborghini Murcielago Lp670-4 Sv orange Top Gear Minichamps 1 43 519431031, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Triple-9 1 18 Lancia Delta S4 Group-B Super Car ESSO San Remo Rally 1986,.Volkswagen VW Bulli T3 Multivan 1992 Metallic bluee 1 18 Model KK SCALE,. The PartridgeFerrari 375 MM th Carrera Panamericana 1953 Serena Mancini 1 43 0282,.MODELLINO OPEL KADETT D CARAVAN 1979 ADAC IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.Plumbies 1 43 Scale White Metal - P17 Mercedes 130H Cabriolet 1933,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Lotus Elise S1 green 1. Generation 1996-2000 1 18 Sun Star Modell Auto mit oder.., although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.NOREV 183597 Mercedes-Benz CLA-Klasse 2013 grey metallic 1 18 NEU OVP,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Maserati Sebring Series Ii Metallic bluee 1 43 NeoScale NEO45643 Model,.DINKY TOYS DUBLO AUSTIN TAXI FX3 1959 blueE CREAM SCALE 00 1 76,PartridgeMODELCARGROUP MCG18074 FORD COUNTRY SQUIRE 1960 WOODEN RED 1 18,.Aston Martin V8 GT4 Stadvita 24H Nurburgring 2014 , spark models,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1 43 Spark Porsche 911 (991) GT3RS lightbluee, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, AUTOCAR ISOBLOC PANORAMIQUE TOIT COULISSANT OUgreen ELIGOR EPM 130067 1 43,; PORSCHE 917K n°31 - 6H WATKINS GLEN 1970 Elford Hulme 1 18,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Corgi Batmobile 267 in original box, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Spark Model SA123 DALLARA F3 LANCE STROLL 2015 N.3 8th MACAU GP 1 43 (LIM.300) M, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying Partridge1 18 Mercedes Benz 170 S (1950) Cabriolet Signature Models Modellauto,.

NOREV185113 - RENAULT Megane trophy Team Oregon costa Vainqueur 2012 - 1 18,.VANGUARDS POLICE VEHICLES LIMITED EDITIONS SCALE 1 43 JOBLOT OF 6, Clarke's negligent act.AUDI R8C R8 C Le Mans 1999 UK Audi Wallace Weaver McCarthy Infine Spark 1 43,.Lancia D20 C n.63 Le Mans 1953 J.-F. Gonzalez -C. Biondetti S4720 Spark 1 43 New,.Spark 1 43 Scale Resin S2579 - Corvette C6 ZR1 Corvette Racing LM 2010,.

1 18 KK-Modell Alfa Romeo Spider red red Limited Edition in OVP,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, CHEVROLET Camaro Z28 Chaparral Trans Am 1970 Ed Leslie V8 Resin Spark 1 43,Revell RV8463 LLOYD ALEXANDER TS blueE 1 18 Modellino,. In Noska,Schuco SH4978 MERCEDES C63 AMG SAFETY CAR DTM 2012 1 43 Modellino,.VW Käfer Beetle 1303 Volkswagen 1972 green metallic 1 18 Norev Neu 188523,.CMR 1 43 Scale SBC013 - Porsche 956B 200 Meilen Norisring 1984,.TEK65284 - Container 45 Pieds frigorifique EUCON - 1 50, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Art Model AM0302 FERRARI 857 N.19 RETIRED 12H SEBRING 1956 DE PORTAGO-KIMBERLY 1,.Universal-Hobbies 4901 New Holland T7.225 1 3 2,.SSM LKW 1 43 KAMAZ 65115 Muldenkipper,.Mebetoys Lotus Europa Scala 1 43,. Id., p 923.


In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, DINKY No.195 JAGUAR 3.4 SALOON - BOXED,Rio 4326 ALFA ROMEO P3 AUSTRALIA 55 n.19 1 43,.Opel Corsa Spider Irmscher I 120 1985 Red 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,.Spark 1 43 Scale S2043 Model Car - 1993 Porsche 964 Speedster - White,.SUNSTAR SS-6104 1 18 1931 FORD MODEL A TUDOR LOMBARD blueE,.MINIATURE MAMBORGHINI HURACAN LP 610-4 EN MÉTAL URAGO ECHELLE 1 18,.SCHUCO OPEL BLITZ S 3T ART.03071 1 43 NEW DIE-CAST,.Art Model AM0291 FERRARI 857 S N.1 ACCIDENT NASSAU TROPHY 1956 P.HILL 1 43 Model,. The parties Scale model 1 43 Bugatti Veyron EDITION CENTENAIRE - CHROME RED 2009,.

Wiking Mercedes Pullmann Bus, unverglast, purpleblue,Saure HB 227 1H (SSK51),.2017 Hot Wheels Fairlady 2000 Lot of 36,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, 2 x Modellauto MINICHAMPS Dauer Porsche 962 GT 94, 911 GT Maßstab 1 43 ohne OVP,; VW VOLKSWAGEN T3B TRANSPORTER BUS POLIZEI PREMIUM CLASSIXXS 13050 1 43 VITRE, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Fiat 238 Ambulanza C.R.I. Croce Rossa Italiana Bergamo Model RIO,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Vintage Tonka Toys US Army Jeep In Excellent Condition With Original Box,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)CORGI 1 50 - 80307 GARRETT ROAD TRACTOR & FLATBED TRAILER - ANKER VALLEY,.FRANKLIN MINT 1997 CORVETTE RED 1 24 DIECAST CAR VERY DETAILED AWESOME ,.Infinity FX50 Version 2 2010 Pearl 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Ebbro 1 43 Scale Model Car 643 - 1964 Nissan blueebird 410 - Red,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Renault RS 01 yellow Präsentation 2015 1 18 Norev Modell Auto mit oder ohne indi..,.1 18th Ford Focus RS WRC RedBull Rally Car Rare Burago Model Boxed,.MODELLINO PORSCHE 911 GT3 CUP TEAM SNOW RACING IMSA GT3 CHALLENGE SEBRING 2008 I,.Norev 185157 Renault 5 Alpine Turbo 1981 - Navy bluee 1 18,.KIT EBBRO 1 20 DA COSTRUIRE IN PLASTICA TEAM LOTUS TYPE 72E 1973 ART 009 5800,. The ScottsdaleMINICHAMPS Porsche 911 Carrera RS 3.0 1974 Red 1 43 Scale 400 063122 Limited,GUILOY 1 18 67526 FERRARI GTO 1964 YELLOW,.1 18 Bburago Ferrari 250 Le Mans 1965 KIT BAUSATZ NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,. Id.,1975-79 CORGI 1 43 Gratte-Ciel Grue à tour No1155 Très Bon Etat BOITE ABIMER,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Schuco 1 43 Setra S6 Reisetraum,; MASSEY FERGUSON KENWORTH T880 SLEEPER CAB W LOWBOY TRAILER 1 64 SPECCAST 30556,SK Hong Kong Rolls-Royce Laurel Hardy Battery Operated en boite,.Politoys 1 43 No. 545 Citroen DS 21 blassyellow,. The Scottsdale1 18 Bburago Ferrari Testarossa Motorsports KIT BAUSATZ NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCA,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, SPARK PORSCHE 356 Cabriolet 1951 S4920 1 43,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Best Model 9409 LOLA T 70 COUPE SPA 1967 n.2 1 43 Modellino,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, NOREV 184831- PEUGEOT - 404 COUPE 1967 1 18 Norev,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, MERCEDES AMG GT METALLIC blueE EXCLUSIVE EDITION 1 18 MODEL CAR BY MAISTO 38131,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Rio RI4306 FIAT 501 OPEN REPUBBLICA DI SALO' 1944 1 43 Modellino,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Spark 1 43 Porsche 996 GT3 n.911 Road Challenge 2004 S4479, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Dinky Toys no. 110 Aston Martin DB3 Sports, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, 1 43 Neo AC Greyhound greenmetallic 45015,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeHot Wheels 13th Annual Collectors Nationals 67 Shelby GT500 1106 1500,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, TrueScale 1 43 Resin 1963 Mercedes-Benz 600 Pullman State Limouisine TSM124353,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheNissan Lola T810 , Test 1985, Spark models,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Corgi Horse Transporter . (1976),independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,DINKY TOYS 277 LAND ROVER POLICE - RARE SELTEN - GOOD CONDITION IN BOX,Mitsubishi MINICA 1967 1 24 Big Scale Box Mini Car Display Diecast 3CA32,.Ferrari 340 Mexico Spider 1952 Red 1 43 Model 0203 ART-MODEL,.CORGI TOYS MODEL No.GS 11 PLATFORM TRAILER WITH PLANK LOAD 'PART SET',. The HuygheKyosho Original 1 43 Lexus LC 500 h Yellow Finished product,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheMcLaren F1 Xp-4 1993 bluee Experimental Predotype 1 43 Model,.

Dinky 471 Austin A40 Nestles Van fantastic original vintage diecast,.1 43 Minichamps Porsche 997 Alzen Turbo H&R 24h 2008 NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.

Vintage 1935 Tootsietoy DeSoto Airflow,.FERRARI 275 P 500 KM. BRIDGEHAMPTON - 1964 P. RODRIGUEZ 1 43 334 art model,. Nonetheless, on the facts of FERRARI 275 GTB 4 GTB NART Spyder Roadster yellow yellow 1967 KK Metall 1 18,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeSabra 8107 Pontiac GTO made in Israel Gamda Koor Near Mint,.Herpa scania S730 IAA16 1 87 1 87 ho,.

For example, in Partridge,Rare 1 43 Ebbro Car Model Subaru BRZ Red 44804,. In Jorgensen, supra,Schuco Piccolo Geschenkset Lufthansa ,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.1 43 SKODA 1201 HEARSES COCHE FÚNEBRE CON ATAUD ABREX,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,1 43 Neo Scale Models, BMW Z4 M Coupe, Red, NEO44466,. That is the same situation in this case.NEO47040 - JAGUAR XJ40 SHOOTING BRAKE 1989 MET.DARK blueE 1 43 MODELLINO MODELLO,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Spark 1 43 - Spyker C8 Spyder No.85 Le Mans 2006,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Vanguards Subaru Impreza 1995 WRC C.Mcrae Tribute Collection 1 43 MIB VA12100,.ERTL Chevrolet Corvette 1961 1 18 red white Neuwertig OVP,.Norev 184698 Chenard & Walker 1500kg Type CHV 1946,.

Ebbro 45150 Toyota Prius Moonroof Light Purple Mica Metallic 1 43 scale,.